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Ethylenediamine

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Ethylenediamine
Skeletal formula of ethylenediamine

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Sample of ethylenediamine in a jar colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Names

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Preferred IUPAC name
Ethane-1,2-diamine
Systematic IUPAC name
Ethane-1,2-diamine[2]
Other names
Edamine[1]1,2-Diaminoethane,
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This page is a soft redirect.- Abbreviations en 605263 107-15-3 7pxY ChEBI CHEBI:30347 7pxY ChEMBL ChEMBL816 7pxY ChemSpider 13835550 7pxY EC number 203-468-6 1098 Jmol-3D images Image KEGG D01114 7pxY MeSH ethylenediamine PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format RTECS number KH8575000 Template:Chembox UNII UN number 1604 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Properties

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C2H8N2 Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1 Appearance Colorless liquid[3] Odor Ammoniacal[3] Density 0.90 g/cm3[3] Melting point Script error: No such module "convert".[3] Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert".[3] miscible log P −2.057 Vapor pressure 1.3 kPa (at 20 °C) 5.8 mol Pa−1 kg−1 1.4565 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Thermochemistry

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172.59 J K−1 mol−1 202.42 J K−1 mol−1 −63.55–−62.47 kJ mol−1 −1.8678–−1.8668 MJ mol−1 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Hazards

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GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) GHS signal word DANGER H226, H302, H312, H314, H317, H334 P261, P280, P305+351+338, P310 EU Index 612-006-00-6 EU classification Corrosive C R-phrases R10, R21/22, R34, R42/43 S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45 NFPA 704

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Flash point Script error: No such module "convert".[3] Script error: No such module "convert".[3] Explosive limits 2.7–16% 1.2 g kg−1 (oral, rat) US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

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This page is a soft redirect. Related compounds

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Related alkanamines
1,2-Diaminopropane, 1,3-Diaminopropane
Related compounds
ethylamine
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2. This colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor is a strongly basic amine. It is a widely used building block in chemical synthesis, with approximately Script error: No such module "Gaps". kg being produced in 1998.[5] Ethylenediamine readily reacts with moisture in humid air to produce a corrosive, toxic and irritating mist, to which even short exposures can cause serious damage to health (see safety).

Synthesis

Ethylenediamine is manufactured industrially from 1,2-dichloroethane and ammonia under pressure at 180 °C in an aqueous medium:[5][6]

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In this reaction hydrogen chloride is generated, which forms a salt with the amine. The amine is liberated by addition of sodium hydroxide and can then be recovered by rectification. Diethylenetriamine (DETA) and triethylenetetramine (TETA) are formed as by-products.

Another industrial route to ethylenediamine involves the reaction of ethanolamine and ammonia:[7]

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This process involves passing the gaseous reactants over a bed of nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

Applications

Ethylenediamine is used in large quantities for production of many industrial chemicals. It forms derivatives with carboxylic acids (including fatty acids), nitriles, alcohols (at elevated temperatures), alkylating agents, carbon disulfide, and aldehydes and ketones. Because of its bifunctional nature, having two amines, it readily forms heterocycles such as imidazolidines.

Precursor to chelation agents, drugs, and agrochemicals

A most prominent derivative of ethylenediamine is the chelating agent EDTA, which is derived from ethylenediamine via a Strecker synthesis involving cyanide and formaldehyde. Hydroxyethylethylenediamine is another commercially significant chelating agent.[5] Numerous bio-active compounds and drugs contain the N-CH2-CH2-N linkage, including some antihistamines.[8] Salts of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate are commercially significant fungicides under the brand names Maneb, Mancozeb, Zineb, and Metiram. Some imidazoline-containing fungicides are derived from ethylenediamine.[5]

Pharmaceutical ingredient

Ethylenediamine is an ingredient in the common bronchodilator drug aminophylline, where it serves to solubilize the active ingredient theophylline. Ethylenediamine has also been used in dermatologic preparations, but has been removed from some because of causing contact dermatitis.[9] When used as a pharmaceutical excipient, after oral administration its bioavailability is about 0.34, due to a substantial first-pass effect. Less than 20% is eliminated by urinal excretion.[10]

