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Geography of Iran

Geography of Iran

Continent Asia
Region Western Asia[1][2][3]
Coordinates 32°00'N, 53°00'E
Area Ranked 18th
 • Total Script error: No such module "convert".
 • Land 99.27%
 • Water 0.73%
Coastline Script error: No such module "convert".
Borders Total land borders:
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Azerbaijan (proper):
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Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan exclave):
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Highest point Mount Damavand
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Lowest point Caspian Sea
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Longest river Karun
Largest lake Lake Urmia

Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, or plateaus, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the 20th century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another.

Typically, one major town dominated each basin, and there were complex economic relationships between the town and the hundreds of villages that surrounded it. In the higher elevations of the mountains rimming the basins, tribally organized groups practiced transhumance, moving with their herds of sheep and goats between traditionally established summer and winter pastures. There are no major river systems in the country, and historically transportation was by means of caravans that followed routes traversing gaps and passes in the mountains. The mountains also impeded easy access to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.

With an area of Script error: No such module "convert"., Iran ranks eighteenth in size among the countries of the world.

Iran shares its northern borders with three post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. These borders extend for more than Script error: No such module "convert"., including nearly Script error: No such module "convert". of water along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Iran's western borders are with Turkey in the north and Iraq in the south, terminating at the Shatt al-Arab, which Iranians call the Arvand Rud.

The Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman littorals form the entire Script error: No such module "convert". southern border. To the east lie Afghanistan on the north and Pakistan on the south. Iran's diagonal distance from Azerbaijan in the northwest to Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast is approximately Script error: No such module "convert"..


Iran at night
File:Iran topo en.jpg
Topography of Iran

The topography of Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins. The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed Script error: No such module "convert". above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over Script error: No such module "convert"..

As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks declines dramatically to under Script error: No such module "convert".. Rimming the Caspian Sea littoral is another chain of mountains, the narrow but high Alborz Mountains. Volcanic Mount Damavand, Script error: No such module "convert"., located in the center of the Alborz, is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.

The center of Iran consists of several closed basins that collectively are referred to as the Central Plateau. The average elevation of this plateau is about Script error: No such module "convert"., but several of the mountains that tower over the plateau exceed Script error: No such module "convert".. The eastern part of the plateau is covered by two salt deserts, the Dasht-e Kavir (Great Salt Desert) and the Dasht-e Lut. Except for some scattered oases, these deserts are uninhabited.

Iran has only two expanses of lowlands: the Khuzestan Plain in the southwest and the Caspian Sea coastal plain in the north. The former is a roughly triangular-shaped extension of the Mesopotamia plain and averages about Script error: No such module "convert". in width. It extends for about Script error: No such module "convert". inland, barely rising a few meters above sea level, then meets abruptly with the first foothills of the Zagros. Much of the Khuzestan plain is covered with marshes.

The Caspian plain is both longer and narrower. It extends for some Script error: No such module "convert". along the Caspian shore, but its widest point is less than Script error: No such module "convert"., while at some places less than Script error: No such module "convert". separate the shore from the Alborz foothills. The Persian Gulf coast south of Khuzestan and the Gulf of Oman coast have no real plains because the Zagros in these areas come right down to the shore.

There are no major rivers in the country. Of the small rivers and streams, the only one that is navigable is the Script error: No such module "convert".-long Karun, which shallow-draft boats can negotiate from Khorramshahr to Ahvaz, a distance of about Script error: No such module "convert".. Other major rivers include the Karkheh, spanning Script error: No such module "convert". and joining the Tigris; and the Zayandeh River, which is Script error: No such module "convert". long. Several other permanent rivers and streams also drain into the Persian Gulf, while a number of small rivers that originate in the northwestern Zagros or Alborz drain into the Caspian Sea.

On the Central Plateau, numerous rivers—most of which have dry beds for the greater part of the year—form from snow melting in the mountains during the spring and flow through permanent channels, draining eventually into salt lakes that also tend to dry up during the summer months. There is a permanent salt lake, Lake Urmia (the traditional name, also cited as Lake Urmiyeh, to which it has reverted after being called Lake Rezaiyeh under Mohammad Reza Shah), in the northwest, whose brine content is too high to support fish or most other forms of aquatic life. There are also several connected salt lakes along the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Baluchestan va Sistan. its almost by the west coast instead of the east.


See also: Climate

Iran has a variable climate. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures during December and January. Spring and fall are relatively mild, while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and the summers are very hot, having average daily temperatures in July exceeding Script error: No such module "convert".. On the Khuzestan Plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.

In general, Iran has an arid climate in which most of the relatively scant annual precipitation falls from October through April. In most of the country, yearly precipitation averages Script error: No such module "convert". or less. The major exceptions are the higher mountain valleys of the Zagros and the Caspian coastal plain, where precipitation averages at least Script error: No such module "convert". annually. In the western part of the Caspian, rainfall exceeds Script error: No such module "convert". annually and is distributed relatively evenly throughout the year. This contrasts with some basins of the Central Plateau that receive ten centimeters or less of precipitation annually.

