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Erogenous zone

File:Primary and specific erogenous zones.svg
Primary and specific erogenous zones of men and women

An erogenous zone (from Greek ἔρως eros "love" and English -genous "producing" from Greek -γενής -genes "born") is an area of the human body that has heightened sensitivity, the stimulation of which may generate a sexual response, such as relaxation, the production of sexual fantasies, sexual arousal and orgasm.

Erogenous zones are located all over the human body, but the sensitivity of each varies, and depends on concentrations of nerve endings that can provide pleasurable sensations when stimulated. The touching of another person's erogenous zone is regarded as an act of physical intimacy. Some people may resent stimulation in this manner while others may find it pleasing, and this may also depend on the relationship between the people.

Erogenous zones may be classified by the type of sexual response that they generate. Many people are gently aroused when their eyelids, eyebrows, temples, shoulders, hands, arms and hair are subtly touched. Gently touching or stroking of these zones stimulates a partner during foreplay and increases the arousal level. Also, the gentle massage or stroke of the abdominal area along with kissing or simply touching the navel can be a type of stimulation.


Erogenous zones are either nonspecific or specific.

Nonspecific zones

In these zones, the skin is similar to normal-haired skin and has the normal high density of nerves and hair follicles. These areas include the sides and back of the neck, the inner arms, the axillae (armpits) and sides of the thorax. An exaggerated tickle and anticipatory response are responsible for the heightened sensual response.

Specific zones

Specific zones are associated with sexual response, and include the lips and nipples in addition to areas of the genitals, notably the foreskin and corona of the glans penis, clitoris and rest of the vulva, and perianal skin.[1] The neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of erogenous zones is partly unknown. These zones are apparently mucocutaneous skin. The rete ridges of the epithelium are well-formed and more of the nerves are close to the external surface of the skin than in normal-haired skin.[1] These zones seem to have a high density of innervation, an efficiency of wound healing, and a capacity to stimulate generalized cerebral arousal.[2] Moreover, a connection with the reward system seems also necessary.[3][4]



Males can be aroused by stimulation to the sides of the glans and penis, upper side of the glans, the foreskin, the front side of the scrotum, the skin between the scrotum and anus perineum, and around the anus.[5] The prostate gland may be stimulated from inside the rectum, such as by anal sex, or by applying pressure on the base of the perineum near the anus.[6][7][8] Men who report the sensation of prostate and seminal vesicles stimulation often give descriptions similar to females' accounts of G-spot stimulation.[9]

The foreskin, which carries the ridged band and lower frenular delta,[10] has mucocutaneous end-organs extending from the distal margin to the point where hairy skin starts.[11] The thin dermis and minimal subcutaneous tissue results in closely set nerve networks. Vater-Pacini corpuscles are present. The mucocutaneous end-organs are formed after birth, with few in newborn infants and many well-organized endings in adults.[1]


Cold and Taylor (1999), citing Winkelmann (1959), stated that the foreskin (prepuce) is primary erogenous tissue;[12] Alanis and Lucidi (2004) describe this as speculative and unproven.[13]

Sorrels et al. (2007) carried out their work in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. They studied 163 male subjects, which included both circumcised and men with intact foreskins. Nineteen locations on the penis were tested with the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament touch-test. The glans of the uncircumcised males was found to have greater sensation than the glans of the circumcised males. The area of greatest sensation on the circumcised males was the circumcision scar. Uncircumcised males had five areas located on the foreskin of significantly greater sensation than the circumcision scar on the foreskin. The preputial mucosa, the mucocutaneous boundary and the ridged band were found to be areas of great sensation on the uncircumcised penis.[14] Taylor has postulated that the ridged band is sensitive to movement.[15]

Schober et al. (2009) carried out their work in the northeastern United States. They studied 81 male subjects of whom only eleven had intact foreskins. The balance were circumcised. For that reason, Schober et al. excluded the foreskins of the foreskinned subjects from study. Their findings represent the erogenous quality of the circumcised penis. Ranked by self-reported degree of ratings of 'sexual pleasure' the most sensitive part of the circumcised penis according to Schober et al. is the ventral area 'underside of the glans', followed by "'underside of the penile shaft', 'upper side of the glans', 'left and right sides of the glans', 'one or both sides of the penis', 'upper side of the penile shaft', 'foreskin' (11 subjects), 'skin between the scrotum and anus', 'back side of the scrotum', 'front side of the scrotum', and 'around anus'".[5]


Parts of the vulva, especially the clitoris, are highly sensitive erogenous zones.[16][17][18] While the vagina is not especially sensitive as a whole, its lower third (the area close to the entrance) has concentrations of the nerve endings that can provide pleasurable sensations during sexual activity when stimulated; this is also called the anterior wall of the vagina or the outer one-third of the vagina, and it contains the majority of the vaginal nerve endings, making it more sensitive to touch than the inner two-thirds of the vaginal barrel.[17][18][19][20]

Within the anterior wall of the vagina, there is a patch of ribbed rough tissue which has a texture that is sometimes described as similar to the palate (the roof of a mouth) or a raspberry, and may feel spongy when a woman is sexually aroused. This is the urethral sponge, which may also be the location of the G-spot — a structure described as an area of the vagina that some women report is an erogenous zone which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and female ejaculation.[21] The existence of the G-spot and whether or not it is a distinct structure is debated among researchers, as reports of its location vary from woman to woman, it appears to be nonexistent in some women, and scientists commonly believe that it is an extension of the clitoris.[18][22][23][24]



The lips and tongue are sensitive and which can be stimulated by kissing and licking.


