Foreign relations of Finland
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (January 2012)|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
- confirmed Finland's concessions in the Moscow Peace Treaty with exception for the Soviet lease of Hanko Peninsula in south-westernmost Finland
- limited the size of Finland's armed forces
- ratified the cessions after the Winter War and the Continuation War
- gave the Soviet Union a naval base at Porkkala Script error: No such module "convert". west of Helsinki including rights of free transit
- contained provisions directed against "Fascism in Finland"
- called for Finland to pay to the Soviet Union war reparations amounting to an estimated $570 million in 1952, the year the payments ended.
The development from the Abyssinia crisis, indicating the failure of the League of Nations, to the Paris Peace Treaty, when the last hope of more than oral support from the ideologically akin Western countries faded, convinced the Finns that they had absolutely no-one other than themselves to rely on in their problematic relations with the Soviet Union.
The Finnish Army, which in defence against the Soviet Union had numbered to over 500,000, was to be limited to 34,400 men, the navy to 4,500 men and 10,000 tons[ambiguous], and the air force to 3,000 men and 60 planes. With this provision the Western Allies had, seemingly, left Finland in the Soviet Union's power.
The political clauses of the Paris Peace Treaty were particularly alienating. Through this clause, the Allies agreed to the Kremlin view that the Soviet Union represented "Liberty" and Finland represented "Fascism". The peace treaty stipulated that the country should take all measures necessary to secure "human rights and the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, of press and publication, of religious worship, of political opinion and of public meeting." Finland's government undertook further to prevent the resurgence of Fascist organisations or any others, "whether political, military or semi-military, whose purpose it is to deprive the people of their democratic rights." In practice, the "anti-fascist" clauses had few practical effects. Most significantly, the extreme left was no longer officially banned and was allowed to participate in elections (as SKDL). The victor's interpretation of "Fascist organisations" turned out to be wide: the voluntary reserve training organizations Suojeluskunnat and Lotta Svärd were banned.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2010)|
- (See also: Finlandization)
For the survival of Finland as an independent sovereign country, firmly embracing the values of democracy, human and civil rights, Finland had to find a formula to convince Joseph Stalin and his successors that the Soviet Union's vital interests could be met voluntarily by the Finns. This was the gist of the Paasikivi doctrine.
In April 1948, Finland signed an Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance with the Soviet Union. Under this mutual assistance pact, Finland was obliged—with the aid of the Soviet Union, if requested by Finland, not unilaterally by the USSR—to resist armed attacks by Germany or its allies against Finland or against the USSR through Finland. At the same time, the agreement recognised Finland's desire to remain outside great-power conflicts. This agreement was renewed for 20 years in 1955, in 1970, and again in 1983 to the year 2003. In practice, this prevented Finland from joining NATO. Also, President Urho Kekkonen gained a disproportionate political advantage over his opponents by monopolizing this policy.
Finland responded cautiously in 1990–91 to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. They unilaterally abrogated restrictions imposed by the 1947 and 1948 treaties, joined in voicing Nordic concern over the coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, and gave increasing unofficial encouragement to Baltic independence.
At the same time, by replacing the Soviet-Finnish mutual assistance pact with treaties on general cooperation and trade, Finns put themselves on an equal footing while retaining a friendly bilateral relationship. Finland now is boosting cross-border commercial ties and touting its potential as a commercial gateway to Russia. It has reassured Russia that it will not raise claims for Finnish territory seized by the USSR, and continues to reaffirm the importance of good bilateral relations.
Although the Karelian question in Finnish politics remains in the public debate, irredentists have persistently failed to gain support from the majority of the populace, political establishment or political parties.
Finland and Sweden have always had very close relations, resulting from shared history, numerous commonalities in society and politics, and close trade relations. A newly appointed Foreign Minister makes his or her first state visit to Sweden. Finnish politicians often consider Sweden's reaction to international affairs first as a base for further actions, and thus finally both countries often agree on such issues. If there has ever been any dissonance between the two countries those were the Åland question in the early 1920s and the Swedish neutrality during the Winter War. Both Finland and Sweden are members of the European Union and the Schengen agreement, freeing international travel and trade between the countries. Furthermore both participate in the Nordic Council, which grants Swedish nationals slightly more extensive rights than the EU/Schengen treaties alone.
