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F. J. Duarte

F. J. Duarte
F. J. Duarte at a meeting of the Optical Society in 2006.
Born c 1954
Santiago, Chile
Residence United States
Nationality Chilean American
Fields Physics
Institutions Macquarie University
University of New South Wales
University of Alabama
Eastman Kodak Company
State University of New York
University of New Mexico
Interferometric Optics
Alma mater Macquarie University
Doctoral advisor Template:If empty
Other academic advisors J. C. Ward
R. E. Aitchison
Known for Tunable lasers
Narrow-linewidth dye lasers
Multiple-prism dispersion theory
N-slit interferometer
N-slit interferometric equation

Francisco Javier "Frank" Duarte (born c. 1954) is a Chilean-born laser physicist and author/editor of several well-known books on tunable lasers[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] and quantum optics.[9] He introduced the generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory[10][11][12] and has discovered various multiple-prism grating oscillator laser configurations. These contributions have found applications in a variety of fields including:

Duarte's research has mainly focused on physical and laser optics and has taken place at a number institutions in academia, industry, and the defense establishment.


Laser oscillators

Duarte and Piper introduced the multiple-prism near-grazing-incidence grating cavities originally disclosed as copper-laser-pumped narrow-linewidth tunable laser oscillators.[28][29] He then introduced multiple-prism grating configurations to high-power CO2 laser oscillators.[30] Duarte also developed the theories for narrow-linewidth dispersive laser oscillators, and multiple-prism laser pulse compression, which are summarized in several of his books.[1][2][5][6]

Tunable lasers for isotope separation

The tunable narrow-linewidth laser oscillator configurations, introduced by Duarte and Piper,[29][31] were adopted by various research groups working on uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS).[13][14][15] This work was supported by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission.[31] During the course of this research, Duarte writes that he did approach the then federal minister for energy, Sir John Carrick, to advocate for the introduction of an AVLIS facility in Australia.[32] In 2002, he participated in research that led to the isotope separation of lithium using narrow-linewidth tunable diode lasers.[33]

Solid state organic dye lasers

From the mid-1980s to early 1990s Duarte and scientists from the US Army Missile Command developed ruggedized narrow-linewidth laser oscillators tunable directly in the visible spectrum.[34][35] This constituted the first disclosure, in the open literature, of a tunable narrow-linewidth laser tested on a rugged terrain. This research led to experimentation with polymer gain media and in 1994 Duarte reported on the first narrow-linewidth tunable solid state dye laser oscillators.[36] These dispersive oscillator architectures were then refined to yield single-longitudinal-mode emission limited only by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.[37]

Organic gain media

Joint research, with R. O. James, on solid-state organic-inorganic materials, led to the discovery of polymer-nanoparticle gain media and to the emission of tunable low-divergence homogeneous laser beams from this class of media.[38] In 2005, Duarte and colleagues were the first to demonstrate directional coherent emission from an electrically excited organic semiconductor.[39][40] These experiments utilized a tandem OLED within an interferometric configuration.[39][40]

Duarte's work in this area began with the demonstration of narrow-linewidth laser emission using coumarin-tetramethyl dyes, as molecular gain media,[41][42] which offer high conversion efficiency and wide tunability in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum.[43]

Interferometry and quantum optics

Duarte and colleagues demonstrated the superposition of diffraction patterns over N-slit interferograms. This interferogram corresponds to the interferometric character b (N = 3 slits) and exhibits a diffraction pattern superimposed on the right outer wing (see text).