Many people find a gentle scalp massage, or any stimulation of the hair follicles, to be anywhere from relaxing to extremely stimulating.


See also: Hickey

The neck, clavicle area and the back of the neck are very sensitive in both males and females, which can be stimulated by licking, kissing or light caressing. Some people also like being bitten gently in these areas, often to the point that a "hickey", or "love-bite" is formed.


Some people find whispering or breathing softly in the ear to be pleasurable and relaxing, as well as licking, biting, caressing and/or kissing it especially the area of and behind the earlobe.



The areola and nipple contain Golgi-Mazzoni, Vater-Pacini and genital corpuscles. No Meissner's corpuscles and few organized nerve endings are present.[1] There are concentrations of nerve tissue in the area of ducts and masses of smooth muscle. The hair surrounding the areola adds additional sensory tissue. The mass of smooth muscle and glandular-duct tissue in the nipple and areola block the development of normal dermal nerve networks which are present in other erogenous regions and the development of special end organs. The entire breast has a network of nerve endings, and it has the same number of nerve endings no matter how large the breast is, so that larger breasts may need more stimulation than smaller ones.

Intense nipple stimulation may result in a surge in the production of oxytocin and prolactin which could have a significant effect on his or her genitals, to the point that some people of both sexes can achieve orgasm through nipple stimulation alone. Having the chest, breasts and nipples stimulated manually (hands), digitally (fingers, toes) and/or orally (mouth, lips, teeth, tongue) is a pleasurable experience for many people of both sexes.

Abdomen and navel

Main article: Navel fetishism

Many people find stimulation (kissing, biting, scratching, tickling, caressing) of the abdomen to be pleasurable, especially close to the pubic region. It can cause strong arousal in men and women, in some even stronger than stimulation of the genitals. The navel is one of the many erogenous zones that has heightened sensitivity.[25] In a 1982 study of eroticism in dress entitled "Skin to Skin," Prudence Glynn claimed that the waist symbolized virginity and that it was the first place that a man would touch a woman "when indicating more than a formal courtesy".[26][27]

The navel and the region below when touched by the finger or the tip of the tongue result in the production of erotic sensations.[25][28] Madonna has told in an interview to the SPIN magazine (May 1985 issue), "When I stick my finger in my belly button, I feel a nerve in the center of my body shoot up my spine."[29] Some research suggests that the navel and the genitals have a common tissue origin, and in some people this connection still exists so that stimulation of the navel will elicit a distinct tickle in the genitals.[30]


The tailbone, located near the base of the spine, just above the anus, is an erogenous zone.[31]


The skin of the arms, and specifically the softer skin of the inner arms and across the creased mid-arm bend covering the ventral side of the elbow, are highly sensitive to manual or oral stimulation. Caressing with fingers or tongue, more vigorous kneading, and butterfly kissing can initiate arousal and, in some cases, induce clitoral/vaginal orgasm or penile ejaculation without direct contact with the latter areas.[citation needed] The mid-arm bend is especially sensitive due to the thinner skin found there, which makes nerve endings more accessible. Arm sensitivity may be reduced or concentrated to a more narrow range by excessive muscularity or obesity on the one hand, or transformed to uncomfortable tenderness by excessive thinness on the other.


Some consider the armpits to be an erogenous zone. If pheromones exist for humans, they would likely be secreted by a mixture of liquid from the sebaceous glands with other organic compounds in the body.[32] George Preti, an organic chemist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia and Winnefred Cutler of the University of Pennsylvania's psychology department, discovered that women with irregular menstrual cycles became regular when exposed to male underarm extracts.[32] They hypothesized that the only explanation was that underarms contain pheromones, as there was no other explanation for the effects, which mirrored how pheromones affect other mammals.[32]


The fingertips have many nerves and are responsive to very light touches, like the brushing of a tongue, light fingernail scratching or teeth stroking. The sides of the fingers are somewhat less sensitive and more ticklish.[citation needed] Both light and firmer touches work well at the junction of the fingers. Human fingertips are the second-most sensitive parts of the body, after the tongue.


The thighs can be sensitive to touch.

An exaggerated tickle on the back of the legs and knees can also be sensitive for some.