Other European states
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|23x15px Austria||July 19, 1918||See Foreign relations of Austria|
|23x15px Belgium||July 9, 1919||See Foreign relations of Belgium|
|23x15px Bulgaria||August 5, 1918||
|23x15px Croatia||February 19, 1992||See Foreign relations of Croatia|
|23x15px Cyprus||September 2, 1961||
|23x15px Czech Republic||January 1, 1993||See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic|
|23x15px Denmark||February 18, 1918||
|23x15px France||January 24, 1918||
|23x15px Hungary||May 20, 1947||
|Template:Country data Iceland||August 15, 1947||See Finland–Iceland relations|
|23x15px Ireland||November 2, 1961||
|23x15px Italy||September 6, 1919||
|23x15px Kosovo||February 3, 2009|
|23x15px Luxembourg||October 25, 1921||
|23x15px Netherlands||August 18, 1918||
|23x15px Norway||April 6, 1918||
|23x15px Portugal||January 10, 1920||
|23x15px Romania||October 14, 1949||
|23x15px Slovakia||January 1, 1993||
|23x15px Slovenia||February 17, 1992||
Tensions between the countries rose in late 2008 when a news program on Finland's national broadcasting company station YLE accused Finnish weapons manufacturer Patria of bribing Slovenian officials to secure an arms deal. Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Jansa formally complained to the Finnish ambassador in Ljubljana. This controversy became known as the Patria case.
|23x15px Spain||August 16, 1918||
|23x15px Turkey||May 20, 1920||
|23x15px Ukraine||February 26, 1992||
|23x15px United Kingdom||May 6, 1919||
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|23x15px Argentina||May 11, 1918||
|23x15px Antigua and Barbuda||September 26, 2008|
|23x15px Bahamas||December 2, 2005|
|23x15px Barbados||December 1, 1977|
|23x15px Belize||June 19, 1997||
|23x15px Bolivia||September 21, 1963|
|23x15px Brazil||December 26, 1919||See Foreign relations of Brazil|
|23x15px Canada||November 21, 1947||See Foreign relations of Canada|
|23x15px Chile||June 17, 1919||See Chile–Finland relations
Chile recognised Finland's independence on June 17, 1919. Diplomatic relations between them were established in 1931 and have been continuously maintained, despite pressures at times to discontinue them. The two countries maintain resident ambassadors in both capitals.
|23x15px Colombia||May 26, 1954||
The relations between Colombia and Finland are harmonious as both countries share a similar ideology based on democracy, human rights and a lasting peace. It's because of this that Colombia has decided to open an embassy in Helsinki. Colombia also defines Finland as a key player on Colombia's accession into the OECD and the ratification of the Colombia-European Union Trade Agreement.
|23x15px Costa Rica||August 23, 1966|
|23x15px Cuba||January 23, 1959||
|23x15px Dominica||August 18, 2009||
|23x15px Dominican Republic||January 2, 1984||
|23x15px Ecuador||February 5, 1965|
|23x15px El Salvador||April 14, 1967||
|23x15px Grenada||June 1, 1980||
|23x15px Guatemala||August 18, 1967||
|23x15px Guyana||April 2, 1979||
|Template:Country data Haiti||September 29, 1966||
|Template:Country data Honduras||January 30, 1976|
|Template:Country data Jamaica||December 1, 1977|
|23x15px Mexico||December 5, 1937||See Finland–Mexico relations
Mexico recognized the independence of Finland in July, 1920.
|23x15px Nicaragua||December 22, 1975||See Finland–Nicaragua relations|
|23x15px Panama||December 1, 1975||
|23x15px Paraguay||November 20, 1963|
|23x15px Peru||March 29, 1963|
|23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis||September 22, 2009||
|23x15px Saint Lucia||September 22, 2009||
|23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||January 30, 1976||
|23x15px Suriname||June 28, 2005|
|23x15px Trinidad and Tobago||December 17, 1971||
|23x15px United States||May 30, 1919||See Finland – United States relations
Relations between the United States and Finland are warm. Some 200,000 US citizens visit Finland annually, and about 3,000 US citizens are resident there. The US has an educational exchange program in Finland that is comparatively large for a Western European country of Finland's size. It is financed in part from a trust fund established in 1976 from Finland's final repayment of a US loan made in the aftermath of World War I.
