Open Access Articles- Top Results for Floruit


"Flourished" redirects here. For other uses, see Flourish (disambiguation).

Floruit (/ˈflɔər.ɪt/ or /ˈflɒrʉ.ɪt/), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), is a Latin verb meaning "flourished", denoting the period of time during which something (such as a person, school, movement, or species) was active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone "flourished".[1]

Broadly, the term is employed in reference to the peak of activity for a person, movement, or such. More specifically, it often is used in genealogy and historical writing when a person's birth or death dates are unknown, but some other evidence exists that indicates when he or she was alive.[2] For example, if there are wills attested by John Jones in 1204, 1207, and 1229, and a record of his marriage in 1197, a record concerning him might be written as, "John Jones (fl. 1197–1229)".

The term is often used in art history when dating the career of an artist. In this context, it specifically denotes the period of the individual's artistic activity, not just the known existence of the artist, which might differ significantly.[3]

See also


  1. ^ "floruit, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  2. ^ Adeleye, Gabriel; Kofi Acquah-Dadzie; Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough (1999). World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions: a Resource for Readers and Writers. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 0-86516-423-1. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  3. ^ Johnson, W. McAllister (1990), Art History: Its Use and Abuse, University of Toronto Press, p. 307, ISBN 0-86516-423-1, retrieved 1 June 2010