In the late 1980s, Duarte invented the N-slit laser interferometer and applied Dirac’s notation to describe quantum mechanically its interferometric and propagation characteristics.[44][45][46][47] This research also led to the generalized N-slit interferometric equation that was then applied to describe classical optics phenomena such as interference, diffraction, refraction, and reflection, in a rational and unified quantum approach.[48][49] Duarte also derived the cavity linewidth equation, for dispersive laser oscillators, using quantum mechanical principles.[50]

More recently, Duarte and colleagues have developed very large N-slit laser interferometers to generate and propagate interferometric characters for secure free-space optical communications.[51][52] Interferometric characters is a term coined in 2002 to link interefometric signals to alphanumerical characters (see figure's legend).[51] These experiments have also provided the first observation of diffraction patterns superimposed over propagating interference signals, thus demonstrating non-destructive (or soft) interception of propagating interferograms.[52]

A spin-off of this research, with applications to the aviation industry, resulted from the discovery that N-slit laser interferometers are very efficient and effective detectors of clear air turbulence.[52][53]

Duarte provides a description of quantum optics, almost entirely via Dirac's notation, in his book Quantum Optics for Engineers.[9] In this book he derives the probability amplitude for quantum entanglement,

<math>\left|\psi\right\rang= {1 \over \sqrt{2}}(\left|x\right\rang_{1} \left|y\right\rang_{2}- \left|y\right\rang_{1} \left|x\right\rang_{2}) </math>

which he calls the Pryce-Ward probability amplitude, from an N-slit interferometric perspective. Duarte also emphasizes a pragmatic non-interpretational approach to quantum mechanics.[9]


Macquarie University

At Macquarie University (Sydney, Australia), Duarte studied quantum physics under John Clive Ward and semiconductor physics under Ronald Ernest Aitchison. His PhD research was on laser physics and his supervisor was James A. Piper.[54]

He also established and led the successful Macquarie science reform movement,[55][56] that transformed the degree structure of the university. Macquarie's science reform, was widely supported by local scientists including physicists R. E. Aitchison, R. E. B. Makinson, A. W. Pryor, and J. C. Ward.[57] In 1980, Duarte was elected as one of the Macquarie representatives to the Australian Union of Students from where he was expelled, and then reinstated, for "running over the tables."[54]

Following completion of his PhD work, Duarte did post doctoral research, with B. J. Orr at the University of New South Wales, and then back at Macquarie University.

American phase

In 1983, Duarte traveled to the United States to assume a physics professorship at the University of Alabama. In 1985 he joined the Imaging Research Laboratories, at the Eastman Kodak Company, where he remained until 2006. While at Kodak he was chairman of Lasers '87 and subsequent conferences in this series.[58] Duarte has had a long association with the US Army Missile Command and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command, where he has participated (with R. W. Conrad[54] and T. S. Taylor[35]) in directed energy research. In 2006, he founded Interferometric Optics.[59]

He was elected Fellow of the Australian Institute of Physics (1987) and Fellow of the Optical Society of America (1993) for his contributions to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. He is the first South American to have received such distinctions. Subsequently, he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer. Duarte's contributions are cited in more than one hundred and fifty scholarly books, including several classics.


Duarte was born in Santiago, Chile, and traveled to Sydney, Australia, as a teenager. There, he lived first in Strathfield and then in the northern small town of Cowan. In the United States he resided for a brief period in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and then moved to Western New York.[54]

