Laboratory-scale liquid-liquid extraction. Schematic of a separatory funnel
used for laboratory scale (<2L combined volume) extractions of 2 immiscible liquid phases, where "oil" may be any phase less dense than water (typically an organic solvent
) and "water" may be any less dense liquid phase, typically an aqueous phase.
Laboratory-scale liquid-liquid extraction. Photograph of a separatory funnel
in a laboratory scale extraction of 2 immiscible liquids, see above; liquids are a diethyl ether upper phase, and a lower aqueous phase.
Extraction in chemistry is a separation process consisting in the separation of a substance from a matrix. It includes Liquid-liquid extraction, and Solid phase extraction.
Extraction may refer to Liquid-liquid extraction, and Solid phase extraction.
Extractions often use two immiscible phases to separate a solute from one phase into the other. Typical lab extractions are of organic compounds out of an aqueous phase and into an organic phase. Common extractants are arranged from ethyl acetate to water (ethyl acetate < acetone < ethanol < methanol < acetone:water (7:3) < ethanol:water (8:2) < methanol:water (8:2) < water) in increasing order of polarity according to the Hildebrand solubility parameter. The extract can be put back to dried form using a centrifugal evaporator or a freeze-drier.
The distribution of a solute between two phases is an equilibrium condition described by partition theory. This is based on exactly how the analyte move from the water into an organic layer
Techniques include supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, ultrasonic extraction, heat reflux extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, instant controlled pressure drop extraction (DIC), and perstraction.
Boiling tea leaves in water extracts the tannins, theobromine, and caffeine out of the leaves and into the water. Solid-liquid extractions at laboratory scales can use Soxhlet extractors (see at right).
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