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Exclusive economic zone

File:Zonmar-en.svg
Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

Definition

File:Territorial waters - World.svg
The World's EEZs, shown in dark blue

Generally, a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the landward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the EEZ, but such areas are not part of their EEZ. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the EEZ.

Origin

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States of America in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted as:

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the exclusive economic zone
The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Disputes

File:Baselines of Eastern Asia English.png
Baselines and EEZ claims in East and Southeast Asia showing the amount of overlap in the disputed South China Sea (the Spratly Islands in particular)

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[11]

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[12] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[13]

Exclusive economic zone by country

Argentina

Australia

  • Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973[14]

Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. Per the UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[15]

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[16][17] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[18] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[17]

EEZ Area (km2)[17]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
23x15px Christmas Island 463,371
23x15px Cocos Islands 325,021
23x15px Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250

Brazil

File:Territorial waters - Brazil.svg
Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's exclusive economic zone covers 3,660,995 km2.

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[19]

Canada

File:Canada Exclusive Economic Zone.PNG
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 2,755,564 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[20] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about Script error: No such module "convert". across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile

File:Territorial waters - Chile.svg
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[21] Land area Total
Mainland 2 009 299 755 757 2 765 056
Desventuradas 449 805
Easter 720 395 164 720 559
Juan Fernandez 502 490
Total 3 681 989 756 102 4 438 091

There is a dispute with Peru over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute

People's Republic of China

File:China Exclusive Economic Zones.png
People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by the Republic of China (Taiwan)
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus

File:הגבול הימי של ישראל.svg
Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[22] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[23][24]

Denmark

File:Territorial waters - Denmark.svg
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the autonomous province (selvstyre) of Greenland and the self-governing (hjemmestyre) province of the Faroe Islands. The EEZs of the latter two do not form part of the EEZ of the European Union.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[17] Land area Total
23x15px Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
23x15px Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
23x15px Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

France

File:Territorial waters - France.svg
Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[17] Land area Total
23x15px Metropolitan France 334 604 551 695 886 299
23x15px French Guiana 133 949 83 846 217 795
23x15px Guadeloupe 95 978 1 628 97 606
23x15px Martinique 47 640 1 128 48 768
23x15px Réunion 315 058 2 512 317 570
23x15px French Polynesia 4 767 242 4 167 4 771 409
23x15px Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12 334 242 12 576
23x15px Mayotte 63 078 376 63 454
23x15px Wallis and Futuna 258 269 264 258 533
23x15px Saint-Martin 1 000 53 1 053
23x15px Saint-Barthélemy 4 000 21 4 021
23x15px New Caledonia 1 422 543 18 575 1 441 118
23x15px Clipperton Island 431 263 6 431 269
Crozet Islands 574 558 352 574 910
Kerguelen Islands 567 732 7 215 574 947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509 015 66 509 081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352 117 44 352 161
Tromelin Island 270 455 1 270 456
Total 11 035 000 675 417 11 710 417

Note, the EEZ (and territorial seas) column only adds up to 10,155,838 square km. All but the two smallest (Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy) components of France's EEZ/territorial seas match those at http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/, which would be a better reference than the reference given—which only provides EEZ sizes for Australia.

Greece

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[25]

According to published maps, the Israeli government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[26] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[27]

India

File:Territorial waters - India.svg
India's exclusive economic zones

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[28]

Israel

In 2010, an EEZ was set within the territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime half way point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.[29]

Japan

File:Japan Exclusive Economic Zones.png
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, PRC and ROC). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[30][31] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" - Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area - but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Mexico

File:Mexico EEZ.png
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[32]

New Zealand

File:Territorial waters - New Zealand.svg
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2,[33][34] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[35] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Northern Cyprus

On 21 September 2011, Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) signed an EEZ border agreement in New York.[36][37] Turkey is the only country that recognizes the TRNC, see Cyprus dispute.