Finland is bordered on the east by Russia and, as one of the former Soviet Union's neighbours, has been of particular interest and importance to the US both during the Cold War and in its aftermath. Before the USSR dissolved in 1991, longstanding US policy was to support Finnish neutrality while maintaining and reinforcing Finland's historic, cultural, and economic ties with the West. The US has welcomed Finland's increased participation since 1991 in Western economic and political structures.
Economic and trade relations between Finland and the United States are active and were bolstered by the F-18 purchase. US-Finland trade totals almost $5 billion annually. The US receives about 7% of Finland's exports — mainly wood pulp and paper, ships, machinery, electronics and instruments and refined petroleum products — and provides about 7% of its imports — principally computers, semiconductors, aircraft, and machinery.
|23x15px Uruguay||March 21, 1935||
|23x15px Venezuela||March 31, 1954|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|23x15px Algeria||January 18, 1963|
|23x15px Angola||September 18, 1976|
|23x15px Botswana||July 1, 1978|
|23x15px Burkina Faso||July 1, 1978|
|23x15px Burundi||January 1, 1980|
|23x15px Egypt||See Foreign relations of Egypt|
|23x15px Ethiopia||July 17, 1959||See Ethiopia–Finland relations
Ethiopia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden. Finland has an embassy in Addis Ababa. Ethiopia is one of Finland's long-term development partners and in the water and education sectors. On 29 April 2009, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development announced that the Finnish government had made a grant of 11.4 million euros to enable the Benishangul-Gumuz Region to upgrade its capacity to plan and manage its rural water supply and sanitation program to achieve universal access for all Ethiopians.
|Template:Country data Kenya||June 14, 1965||
|23x15px Morocco||July 17, 1959||
|23x15px Mozambique||July 18, 1975||
|23x15px Namibia||March 21, 1990||See Finland–Namibia relations
Finland recognised Namibia on March 21, 1990. Both countries established diplomatic relations on the same day. Namibia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden. Finland has an embassy in Windhoek and an honorary consulate in Walvis Bay.
|23x15px South Africa||May 15, 1949||See Finland – South Africa relations
A South African legation was established in 1967 and relations were then upgraded to ambassadorial level in March 1991. Finland has an embassy in Pretoria, a general consulate in Johannesburg, and a consulate in Cape Town. South Africa has an embassy in Helsinki. During World War II South Africa declared war on Finland.
South African exports to Finland include fresh and dried fruits, wine, pulp, paper, iron, steel, and coal. South Africa imports telecommunication equipment, paper, board products, and machinery from Finland.
|23x15px Tanzania||June 14, 1965||
|23x15px Tunisia||July 17, 1959||
|23x15px Zambia||March 8, 1968||
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|23x15px Afghanistan||May 11, 1956||
|23x15px Armenia||March 25, 1992||
|23x15px Georgia||July 8, 1992||
|Template:Country data India||October 1, 1949|
|Template:Country data Indonesia||September 6, 1954|
|Template:Country data Iran||See Finland–Iran relations|
|Template:Country data Israel||November 14, 1950||See Finland–Israel relations
|Template:Country data Japan||September 6, 1919||
|23x15px Malaysia||1972||See Finland–Malaysia relations|
|File:Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal||August 30, 1955||
|23x15px People's Republic of China||See People's Republic of China – Finland relations
The two international trade organisations are the Finland-China Trade Association and the China Council for Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT). One of the fastest growing areas of trade between the two countries is in environmental protection. and information technology. Nokia is the largest Finnish investor in China.
|23x15px Saudi Arabia||September 23, 1969|
|Template:Country data South Korea||August 24, 1973||
|23x15px Syria||May 22, 1953|
|23x15px Thailand||June 21, 1954||
|23x15px Turkey||May 20, 1920||
|23x15px Vietnam||January 5, 1973||
Diplomatic relations were established on May 31, 1949. Australia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, and through an honorary consulate in Helsinki. Finland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate in Sydney.
