# Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.[citation needed]

## Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

### Digits

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

### Upper-case letters

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

### Greek letters

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Characters differing from English Braille

Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote
open close open close open close  ?
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### ASCII symbols and mathematical operators

Symbol " \$ & @ \ ^ _ ` { } ~
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol #  % * + / < = > × · ÷
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Text symbols

Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Math/Science symbols

Symbol |x| (abs. value) line ∫ closed ∫
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Markup

Symbol Superscript Subscript Left-superscript Left-subscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over *
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbol complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink **
Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

Symbol Array
Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px
Symbol Misc. Symbol *     Modifiers
Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Typeface indicators

Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline
Braille 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px 40px

### Shape symbols

Symbol Open Square
Braille 40px40px 40px40px 40px40px 40px40px 40px40px

### Set theory

Symbol
Braille 40px40px 40px40px 40px40px 40px40px

## References

1. ^ a b "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Retrieved 2012-04-29.