Norway

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen .[38] The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not enter the EU as a member.[citation needed]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[39]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Pakistan

350 nautical miles;km2[40]

Philippines

File:Ph Territorial Map.png
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,265,684 (135,783) km2[41]

Poland

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.[42]

Portugal

File:Portugal EEZ.PNG
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[43]

Portugal has the 10th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[44] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[45] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[46]

Russia

  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) - 11,634
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) - 12,759
  • Barents Sea - 1,308,140
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) - 66,854
  • Pacific - 3,419,202
  • Siberia - 3,277,292
  • Total - 8,095,881  km2[47]

South Africa

File:Maritime zones of South Africa.svg
South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1 535 538 km2.[48]

  • Mainland 1 068 659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands 466 879 km2

Republic of Korea (South Korea)

File:Koreez.PNG
South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Others
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

File:Territorial waters - United Kingdom.svg
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[49]

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[50] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina.

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[51]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom Script error: No such module "convert". includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla Script error: No such module "convert".
Ascension Island Script error: No such module "convert".
Bermuda Script error: No such module "convert".
British Indian Ocean Territory Script error: No such module "convert". disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands Script error: No such module "convert".
Cayman Islands Script error: No such module "convert".
Channel Islands Script error: No such module "convert".
Falkland Islands Script error: No such module "convert". disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar Script error: No such module "convert". disputed with Spain
Montserrat Script error: No such module "convert".
Pitcairn Island Script error: No such module "convert".
Saint Helena Script error: No such module "convert".
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Script error: No such module "convert". disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† Script error: No such module "convert".
Turks and Caicos Islands Script error: No such module "convert".
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

File:Territorial waters - United States.svg
Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[52]

Total: Script error: No such module "convert".

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA).

Country EEZ km2[51] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
23x15px United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
23x15px France 11,035,000 389,422 11,655,724
23x15px Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
23x15px Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
23x15px United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486
Template:Country data Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
23x15px Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
Template:Country data Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318
23x15px New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
23x15px China 2,287,969 831,340 13,520,487
23x15px Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
23x15px Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
Template:Country data Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
23x15px Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
23x15px Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
23x15px Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
23x15px Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
23x15px Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
Template:Country data India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
23x15px Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
23x15px Portugal 1,727,408 92,090 3,969,498
23x15px Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
23x15px Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23x15px South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
23x15px Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
23x15px Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
23x15px Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
23x15px Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
23x15px Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463
23x15px Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
23x15px Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
23x15px Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
23x15px Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
23x15px Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
23x15px Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
23x15px Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
Template:Country data Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
23x15px Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
23x15px Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
23x15px Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
23x15px Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
23x15px Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
23x15px Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
23x15px Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
23x15px Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
23x15px Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
23x15px Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
23x15px Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
23x15px Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
23x15px Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
23x15px Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
23x15px Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
23x15px Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
Template:Country data South Korea 475,469 292,522 575,469
23x15px Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
23x15px Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
23x15px Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
23x15px Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
23x15px Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
23x15px Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
23x15px Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
23x15px Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
23x15px Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
23x15px Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
23x15px Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
23x15px Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
Template:Country data Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
23x15px Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
23x15px Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
Template:Country data Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
23x15px Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
23x15px Pakistan 235,999 51,383 1,117,911
23x15px Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
23x15px Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
23x15px Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
23x15px Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
23x15px Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
23x15px Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
23x15px Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
Template:Country data Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
23x15px Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
23x15px Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
23x15px Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
23x15px Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
23x15px Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
23x15px Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
23x15px Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
23x15px Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
Template:Country data North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364
23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
23x15px Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
23x15px Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
Template:Country data Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
23x15px Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
23x15px Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
23x15px Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
Template:Country data Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
23x15px Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
23x15px Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
23x15px Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
23x15px Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
23x15px El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
23x15px Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
23x15px Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
23x15px Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
23x15px Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
23x15px Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
23x15px East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
23x15px Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
23x15px Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
23x15px Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
23x15px Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
23x15px United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
23x15px Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
23x15px Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
23x15px Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
23x15px Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
23x15px Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
23x15px Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
23x15px Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
23x15px Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
23x15px Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
23x15px Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
23x15px Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
23x15px Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
Template:Country data Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
23x15px Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
23x15px The Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
23x15px Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
23x15px Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
23x15px Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
23x15px Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
23x15px Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
23x15px Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
Template:Country data Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
23x15px Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
23x15px Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
23x15px Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
23x15px Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
23x15px Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
23x15px Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
23x15px Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
23x15px Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
23x15px Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
Template:Country data Iraq 771 771 439,088
23x15px Monaco 288 2 290
23x15px Palestine 256 256 6,276
23x15px Slovenia 220 220 20,493
Template:Country data Jordan 166 59 89,508
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
Template:Country data Kazakhstan 2,724,900
23x15px Mongolia 1,564,100
23x15px Chad 1,284,000
23x15px Niger 1,267,000
23x15px Mali 1,240,192
23x15px Ethiopia 1,104,300
23x15px Bolivia 1,098,581
23x15px Zambia 752,612
23x15px Afghanistan 652,090
23x15px Central African Republic 622,984
23x15px South Sudan 619,745
23x15px Botswana 582,000
23x15px Turkmenistan 488,100
23x15px Uzbekistan 447,400
23x15px Paraguay 406,752
23x15px Zimbabwe 390,757
23x15px Burkina Faso 274,222
23x15px Uganda 241,038
23x15px Laos 236,800
23x15px Belarus 207,600
Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 199,951
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 147,181
23x15px Tajikistan 143,100
23x15px Malawi 118,484
23x15px Hungary 93,028
23x15px Azerbaijan 86,600
23x15px Austria 83,871
23x15px Czech Republic 78,867
23x15px Serbia 77,474
23x15px Slovakia 49,035
23x16px  Switzerland 41,284
23x15px Bhutan 38,394
23x15px Moldova 33,846
23x15px Lesotho 30,355
23x15px Armenia 29,743
23x15px Burundi 27,834
23x15px Rwanda 26,338
23x15px Republic of Macedonia 25,713
23x15px Swaziland 17,364
23x15px Kosovo[a] 10,887
23x15px Luxembourg 2,586
23x15px Andorra 468
23x15px Liechtenstein 160
23x15px San Marino 61
23x16px  Vatican City 0.44

