Flettner Fl 282
||Introduction||Retired||Primary user|| Number built
The Flettner Fl 282 Kolibri ("Hummingbird") is a single-seat open cockpit intermeshing rotor helicopter, or synchropter, produced by Anton Flettner of Germany. According to Yves Le Bec, the Flettner Fl 282 was the world's first series production helicopter.
Design and development
The Fl 282 Kolibri was an improved version of the Flettner Fl 265 announced in July 1940, which pioneered the same intermeshing rotor configuration that the Kolibri used. It had a 7.7 litre displacement, seven-cylinder Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial engine of 150-160 hp mounted in the center of the fuselage, with a transmission mounted on the front of the engine from which a drive shaft ran to an upper gearbox, which then split the power to a pair of opposite-rotation drive shafts to turn the rotors.
The Sh 14 engine was a tried and true design that only required servicing every 400 hours, as opposed to the nearly 27 litre displacement, nine-cylinder BMW/Bramo Fafnir radial engine powering the Focke Achgelis Fa 223, whose outdated design required maintenance every 25 hours. The Fl 282's fuselage was constructed from steel tube covered with doped fabric, and it was fitted with a fixed undercarriage.
The German Navy was impressed with the Kolibri and wanted to evaluate it for submarine spotting duties, ordering an initial 15 examples, to be followed by 30 production models. Flight testing of the first two prototypes was carried out through 1941, including repeated takeoffs and landings from a pad mounted on the German cruiser Köln.
The first two "A" series prototypes had enclosed cockpits; all subsequent examples had open cockpits and were designated "B" series.
Three-bladed rotors were installed on a test bed and found smoother than the vibrating 2-blade rotor, but the concept was not pursued further. The hover efficiency ("Figure of Merit") was 0.72 whereas for modern helicopters it is around 60%.
After the war, Anton Flettner emigrated to the United States and became the chief designer for Kaman Aircraft, creating the Kaman HH-43 Huskie. Intermeshing rotors have become noted with Kaman helicopters, which continues this concept.
Intended roles of Fl 282 included ferrying items between ships and reconnaissance. However, as the war progressed, the Luftwaffe began considering converting the Fl 282 for battlefield use. Until this time the craft had been flown by a single pilot, but by then a position for an observer was added at the very rear of the craft, resulting in the B-2 version. Later the B-2 proved a useful artillery spotting aircraft and an observation unit was established in 1945 comprising three Fl 282 and three Fa 223 helicopters.
Good handling in bad weather led the German Air Ministry to issue a contract in 1944 to BMW to produce 1,000 units. However, the company's Munich plant was destroyed by Allied bombing raids after producing just 24 machines.
- Fl 282 V1/7
- Fl 282A-1
- Single-seat naval reconnaissance type, for operation from cruisers and other warships. Tested in the Baltic, Mediterranean and Aegean Seas.
- Fl 282A-2
- Single-seat reconnaissance type for submarines equipped with special deck hangar, project only.
- Fl 282B-1/B-2
- Two-seat land reconnaissance-liaison helicopter
- A single Fl 282 was captured at Rangsdorf by Soviet forces
- Two, which had been assigned to Transportstaffel 40 (TS/40) — the Luftwaffe's only operational helicopter squadron — at Mühldorf, Bavaria, were captured by U.S. forces.
Specifications (Fl 282 V21)
Data from General characteristics
- Crew: 1
- Length: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Height: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Empty weight: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Max takeoff weight: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Powerplant: 1 × Bramo Sh.14A 7-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engine, Script error: No such module "convert".
- Main rotor diameter: 2× Script error: No such module "convert".
- Main rotor area: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Maximum speed: Script error: No such module "convert". at sea level
- Range: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Service ceiling: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Hover ceiling: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Rate of climb: Script error: No such module "convert".
- Rotor loading: 8.84 kg/m2 (1.81 lb/sqft)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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- Smith and Kay 1978, p. 596.
- Lang, Gerhard. Flettner Fl 282 (The Luftwaffe Profile Series , No 6). Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1996. ISBN 0-88740-921-0.
- Jackson, Dave. "Figure of Merit" Unicopter, 16 December 2011. Retrieved: 22 May 2015. Archived on 26 November 2013.
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- Jackson 2005, p. 110.
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- Donald 1997.
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- Green, William (2010). Aircraft of the Third Reich. Vol.1 (1st ed.). London: Aerospace Publishing Limited. pp. 328–329. ISBN 978-1-900732-06-2.
- Coates, Steve and Jean-Christophe Carbonel. Helicopters of the Third Reich. Crowborough, UK: Classic Publications Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-903223-24-5.
- Donald, David, ed. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
- Jackson, Robert, ed. "Flettner FL 282 Kolibri." Helicopters: Military, Civilian, and Rescue Rotorcraft (The Aviation Factfile). London: Grange Books Ltd, 2005. ISBN 1-84013-812-2.
- Nowarra, Heinz J. German Helicopters, 1928-1945. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1990. ISBN 0-88740-289-5.
- Smith, J.R.; Anthony L. Kay (1990). German Aircraft of the Second World War (2nd ed.). London: Putnam & Company Ltd. ISBN 0-370-00024-2.
- Witkowski, Ryszard. Rotorcraft of the Third Reich. Redbourn, UK: Mushroom Model Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-83-89450-43-2.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flettner Fl 282.|
- Fl 282 information
- German-navy.de information on the Flettner Fl 282 helicopter
- Wartime movie of Fl 282 synchropter experiments
- Fl 282 - picture on the Spiegel-server
- Fl 282 - pictures at the luftarchiv
- Vertical Rewind: Spoils of War