See also


  1. ^ a b F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman (Eds.) (1990). Dye Laser Principles. New York: Academic. ISBN 978-0122227004. 
  2. ^ a b F. J. Duarte (Ed.) (1991). High Power Dye Lasers. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-0387540665. 
  3. ^ F. J. Duarte (Ed.) (1992). Selected Papers on Dye Lasers. Bellingham: SPIE. ISBN 978-0819408846. 
  4. ^ F. J. Duarte (Ed.) (1995). Tunable Laser Applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-8928-8. 
  5. ^ a b F. J. Duarte (Ed.) (1995). Tunable Lasers Handbook. New York: Academic. ISBN 978-0122226953. 
  6. ^ a b F. J. Duarte (2003). Tunable Laser Optics. New York: Elsevier Academic. ISBN 978-0122226960. 
  7. ^ F. J. Duarte (Ed.) (2009). Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. New York: CRC. ISBN 978-1420060096. 
  8. ^ F. J. Duarte (2015). Tunable Laser Optics, 2nd Ed. New York: CRC. ISBN 978-1482245295. 
  9. ^ a b c F. J. Duarte (2014). Quantum Optics for Engineers. New York: CRC. ISBN 978-1439888537. 
  10. ^ F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers, Opt. Commun. 43, 303–307 (1982).
  11. ^ F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Generalized prism dispersion theory, Am. J. Phys. 51, 1132–1134 (1983).
  12. ^ F. J. Duarte, Generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory for pulse compression in ultrafast dye lasers, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 223–229 (1987).
  13. ^ a b S. Singh, K. Dasgupta, S. Kumar, K. G. Manohar, L. G. Nair, U. K. Chatterjee, High-power high-repetition-rate copper-vapor-pumped dye laser, Opt. Eng. 33, 1894-1904 (1994).
  14. ^ a b A. Sugiyama, T. Nakayama, M. Kato, Y. Maruyama, T. Arisawa, Characteristics of a pressure-tuned single-mode dye laser oscillator pumped by a copper vapor oscillator, Opt. Eng. 35, 1093-1097 (1996).
  15. ^ a b N. Singh, Influence of optical inhomogeneity in the gain medium on the bandwidth of a high-repetition-rate dye laser pumped by copper vapor laser, Opt. Eng. 45, 104204 (2006).
  16. ^ L. Goldman, Dye lasers in medicine, in Dye Laser Principles , F. J. Duarte and L. W. Hillman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1990) Chapter 10.
  17. ^ R. M. Clement, M. N. Kiernan, and K . Donne, Treatment of vascular lessions, US Patent 6398801 (2002).
  18. ^ J. Sawinski and W. Denk, Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 034701 (2007).
  19. ^ B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
  20. ^ U. Siegner, M. Achermann, and U. Keller, Spatially resolved femtosecond spectroscopy beyond the diffraction limit, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1847-1857 (2001).
  21. ^ L. Y. Pang, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. S. Kintzer, Ultrashort-pulse generation from high-power diode arrays by using intracavity optical nonlinearities, Opt. Lett. 17, 1599-1601 (1992).
  22. ^ K. Osvay, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, Z. Heiner, M. Divall, J. Klebniczki, and I. E. Ferincz, Measurement of non-compensated angular dispersion and the subsequent temporal lengthening of femtosecond pulses in a CPA laser, Opt. Commun. 248, 201-209 (2005).
  23. ^ J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2nd Ed. (Academic, New York, 2006).
  24. ^ W. Demtröder, Laserspektroscopie: Grundlagen und Techniken, 5th Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2007).
  25. ^ W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Principles, 4th Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2008).
  26. ^ P. Zorabedian, Characteristics of a grating-external-cavity semiconductor laser containing intracavity prism beam expanders, J. Lightwave Tech. 10, 330-335 (1992).
  27. ^ R. W. Fox, L. Hollberg, and A. S. Zibrov, Semiconductor diode lasers, in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Electromagnetic Radiation, F. B. Dunning and R. G. Hulet (Eds.) (Academic, New York, 1997) Chapter 4.
  28. ^ F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, A prism preexpanded grazing incidence pulsed dye laser, Appl. Opt. 20, 2113-2116 (1981).
  29. ^ a b F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Narrow linewidth high prf copper laser-pumped dye-laser oscillators, Appl. Opt. 23, 1391-1394 (1984).
  30. ^ F. J. Duarte, Multiple-prism Littrow and grazing incidence pulsed CO2 lasers, Appl. Opt. 24, 1244-1245 (1985).