See also

Notes and references

Notes:

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.


  1. The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

References:

  1. "Part V - Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28. 
  2. "Part V - Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. 
  3. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  7. Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010
  8. Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  9. Washington Institute
  10. Greek Reporter
  11. The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  12. FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  13. FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  14. Comlaw.gov.au
  15. Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  16. UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008.[dead link]
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas
  18. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  19. UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission
  20. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  21. See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 24 March 2011. EEZ waters of: Chile 2,009,299 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,805 km², Easter Isl. 720,395 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,490 km² 
  22. Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  23. [2][dead link]
  24. EEZ Waters Of Cyprus. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  25. Indirect Proclamation of EEZ - Greece Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. Hellasfrappe.blogspot.com.es (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  26. Israel Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone | News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. World.greekreporter.com (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  27. Israel defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus | ICEJ UK. Uk.icej.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  28. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-hopes-to-double-its-eez/article2096905.ece
  29. Israel-Cyprus exclusive economic zone set
  30. Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  31. Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  32. Geographic location
  33. New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  34. Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  35. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper - Introduction. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-978-478-30160-1 Accessed 2006-01-07.
  36. Official Gazette 12 July 2012
  37. Official Gazette EEZ Border (Page 4)
  38. Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  39. UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  40. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems — Marine Jurisdictions Accessed 1 November 2006
  41. Exclusive Economic Zones - Sea Around Us Project - Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity - Data and Visualization.
  42. Exploration and Extraction of sand and gravel resources in the Polis exclusive economical zone of the Baltic Sea, European marine sand and gravel – shaping the future, EMSAGG Conference 20–21 February 2003, Delft University, The Netherlands
  43. Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf
  44. Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011
  45. Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
  46. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Part VIII, Article 121
  47. Sea Around Us Project - Data and Visualization
  48. Sea around us project
  49. 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  50. "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Seaaroundus.org
  52. Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.

External links


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