International organization participation
- List of diplomatic missions in Finland
- List of diplomatic missions of Finland
- Politics of Finland
- Pulp mill conflict between Argentina and Uruguay (for the ongoing conflict over the installation of a pulp mill by the Finnish company Botnia in Uruguay, across the Uruguay River)
- Visa requirements for Finnish citizens
- Arctic policy of Finland
- "Finland's foreign policy idea" ("Suomen ulkopolitiikan idea"), Risto E. J. Penttilä, 2008
- Helsinki again a centre of international espionage
- "Deutsche Botschaft Helsinki - Startseite". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Placówki Dyplomatyczne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Bulgarian embassy in Helsinki
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Sofia". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy Of The Republic Of Cyprus - General Information". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Nicosia". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- French Embassy in Helsinki
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Pariisi". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Hungarian embassy in Helsinki
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Reykjavik". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "English > Finland > The Icelandic Foreign Services". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Dublin". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Department of Foreign Affairs". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Italian Embassy in Helsinki
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Rooma". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Finland recognised the Republic of Kosovo (Press release 80/2008)" (Press release). Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- "Finland recognises Kosovo". NewsRoom Finland (Helsinki: Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- "Finnish Liaison Office, Pristina (Kosovo)". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Countries and regions: Luxembourg". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Luxembourg". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Dutch Embassy of in Helsinki
- "Embassy of Finland, The Hague". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Lissabon". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Bukarest". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "AMBASADA ROMÂNIEI în Republica Finlanda şi Estonia". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Belgrad". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Serbia in the Republic of Finland". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Bratislava". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- LISBETH, KIRK (September 5, 2008). "Arms deal tests Finland-Slovenia relations". EUobserver.com. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- Embassy of Spain in Helsinki
- Embassy of Finland in Madrid (in Finnish, Swedish and Spanish
- "Embassy of Finland, Ankara". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Embassy of Turkey in Helsinki (in Turkish and Finnish)
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Kiova". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Посольство України в Фінляндській Республіці та Республіці Iсландія (за сумісництвом)". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Finland's independence is recognised by European states - vivat, floreat,crescat - Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Current affairs: Articles and columns". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "UK and Finland". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Countries and regions: Great Britain". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Argentine embassy in Helsinki". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Buenos Aires". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "La historia de las relaciones entre Finlandia y Chile" (in Spanish). Embajada de Finlandia, Santiago de Chile. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "- Cancillería". Cancillería. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Mexico". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "BIENVENIDOS". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Countries and regions: Finnish missions in Nicaragua". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Nicaragua". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Finnish Customs statistics for 2006. http://www.tulli.fi/resources/tekstiversio.jsp?pageoid=24045
- "Finland and Ethiopia". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Ethiopia, Finland sign 11.4 million Euro grant agreement", Ethiopian News Agency (accessed 29 April 2009)
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Rabat". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Finland". South Africa. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
Diplomatic relations were re-established in 1949. A South African legation was established in 1967 and relations were upgraded to ambassadorial level in March 1991. Finland and South Africa enjoy excellent relations and a Declaration of Intent was signed in June 2000 to facilitate bilateral consultations between South Africa and Finland.
- The Nordic countries and Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. 2002. ISBN 91-7106-505-9.
From 1966 to 1987 when the Parliament of Finland unanimously adopted the South Africa Act prohibiting trade with South Africa the history of Finnish-South ...
- Finland and national liberation in Southern Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. 1999. ISBN 91-7106-431-1.
- Politics on paper: Finland's South Africa policy, 1945-1991. Nordic Africa Institute. 1992. ISBN 91-7106-326-9.
- "Embassy of Finland, Tunis". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "The Afghanistan Embassy - EMBASSY". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Kabul". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Home - Embassy of India - Finland and Estonia". Embassy of India. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Indonesian Embassy - Helsinki, Finland - Home". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Jakarta". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Suomen suurlähetystö, Teheran". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Tel Aviv". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Israelin suurlähetystö Suomessa". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Premises". Embassy of Finland, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Helsinki". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- "Embassy of Finland, Riyadh". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Home - Arab News". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Syrian Embassy Stockholm". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Embassy of Finland, Bangkok". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Royal Thai Embassy in Helsinki
- Finland in the CIA World Factbook
- A Eurosceptic big bang: Finland's EU policy in hindsight of the 2011 elections The Finnish Institute of International Affairs
- Finland in the United Nations: Consistent and Credible Constructivism The Finnish Institute of International Affairs
- From Cold War to Common Currency: A personal perspective on Finland and the EU The Finnish Institute of International Affairs
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