  31. ^ a b F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, Comparison of prism preexpanded and grazing incidence grating cavities for copper laser pumped dye lasers, Appl. Opt. 21, 2782-2786 (1982).
  32. ^ F. J. Duarte, Tunable lasers for atomic vapor laser isotope separation: the Australian contribution, Australian Physics 47(2), 38-40 (2010).
  33. ^ I. E. Olivares, A. E. Duarte, E. A. Saravia, F. J. Duarte, Lithium isotope separation with tunable diode lasers, Appl. Opt. 41, 2973-2977 (2002).
  34. ^ F. J. Duarte, J. J. Ehrlich, W. E. Davenport, and T. S. Taylor, Flashlamp-pumped narrow-linewidth dispersive dye laser oscillators: very low amplified spontaneous emission levels and reduction of linewidth instabilities, Appl. Opt. 29, 3176-3179 (1990).
  35. ^ a b F. J. Duarte, W. E. Davenport, J. J. Ehrlich, and T. S. Taylor, Ruggedized narrow-linewidth dispersive dye laser oscillator, Opt. Commun. 84, 310-316 (1991).
  36. ^ F. J. Duarte, Solid-state multiple-prism grating dye laser oscillators, Appl. Opt. 33, 3857-3860 (1994).
  37. ^ F. J. Duarte, Multiple-prism grating solid-state dye laser oscillator: optimized architecture, Appl. Opt. 38, 6347-6349 (1999).
  38. ^ F. J. Duarte and R. O. James, Tunable solid-state lasers incorporating dye-doped polymer-nanoparticle gain media, Opt. Lett. 28, 2088-2090 (2003).
  39. ^ a b F. J. Duarte, L. S. Liao, and K. M. Vaeth, Coherence characteristics of electrically excited tandem organic light-emitting diodes, Opt. Lett. 30, 3072-3074 (2005).
  40. ^ a b F. J. Duarte, Coherent electrically excited organic semiconductors: visibility of interferograms and emission linewidth, Opt. Lett. 32, 412-414 (2007).
  41. ^ C. H. Chen, J. L. Fox, and F. J. Duarte, Lasing characteristics of new-coumarin-analog dyes: broadband and narrow-linewidth performance, Appl. Opt. 27, 443-445 (1988).
  42. ^ F. J. Duarte, Ray transfer matrix analysis of multiple-prism dye laser oscillators, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, 47-54 (1989).
  43. ^ F. J. Duarte, L.S. Liao, K. M. Vaeth, and A. M. Miller, Widely tunable green laser emission using the coumarin 545 tetramethyl dye as gain medium, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 172-174 (2006).
  44. ^ F. J. Duarte and D. J. Paine, Quantum mechanical description of N-slit interference phenomena, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '88, R. C. Sze and F. J. Duarte (Eds.) (STS, McLean, Va, 1989) pp. 42-47.
  45. ^ F. J. Duarte, in High Power Dye Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1991) Chapter 2.
  46. ^ F. J. Duarte, On a generalized interference equation and interferometric measurements, Opt. Commun. 103, 8–14 (1993).
  47. ^ F. J. Duarte, Electro-optical interferometric microdensitometer system, US Patent 5255069 (1993).
  48. ^ F. J. Duarte, Interference, diffraction, and refraction via Dirac’s notation, Am. J. Phys. 65, 637–640 (1997).
  49. ^ F. J. Duarte, Tunable Laser Optics (Elsevier Academic, New York, 2003). Chapter 2.
  50. ^ F. J. Duarte, Cavity dispersion equation: a note on its origin, Appl. Opt. 31, 6979-6982 (1992).
  51. ^ a b F. J. Duarte, Secure interferometric communications in free space, Opt. Commun. 205, 313-319 (2002).
  52. ^ a b c F. J. Duarte, T. S. Taylor, A. M. Black, W. E. Davenport, and P. G. Varmette, N-slit interferometer for secure free-space optical communications: 527 m intra interferometric path length , J. Opt. 13, 035710 (2011).
  53. ^ F. J. Duarte, T. S. Taylor, A. B. Clark, and W. E. Davenport, The N-slit interferometer: an extended configuration, J. Opt. 12, 015705 (2010).
  54. ^ a b c d F. J. Duarte, Laser Physicist (Optics Journal, New York, 2012).
  55. ^ F. J. Duarte et al., Science degree, University News 1 (100) 16 (1977).
  56. ^ B. Mansfield and M. Hutchinson, Liberality of Opportunity: A history of Macquarie University 1964-1989 (Hale and Iremonger, Sydney, 1992)
  57. ^ J. C. Ward, Memoirs of a Theoretical Physicist (Optics Journal, Rochester, 2004).
  58. ^ F. J. Duarte, Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '87 (STS Press, Mc Lean, VA, 1988).
  59. ^ "Interferometric Optics". Optics Journal. 29 August 2010. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 

External links

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