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Florina pepper

The Florina pepper (Greek: πιπεριά Φλωρίνης) is a pepper cultivated in the northern Greek region of Western Macedonia and specifically in the wider area of Florina; for which it is named. It has a deep red color, and is shaped like a cow's horn. Initially the pepper has a green color, ripening into red, after the 15th of August. The red pepper is known in Greece for its rich sweet flavor, used in various Greek dishes and is exported in various canned forms abroad, usually hand-stripped, keeping the natural scents of pepper and topped with extra virgin olive oil, salt and vinegar.[1][2]


The seed was brought to Greece in the 17th century, and cultivated successfully by the locals, as it adapted to the Macedonian climate and soil.[1] The pepper belongs to the capsicum genus of the nightshade family Solanaceae.[3] There are various forms of the capsicum genus which vary in taste, size, shape and color, such as the 'Grossum' group (sweet peppers) and the ‘Longum’ group (chilli peppers).[4] The word Capsicum, originated from the Greek word "Kapso", meaning "to bite".[5] Florina's red peppers were awarded the recognition of Protected Designation of Origin in 1994 by the World Trade Organization (WTO).[6] Every year during the last days of August, in a small local village in Aetos, Florina a feast of peppers is held, including celebrations with music bands and cooked recipes, based on peppers which are offered to all the guests.[7]


The plant has a height of around 0.50 to 0.75 cm,[3] producing large red sweet peppers by 0.12 to 0.15 cm length and 0.04 to 0,.05 cm width.[8] High productivity and adaptation of the plant can be achieved in efficient draining soils, full sunny locations and low winds for the protection of its branch and root sensitivity.[9] The most convenient temperatures for its growth are between 20° to 26° Celsius during the mid day and 14° to 16° Celsius during the night.[3] Their harvest takes up to 18 weeks, ripening to maturity after mid-August.[1] A good quality, red pepper of Florina should be bright in color, thick, firm and sweet flavored. Its consumption should be avoided with the appearance of dullness, cracks or deterioration, which are factors of the vegetables reduction in quality.[10]

Cooking and recipes

The red peppers of Florina are usually roasted and stuffed with different combinations of foods, as rice, meat, shrimps and feta cheese. These sweet peppers are used in sauces, salads, pasta, meat recipes or mashed, creating a pâté with traditional recipes. They can also be dried, canned, frozen and pickled, usually garnishing Greek salads.[10][11] They can be roasted, sliced and served as an appetizer, by adding olive oil, garlic and sea salt.[12] A well-known traditional recipe in Greece with stuffed peppers is Gemista.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Voutsina, E. (26 May 2013). "Πιπεριές Φλωρίνης για το χειμώνα". Kathimerini. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ [1], Anonymous (n.d.). Naoumidis peppers. Retrieved from
  3. ^ a b c [2], Παλάτος, Γ. (2006). Βιολογική καλλιέργεια πιπεριάς και μελιτζάνας στο νομό Θεσσαλονίκης. Αλεξάνδρειο Τεχνολογικό Εκαπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα Θεσσαλονίκης. Retrieved from
  4. ^ [3], Capsicum. (n.d.). In Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved from
  5. ^ [4], Rai, N., & Rai, M. (2006). Bell pepper genetic resources. In Heterosis Breeding In Vegetable Crops. (11), 259-293. Retrieved from .
  6. ^ [5], World Intellectual Property Organization. (1994). Ministerial Decision No. 315786, Recognition of Protected Designation of Origin (P.D.O.) for the Red Pepper of Florina. Retrieved from
  7. ^ [6], Νικολακούλη, Κ. (n.d.). Ελληνικά προιόντα: Κόκκινες πιπεριές Φλωρίνης. Newline. Retrieved from
  8. ^ [7], Τσιβελίκας, Λ., & Μπλέτσος, Α. (n.d.). Ελληνικές ποικιλίες λαχανικών και παραγωγή πολλαπλασιαστικού υλικού. Κέντρο Γεωργικής Έρευνας Βόρειας Ελλάδας. 4-7. Retrieved from
  9. ^ [8], Texas AgriLife Extension Service. (n.d.). Position statement: Peppers. Retrieved from
  10. ^ a b [9], Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A. (n.d.). Pepper. Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Retrieved from
  11. ^ recipes
  12. ^ [10], Weil, R. (2006, July). Roasted red peppers with garlic and olive oil. My Recipes. Retrieved from