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Etenna

Coordinates: 37°00′06″N 31°26′57″E / 37.00167°N 31.44917°E / 37.00167; 31.44917{{#coordinates:37|00|06|N|31|26|57|E| |primary |name= }} Etenna (Ancient Greek: Ἔτεννα) was a city in the late Roman province of Pamphylia Prima. Centuries earlier, it was reckoned as belonging to Pisidia, as by Polybius, who wrote that in 218 BC the people of Etenna "who live in the highlands of Pisidia above Side" provided 8000 hoplites to assist the Seleucid usurper Achaeus.[1][1][2]

Coinage

There is no other mention of Etenna in extant documents until the record of the participation of bishops of Etenna in the ecumenical councils of the 4th century AD and later. However, there are examples of its fine silver coinage of the 4th and 3rd centuries BC and of its bronze coins dating from the 1st century BC to the 3rd AD.[3][4]

Bishopric

The Christian bishopric of Etenna was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Side, the capital of the province of Pamphylia Secunda. Its bishop Troilus was at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, Eutropius at the Council of Ephesus in 431. Eudoxius at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Ioannes at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, and Petrus at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).[2][5][6]

Seeing Etenna as no longer a residential bishopric, the Catholic Church lists it as a titular see.[7] Among the titular bishops were Francis Xavier Ford (18 June 1935 – 11 April 1946, later bishop of Kaying, martyred for his faith), James Byrne (10 May 1947 – 16 June 1956, later bishop of Boise City), and Thomas Holland (31 October 1960 – 28 August 1964, later bishop of Salford).[8]

The town and bishopric of Cotenna, also given as belonging to the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima, is by some reckoned to be the same as Etenna, but appears in the Notitiae Episcopatuum side by side with Etenna and distinct.[6][9]

Remains

On the basis of the preponderance of locally minted coins Etenna and the presence of potsherds of the Classical period in Greece, unusual inland elsewhere, Etenna has been identified with the rather nondescript ruins on a steep hillslope 250–500 metres north of the modern village of Sirt, which lies north of Manavgat, Antalya Province, Turkey. They have not been systematically excavated, but include remains of city walls, a roofed reservoir, baths, two basilicas, a church and rock tombs.[3][4]

The identification of Etenna with Gölcük, near the modern village of Sarraçlı, further east beyond the river Melas, is considered less likely.[3][4]

References

  1. ^ a b Polybius 5, 73, 3 (English translation)
  2. ^ a b Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 1003-1004
  3. ^ a b c G.E. Bean, "Etenna (Sirt) Turkey" in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton University Press 1976)
  4. ^ a b c "Etenna". Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  5. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 450
  6. ^ a b "Ἔτεννα (Etenna)". Ἱερὰ Μητρόπολις Πισιδίας. Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 891
  8. ^ Catholic Hierarchy
  9. ^ William M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor (Adegi Graphics LLC, 2013, ISBN 9780543013651, replica of the 1890 edition)

Further reading

  • Gernot Lang: Classical ancient sites in Anatolia. Books on Demand, 2003 ISBN 3833000686, pp 364–368 (Excerpts from Google Books).
  • Johannes Nollé: Zur Geschichte der Stadt Etenna in Pisidien. In: Elmar Schwertheim (Ed.): Forschungen in Pisidien. Habelt, Bonn 1992, pp. 61–141.
  • Peter Weiß: Etenna. In: Der Neue Pauly (DNP). Vol. 4, Metzler, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-476-01474-6.

External links