Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Fathers of Confederation

Fathers of Confederation

File:Canada 3 cents 1917.jpg
A Canadian 3 cent stamp from 1917 based on Robert Harris's 1884 painting "Fathers of Confederation"

The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[1][2]

Four other individuals have been labeled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[3] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation.[1] The provisional government established by Louis Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870.[4] The leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871.[5] The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, who was then referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation".[6]

Table of participation

Participant[2] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
George Brown Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Alexander Campbell Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Frederick Carter Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir Edward Barron Chandler New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Jean-Charles Chapais Quebec No Yes No
Sir James Cockburn Ontario No Yes No
George Coles Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Robert B. Dickey Nova Scotia Yes Yes No
Charles Fisher New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir John Hamilton Gray Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John Hamilton Gray New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Thomas Heath Haviland Prince Edward Island No Yes No
William Alexander Henry Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland Ontario No No Yes
John Mercer Johnson New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John A. Macdonald Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Jonathan McCully Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
William McDougall Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee Quebec Yes Yes No
Peter Mitchell New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat Ontario No Yes No
Edward Palmer Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
William Henry Pope Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John William Ritchie Nova Scotia No No Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
William H. Steeves New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché Quebec No Yes No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Charles Tupper Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Edward Whelan Prince Edward Island No Yes No
Robert Duncan Wilmot New Brunswick No No Yes

Historic photographs

Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, gathering on the steps of Prince Edward Island's Government House for the Charlottetown Conference - Photo by George P. Roberts on September 11, 1864. 
Delegates of the Legislatures of Canada gathering at the Quebec Conference - Photo by Jules I. Livernois on October 27, 1864. 

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CandianHistory. 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  2. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  3. ^ Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  4. ^ The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007. 
  5. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  6. ^ Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781459703698. Retrieved 2014-09-10. 

Further reading

External links