Role in polymers

Ethylenediamine, because it contains two amine groups, is a widely used precursor to various polymers. Condensates derived from formaldehyde are plasticizers. It is widely used in the production of polyurethane fibers. The PAMAM class of dendrimers are derived from ethylenediamine.[5]

Tetraacetylethylenediamine

The bleaching activator tetraacetylethylenediamine is generated from ethylenediamine. The derivative N,N-ethylenebis(stearamide) (EBS) is a commercially significant mold-release agent and a surfactant in gasoline and motor oil.

Other applications

Polyamines derived from or related to ethylenamine

Ethylenediamine is the first member of the so-called polyethylene amines, other members being:

  • Diethylenetriamine, abbreviated dien or DETA, (H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2, an analog of diethylene glycol)
  • Triethylenetetramine, abbreviated trien or TETA, (H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2)
  • Tetraethylenepentamine, abbreviated TEPA, (H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2),
  • Pentaethylenehexamine, abbreviated PEHA, (H2N-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH-CH2CH2-NH2), up to polyethylene amine. Similarly piperazine is an analogue of dioxane.

Related derivatives of ethylenediamine include tetramethylethylenediamine (abbreviated TMEDA), (CH3)2N-CH2CH2-N(CH3)2 and tetraethylethylenediamine (abbreviated TEEDA) (C2H5)2N-CH2CH2-N(C2H5)2.

Chiral analogues of ethylenediamine include 1,2-diaminopropane and trans-diaminocyclohexane.

Coordination chemistry

Ethylenediamine is a well-known chelating ligand for coordination compounds. It is often abbreviated "en" in inorganic chemistry. The complex [Co(ethylenediamine)3]3+ is an archetypical chiral tris-chelate complex. The salen ligands, some of which are used in catalysis, are derived from the condensation of salicylaldehydes and ethylenediamine.

Safety

Ethylenediamine, like ammonia and other low-molecular weight amines, is a skin and respiratory irritant. Unless tightly contained, liquid ethylenediamine will release toxic and irritating vapors into its surroundings, especially on heating. The vapors react with moisture in humid air to form a characteristic white mist, which is extremely irritating to skin, eyes, lungs and mucus membranes. Exposure to a relatively small amount of vapor or mist by inhalation can seriously damage health and may even result in death.[11] Ethylenediamine has a half-life of about 30 minutes in a small volume of distribution of 0.133 liters/kg.

References

  1. ^ "32007R0129". European Union. 12 February 2007. Annex II. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "ethylenediamine - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the IFA
  4. ^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0269". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  5. ^ a b c d e Karsten Eller, Erhard Henkes, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke "Amines, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001
  6. ^ Hans-Jürgen Arpe, Industrielle Organische Chemie, 6. Auflage (2007), Seite 245, Wiley VCH
  7. ^ Hans-Jürgen Arpe, Industrielle Organische Chemie, 6. Auflage (2007), Seite 275, Wiley VCH
  8. ^ Kotti, S. R. S. S.; Timmons, C. and Li, G. (2006). "Vicinal diamino functionalities as privileged structural elements in biologically active compounds and exploitation of their synthetic chemistry". Chemical Biology & Drug Design 67 (2): 101–114. PMID 16492158. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2006.00347.x. 
  9. ^ Hogan DJ. (January 1990). "Allergic contact dermatitis to ethylenediamine. A continuing problem.". Dermatol Clin. 8 (1): 133–6. PMID 2137392. 
  10. ^ Zuidema J. (1985-08-23). "Ethylenediamine, profile of a sensitizing excipient.". Pharmacy World & Science 7 (4): 134–40. PMID 3900925. doi:10.1007/BF02097249. 
  11. ^ Material Safety Data Sheet

External links

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