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Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent; [1] however, at its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a state where sovereignty rests with the people or their representatives, rather than with a monarch or emperor; a country with no monarchy".[2]

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. As in the United States,[3] most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.

Contemporary

Federal State Official Name and Style Subdivisions Head of state
23x15px Argentina Republic of Argentina Provinces and one autonomous city President
23x15px Austria[4] Republic of Austria States President
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina[5] Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities, Cantons and one federal District Collective Presidency
23x15px Brazil[6] Federative Republic of Brazil States and one federal district President
23x15px Comoros Union of the Comoros Autonomous islands President
23x15px Ethiopia[7] Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions President
23x15px Germany[8] Federal Republic of Germany States President
Template:Country data India[9] Republic of India States and territories President
Template:Country data Iraq Republic of Iraq Provinces President
23x15px Mexico[10] United Mexican States States and one federal district President
23x15px Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia States President
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal[11] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Development Regions President
23x15px Nigeria[12] Federal Republic of Nigeria States and one federal territory President
23x15px Pakistan[13] Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces President
23x15px Russia[14] Russian Federation Federal subjects President
23x15px Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia States President
23x15px South Sudan Republic of South Sudan States President
23x15px Sudan Republic of the Sudan States President
23x16px  Switzerland[15] Swiss Confederation Cantons Federal Council
23x15px United States[16] United States of America States and one federal district President
23x15px Venezuela[17] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States, one capital district and federal dependencies President

Historic

Federation Official Name and Style Period Subdivisions
23x15px Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands 1581–1795 Provinces
23x15px Colombia Republic of Colombia
United States of Colombia
1819-1831
1863–1886
States
23x15px Federal Republic of Central America United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
1823–1838
23x15px Germany German Reich (Weimar Republic) 1919-1933 States
23x15px Russian SFSR Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 1917-1991 Federal Subjects
23x15px Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922-1991 Republics
23x15px Yugoslavia[18] Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945-1992 Republics
23x15px Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
23x15px Serbia and Montenegro
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
1992-2003
2003-2006
Republics
23x15px Burma Union of Burma 1948-1962 States
Template:Country data Indonesia Republic of the United States of Indonesia 1949-1950[19] States
23x15px Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon 1961-1972
23x15px Czechoslovakia[18] Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
1969-1990
1990-1993
Socialist Republics
Republics

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Merriam Webster Dictionary: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/republic
  2. ^ http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/republic
  3. ^ Forum of Federations: [1], Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pg 373-391, 2005.
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009
  8. ^ CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009
  11. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009
  13. ^ CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009
  14. ^ CIA World Factbook: Russia, 14 May 2009
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009
  16. ^ CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009
  17. ^ CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009
  18. ^ a b The CIA World Factbook officially dated October 15, 1991
  19. ^ The states lived on until a final treaty in 1956 in which Republic of South Maluku and the State of Eastern Sumatra agreed to devolve into the Republic of Indonesia.[citation needed]