Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics
|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (August 2013)|
at the Games of the XI Olympiad
The 1936 Olympic football tournament, won by Italy, has come to share an affinity with the political backdrop against which it was being played. In terms of the history of association football, however, the tournament suffered as a reaction to the development of the FIFA World Cup.
The introduction of the first FIFA World Cup in 1930 (which had, in itself lead to the absence of a football tournament from the 1932 Games programme) led to a devaluation in the strength of each subsequent Olympic football tournament. Competing nations would from now on only be permitted to play their best players if those players were amateur or (where national associations were assisted by interested states to traverse such a rule) where professional players were state-sponsored.
The reinstatement of Olympic football was ensured in 1936 because the German organisers were confident that such a competition would be justified by the income it would generate. The fear that any failure by the host side would result in a loss of income had been a matter of contention despite the fact that going into the competition Germany were one of the favourites (They had only lost at home once in three years). In the event, the early failure of the national side did nothing to deter the supporters, as the bronze and gold medal games were watched by a combined total of 195,000 people.
- Main article: Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics - Men's team squads
The competition began in dramatic circumstances. The Italians, winners against the Americans at the 1934 World Cup now found the Olympic side, with ten changes, a completely different proposition. The Azzurri included players such as Alfredo Foni, Pietro Rava and Ugo Locatelli, who would all play in their World Cup victory in Paris. That they eventually prevailed was due to two incidents: the first when their bespectacled forward Frossi scored, the second when Weingartner, the German referee, was literally restrained from sending off Archille Piccini after fouling two Americans. Italian players held both his arms and covered his mouth in protest. Piccini stayed on the park, Italy won.
This was something more than Sweden managed in their tie with the Empire of Japan the next day in Berlin. Two-nil up within 45 minutes, their demise was shockingly recorded by the legendary Swedish commentator, Sven Jerring, calling “Japanese, Japanese, Japanese” (Japaner, japaner, japaner…) as they ran out as winners 3–2. It marked the first time an Asian side had participated in either the World Cup or Olympic Games football competition and the first time an Asian side emerged victorious. Their neighbours, China, lost 0–2 to Great Britain on the next day. Otherwise there were thumping wins for Peru and the hosts, 9–0 versus Luxembourg.
August 3, 1936
|Italy 23x15px||1–0||23x15px United States|
|Frossi Goal 58'||Report|
August 3, 1936
|Norway 23x15px||4–0||23x15px Turkey|
| Martinsen Goal 30' Goal 70'
Brustad Goal 53'
Kvammen Goal 80'
August 4, 1936
|Template:Country data JPN||3–2||23x15px Sweden|
| Kamo Goal 49'
Ukon Goal 62'
Matsunaga Goal 85'
|Report||Persson Goal 24' Goal 37'|
August 4, 1936
|Germany 23x15px||9–0||23x15px Luxembourg|
| Urban Goal 16' Goal 54' Goal 75'
Simetsreiter Goal 32' Goal 48' Goal 74'
Gauchel Goal 49' Goal 89'
Elbern Goal 76'
August 5, 1936
|Poland 23x15px||3–0||23x15px Hungary|
| Gad Goal 12' Goal 27'
Wodarz Goal 88'
August 5, 1936
|Austria 23x15px||3–1||23x15px Egypt|
| Steinmetz Goal 4' Goal 65'
Laudon Goal 7'
|Report||Sakr Goal 85'|
August 6, 1936
|Peru 23x15px||7–3||23x15px Finland|
| Fernández Goal 17' Goal 33' Goal 47' Goal 49' Goal 70'
Villanueva Goal 21' Goal 67'
|Report|| Kanerva Goal 42' (pen.) |
Grönlund Goal 75'
Larvo Goal 80'
August 6, 1936
|Great Britain 23x15px||2–0||23x15px China|
| Doods Goal 55'
Finch Goal 65'
Italy, now finding their feet against Japan, (and having made but one change to their team) made no mistake in their tie, winning as comprehensively as they had struggled against the Americans. Pozzo’s decision to include Biagi bore instant fruit, Baigi scoring 4 goals.
The same day at the Poststadion, Berlin before a crowd that included Goebbels, Göring, Hess and Hitler, Germany were knocked out 2–0 by Norway. Goebbels wrote: 'The Führer is very excited, I can barely contain myself. A real bath of nerves.' There was no real surprise to the result to those outside the higher ranks of the Third Reich. Norway, went onto give Italy a tricky tie in the first round of the 1938 FIFA World Cup. But Germany lost 2–0 and Hitler, who had never seen a football match before, and had originally planned to watch the rowing, left early in a huff. The following day at the Hertha Platz, Austria played Peru in an astonishing game leading to a huge political row not out of keeping with the times. See Peru v Austria (1936).
The match was highly contested, and the game went into overtime when the Peruvians tied the Austrians after being two goals behind. Peru scored 5 goals during overtime, of which 3 were nullified by the referee, and won by the final score of 4–2. The Austrians demanded a rematch on the grounds that Peruvian fans had stormed the field, and because the field did not meet the requirements for a football game. Austria further claimed that the Peruvian players had manhandled the Austrian players and that spectators, one holding a revolver, had "swarmed down on the field." Peru was notified of this situation, and they attempted to go to the assigned meeting but were delayed by a German parade. At the end, the Peruvian defense was never heard, and the Olympic Committee and FIFA sided with the Austrians. The rematch was scheduled to be taken under close grounds on August 10, and later re-scheduled to be taken on August 11.