Feet and toes

Because of the concentration of nerve endings in the sole and digits of the human foot, and possibly to the close proximity of the area of the brain dealing with tactile sensations from the feet and the area dealing with sensations from the genitals, the sensations produced by sucking or licking the feet can be pleasurable to some people. Similarly, massaging the sole of the foot produces similar stimulation. Many people are extremely ticklish in the foot area, especially on the bottom of the soles.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Winkelmann RK. The erogenous zones: their nerve supply and significance. Mayo Clin Proc. 1959;34(2):39-47. PMID 13645790.
  2. ^ Schober, J.; Weil, Z.; Pfaff, D. (2011). "How generalized CNS arousal strengthens sexual arousal (and vice versa)". Hormones and Behavior 59 (5): 689–695. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.10.005. 
  3. ^ Matsumoto, J.; Urakawa, S.; Hori, E.; de Araujo, M.F.; Sakuma, Y.; Ono, T.; Nishijo, H. (2012). "Neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens shell during sexual behavior in male rats". The Journal of Neuroscience 32 (5): 1672–1686. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5140-11.2012. 
  4. ^ Cibrian-Llanderal, T.; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, M.; Triana-Del, R.R.; Pfaus, J.G.; Manzo, J.; Coria-Avila, G.A. (2010). "Clitoral stimulation modulates appetitive sexual behavior and facilitates reproduction in rats". Physiology & Behavior 100 (2): 148–153. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.02.015. 
  5. ^ a b Schobor JM, Meyer-Bahlburg HF, Dolezal C. Self-ratings of genital anatomy, sexual sensitivity and function in men using the 'Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function, Male' questionnaire. BJU Int. 2009;103(8):1096-103. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08166.x. PMID 19245445.
  6. ^ Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. pp. 133–135. ISBN 0618755713. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  7. ^ "The male hot spot — Massaging the prostate". Go Ask Alice!. 2002-09-27. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  (Last updated/reviewed on 2008-03-28)
  8. ^ Barry R. Komisaruk; Beverly Whipple; Sara Nasserzadeh; Carlos Beyer-Flores (2009). The Orgasm Answer Guide. JHU Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-8018-9396-8. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  9. ^ Ladas, Alice Kahn; Whipple, B; Perry, JD (1982). The G-Spot and other discoveries about human sexuality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 0-440-13040-9. 
  10. ^ Taylor JR, Lockwood AP, Taylor AJ. The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. Br J Urol. 1996;77:291-5. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.1996.85023.x. PMID 8800902.
  11. ^
  12. ^ Cold CJ, Taylor JR. The prepuce. BJU Int. 1999;83 Supp 1:34-44. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.1999.0830s1034.x. PMID 10349413.
  13. ^ Alanis MC, Lucidi RS. Neonatal circumcision: a review of the world's oldest and most controversial operation. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004;59(5):379-95. doi:10.1097/00006254-200405000-00026. PMID 15097799.
  14. ^ Sorrells ML, Snyder JL, Reiss MD, et al.. Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU Int. 2007;99:864-9. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06685.x. PMID 17378847.
  15. ^ Taylor, JR. (2000). "Letter". Pediatrics News 34 (10): 50. 
  16. ^ O'Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM (October 2005). "Anatomy of the clitoris". The Journal of Urology 174 (4 Pt 1): 1189–95. PMID 16145367. doi:10.1097/ Time for rethink on the clitoris: Lay summaryBBC News (11 June 2006). 
  17. ^ a b Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2011). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 386. ISBN 1-111-18663-4. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2009). Sex and Society, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 590. ISBN 0761479074. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  19. ^ Jerrold S. Greenberg, Clint E. Bruess, Sara B. Oswalt (2014). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 102–104. ISBN 1449648517. Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  20. ^ Vern L. Bullough, Bonnie Bullough (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 229–231. ISBN 1135825092. Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  21. ^ Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. p. 76. ISBN 0618755713. Retrieved January 25, 2014. 
  22. ^ Richard Balon, Robert Taylor Segraves (2009). Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 258. ISBN 1585629057. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  23. ^ See page 98 for the 2009 King's College London's findings on the G-spot and page 145 for ultrasound/physiological material with regard to the G-spot. Ashton Acton (2012). Issues in Sexuality and Sexual Behavior Research: 2011 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. ISBN 1464966877. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  24. ^ Kilchevsky A, Vardi Y, Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I. (January 2012). "Is the Female G-Spot Truly a Distinct Anatomic Entity?". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011 (3): 719–26. PMID 22240236. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02623.x. G-Spot Does Not Exist, 'Without A Doubt,' Say Researchers - Lay summary<span />The Huffington Post<span /> (January 19, 2012). 
  25. ^ a b A celebration of sex - Douglas E. Rosenau - Chapter 3 - Your Erogenous Zones .
  26. ^ Suzy Menkes (May 29, 1994). "RUNWAYS; Naked Came The Midriff". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  27. ^ Prudence Glynn (1982). Skin to skin: eroticism in dress. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0195203917. 
  28. ^ Touch Me There!: A Hands-On Guide to Your Orgasmic Hot Spots - Yvonne K. Fulbright.
  29. ^ Confessions of a Madonna - May 1985
  30. ^ The Essence of Tantric Sexuality - Sex and Sexuality Series - Mark A. Michaels, Patricia Johnson, Rudolph Ballentine - Chapter 13 - Tertiary Erogenic Zones
  31. ^ Tantric sex, Safe sex, AIDS Council of NSW: "Erotic Massage"
  32. ^ a b c Looking for love potion number nine, Cathryn M. Delude, The Boston Globe, September 2, 2003.

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