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Geography of Alaska

Alaska is one of two U.S. states not bordered by another state; Hawaii the other. Alaska has more ocean coastline than all of the other U.S. states combined.[1] About Script error: No such module "convert". of Canadian territory separate Alaska from Washington State. Alaska is thus an exclave of the United States that is part of the continental U.S. but is not part of the contiguous U.S.[2] Alaska is also the only state whose capital city is accessible only via ship or air, because no roads connect Juneau to the rest of the continent.
Alaska seen from a Satellite

The state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia, Canada to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west, and the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the north.

Because it extends into the Eastern Hemisphere, it is technically both the westernmost and easternmost state in the United States, as well as also being the northernmost.

Alaska is the largest state in the United States in terms of land area at Script error: No such module "convert"., over twice as large as Texas, the next largest state. If the state's westernmost point were superimposed on San Francisco, California, its easternmost point would be in Jacksonville, Florida. It is larger than all but 18 sovereign nations. Alaska is home to 3.5 million lakes of Script error: No such module "convert". or larger.[3] Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover Script error: No such module "convert". (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands). Frozen water, in the form of glacier ice, covers some Script error: No such module "convert". of land and Script error: No such module "convert". of tidal zone. The Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon, Canada, covers Script error: No such module "convert". alone.

File:Looking back to Little Port Walter - NOAA.jpg
Near Little Port Walter in Southeast Alaska.


The northeast corner of Alaska is covered by the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which covers. Much of the northwest is covered by the larger National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, which covers around Script error: No such module "convert".. The Arctic is Alaska's most remote wilderness. A location in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska is Script error: No such module "convert". from any town or village, the geographic point most remote from permanent habitation in the USA.

With its numerous islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles (55,000 km) of tidal shoreline. The island chain extending west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula is called the Aleutian Islands. Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. For example, Unimak Island is home to Mount Shishaldin, a moderately active volcano that rises to Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level. The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr, west of Anchorage on the mainland.

One of North America's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm just south of Anchorage. Tidal differences can be more than Script error: No such module "convert".. (Many sources say Turnagain has the second-greatest tides in North America, but it has since been shown that several areas in Canada have larger tides, according to an Anchorage Daily News article dated 6/23/03.[4])

The Aleutian Islands cross longitude 180°, so Alaska can be considered the easternmost state as well as the westernmost. Alaska and, especially, the Aleutians are one of the extreme points of the United States. The International Date Line jogs west of 180° to keep the whole state, and thus the entire continental United States, within the same legal day.

Land Management

According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management, approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U.S. federal government as national forests, national parks, and national wildlife refuges. Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages Script error: No such module "convert"., or 23.8% of the state. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

Of the remaining land area, the State of Alaska owns 24.5%; another 10% is managed by thirteen regional and dozens of local Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling less than 1%.

Map of Geography of Alaska - PDF

Alaska is administratively divided into "boroughs," as opposed to "counties." The function is the same, but whereas some states use a three-tiered system of decentralization — state/county/township — most of Alaska only uses two tiers — state/borough. Owing to the state's low population density, most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough which, as the name implies, has no intermediate borough government of its own, but is administered directly by the state government. Currently (2000 census) 57.71 percent of Alaska's land area has this status; however, its population comprises only 13.05 percent of the state's total. For statistical purposes the United States Census Bureau divides this territory into census areas. Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1971 to form the Municipality of Anchorage, containing the city proper, and the bedroom communities of Eagle River, Chugiak, Peters Creek, Girdwood, Bird Creek, and Indian. Fairbanks, on the other hand, has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks)[citation needed]


The antipodes of Alaska are in the southern Indian Ocean[citation needed]. The northern coast is antipodal to coastal Antarctica, from mid Queen Maud Land to Enderby Land[citation needed].

See also

Matanuska glacier


  1. ^ CRS Report for Congress on international borders
  2. ^ The other three exclaves of the United States are the Northwest Angle of Minnesota, Point Roberts, Washington, and Alburgh, Vermont.
  3. ^ Alaska Facts
  4. ^ Porco, Peter (June 23, 2003). "Long said to be second to Fundy, city tides aren't even close". Anchorage Daily News: A1.