As a sign of protest against these actions, which the Peruvians deemed as insulting and discriminatory, the complete Olympic delegations of Peru and Colombia left Germany. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Mexico expressed their solidarity with Peru. Michael Dasso, a member of the Peruvian Olympic Committee, stated: "We've no faith in European athletics. We have come here and found a bunch of merchants." The game was awarded to Austria by default. In Peru, angry crowds protested against the decisions of the Olympic Committee by tearing down an Olympic flag, throwing stones at the German consulate, refusing to load German vessels in the docks of Callao, and listening to inflammatory speeches which included President Oscar Benavides Larrea's mention of "the crafty Berlin decision." To this day, it is not known with certainty what exactly happened at Germany, but it is popularly believed that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi authorities might have had some involvement in this situation.
The last of the quarter-finals had all of the excitement but none of the fall-out; Poland, assisted by their forward, Hubert Gad, played out a nine-goal party to defeat the British side; at one time they were 5–1 to the better. The Casual's Bernard Joy scored two as Britain fought back gamely but they ran out of time. Prior to the Games Daniel Pettit received a letter from the Football Association which dealt mostly with the uniform he would wear. As he explained to the academic Rachel Cutler there was a handwritten PS that said: 'As there is a month to go before we leave for Berlin kindly take some exercise.' The obedient Petit ran around his local park. 
August 7, 1936
|Italy 23x15px||8–0||Template:Country data JPN|
| Frossi Goal 14' Goal 75' Goal 80'
Biagi Goal 32' Goal 57' Goal 81' Goal 82'
Cappelli Goal 89'
August 7, 1936
|Germany 23x15px||0–2||23x15px Norway|
|Report||Isaksen Goal 7' Goal 83'|
August 8, 1936
|Poland 23x15px||5–4||23x15px Great Britain|
| Gad Goal 33'
Wodarz Goal 43' Goal 48' Goal 53'
Piec Goal 56'
|Report|| Clements Goal 26' |
Shearer Goal 71'
Joy Goal 78' Goal 80'
August 8, 1936
|Peru 23x15px||4–2 (a.e.t.) 1||23x15px Austria|
| Alcalde Goal 75'
Villanueva Goal 81' Goal 117'
Fernández Goal 119'
|Report|| Wergin Goal 23' |
Steinmetz Goal 37'
1 Due to a pitch invasion, the match was declared null and void, and ordered to be replayed on August 10. Peru objected to the replay decision and withdrew from the tournament.
August 10, 1936
|Italy 23x15px||2–1 (a.e.t.)||23x15px Norway|
| Negro Goal 15'
Frossi Goal 96'
|Report||Brustad Goal 58'|
August 11, 1936
|Austria 23x15px||3–1||23x15px Poland|
| Kainberger Goal 14'
Laudon Goal 55'
Mandl Goal 88'
|Report||Gad Goal 73'|
Bronze medal match
August 13, 1936
|Norway 23x15px||3–2||23x15px Poland|
|Brustad Goal 15' Goal 21' Goal 84'||Report|| Wodarz Goal 5' |
Peterek Goal 24' (pen.)
The Final (Gold medal match)
Italy now overcame Austria in a match refereed by Dr Peco Bauwens; the Austrians having defeated Poland to attend the final. Not that there was much in it; Frossi again scoring for the Azzuri and getting the winner just as extra-time got underway.
August 15, 1936
|Italy 23x15px||2–1 (a.e.t.)||23x15px Austria|
|Frossi Goal 70' Goal 92'||Report||Kainberger Goal 79'|
- 2 Withdrew.
- 7 goals
- 6 goals
- 5 goals
- 4 goals
- 3 goals
- 2 goals
- 1 goal
- 23x15px Franz Mandl (Austria)
- 23x15px Walter Werginz (Austria)
- 23x15px Abd El-Karim Sakr (Egypt)
- 23x15px Ernst Grönlund (Finland)
- 23x15px William Kanerva (Finland)
- 23x15px Pentti Larvo (Finland)
- 23x15px Franz Elbern (Germany)
- 23x15px Bertram Clements (Great Britain)
- 23x15px John Doods (Great Britain)
- 23x15px Lester Finch (Great Britain)
- 23x15px Edgar Shearer (Great Britain)
- 23x15px Giulio Cappelli (Italy)
- 23x15px Alfonso Negro (Italy)
- Template:Country data JPN Shogo Kamo (Japan)
- Template:Country data JPN Akira Matsunaga (Japan)
- Template:Country data JPN Tokutaro Ukon (Japan)
- 23x15px Reidar Kvammen (Norway)
- 23x15px Jorge Alcalde (Peru)
- 23x15px Teodor Peterek (Poland)
- 23x15px Ryszard Piec (Poland)
- English football statistics said that in this game played Daniel Pettit (instead of John Sutcliffe)
- The forgotten story of ... football, farce and fascism at the 1936 Olympics
- "Las épocas doradas del fútbol peruano y las Olimpiadas de 1936" (PDF). Beta.upc.edu.pe (in español). Retrieved 2009-02-14.
- "Controversia Berlín 36. Un mito derrumbado" (in español). Larepublica.com.pe. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time.com. 1936-08-24. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "Las Olimpiadas de Berlín". futbolperuano.com (in español). Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time. 1936-08-24. Retrieved 2010-05-02.