  Caspian Mild and Wet
  Caspian Mild
  Mediterranean with Spring Rains
  Cold Mountains
  Very Cold Mountains
  Cold Semi-Desert
  Hot Semi-Desert
  Dry Desert
  Hot Dry Desert
  Hot Coastal Dry
  Coastal Dry

Flora and fauna

File:Map iran biotopes simplified-fr.png
Map of biotopes of Iran
  Forest steppe
  Forests and woodlands
  Desert lowlands
  Salted alluvial marshes

7% of the country is forested. The most extensive growths are found on the mountain slopes rising from the Caspian Sea, with stands of oak, ash, elm, cypress, and other valuable trees. On the plateau proper, areas of scrub oak appear on the best-watered mountain slopes, and villagers cultivate orchards and grow the plane tree, poplar, willow, walnut, beech, maple, and mulberry. Wild plants and shrubs spring from the barren land in the spring and afford pasturage, but the summer sun burns them away. According to FAO reports,[4] the major types of forests that exist in Iran and their respective areas are:

  1. Caspian forests of the northern districtsScript error: No such module "convert".
  2. Limestone mountainous forests in the northeastern districts (Juniperus forests – Script error: No such module "convert".
  3. Pistachio forests in the eastern, southern and southeastern districts – Script error: No such module "convert".
  4. Oak forests in the central and western districts – Script error: No such module "convert".
  5. Shrubs of the Kavir (desert) districts in the central and northeastern part of the country – Script error: No such module "convert".
  6. Sub-tropical forests of the southern coast, like the Hara forestsScript error: No such module "convert".

Wildlife of Iran is diverse and composed of several animal species including bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynx, and foxes. Domestic animals include, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, eagles and falcon are also native to Iran.

As of 2001, 20 of Iran's mammal species and 14 bird species are endangered. Among them are the Baluchistan bear (Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus), a subspecies of Asian Black Bear, Persian fallow deer, Siberian Crane, hawksbill turtle, green turtle, Oxus cobra, Latifi's viper, dugong and dolphins. The Asiatic Cheetah is a critically endangered species which extinct elsewhere and now can only be found in Iran.

Iran lost all its Asiatic Lions and Caspian Tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century. The Syrian wild ass has become extinct. Bears in the mountains, wild sheep and goats, gazelles, wild asses, wild pigs, panthers, and foxes abound. Domestic animals include sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, and falcon are native to Iran.

The Persian leopard is said to be the largest of all the subspecies of leopards in the world. The main range of this species in Iran closely overlaps with that of Bezoar Ibex. Hence, it is found throughout Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges, as well as smaller ranges within the Iranian plateau. Leopard population is very sparse, due to loss of habitat, loss of natural prey, and population fragmentation.[5] Apart from Bezoar Ibex, wild sheep, boar, deer (either Maral red deer or roe deer), and domestic animals constitute leopards' diet in Iran.

Ecosystem and biosphere

Iran's bio-diversity ranks 13th in the world.[6] There are 272 conservation areas around Iran for a total of 17 million hectares under the supervision of the Department of Environment (Iran), variously named national parks, protected areas, and natural wildlife refuges, all meant to protect the genetic resources of the country. There are only 2,617 rangers and 430 environmental monitoring units engaged in protecting these vast areas, which amounts to 6,500 hectares to cover for each ranger.[7]

Ramsar sites (23/06/75) Area (km²)
Anzali Wetland Complex,[8] Gilan Province 150
Arjan Meadow,[9] Fars Province 22
Lake Gori,[10] East Azerbaijan Province 1.2
Lake Kobi,[11] West Azerbaijan Province 12
Lake Parishan,[9] Fars Province 40
Miankaleh Peninsula, Gorgan Bay, Lapoo-Zaghmarz Ab-bandan[12] Mazandaran Province 1000

Environmental concerns

Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water in some areas; water pollution from raw sweage and industrial waste; urbanization.

Resources and land use

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur
arable land: 10.87%
permanent crops: 1.19%
other: 87.93% (2012 est.)

Irrigated land: Script error: No such module "convert". (2009)

Total renewable water resources: 137 km3 (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 93.3 km3/yr (7%/1%/92%)
per capita: 1,306 m3/yr (2004)

Area and boundaries

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Land boundaries:
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border countries: Afghanistan Script error: No such module "convert"., Armenia Script error: No such module "convert"., Azerbaijan-proper Script error: No such module "convert"., Azerbaijan-Nakhchivan exclave Script error: No such module "convert"., Iraq Script error: No such module "convert"., Pakistan Script error: No such module "convert"., Turkey Script error: No such module "convert"., Turkmenistan Script error: No such module "convert"..

Maritime boundaries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman

Coastline: Script error: No such module "convert".
note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea, for Script error: No such module "convert".

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: Script error: No such module "convert".
contiguous zone: Script error: No such module "convert".
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
continental shelf: natural prolongation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea Script error: No such module "convert".
highest point: Mount Damavand Script error: No such module "convert".

International territorial disputes

Iran is currently engaged in international territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries.

The country protests Afghanistan's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River in periods of drought. The lack of a maritime boundary in the Persian Gulf with Iraq also prompts jurisdictional disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab. Iran and the United Arab Emirates have a territorial dispute over the Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Musa islands, which are administered by Iran. Iran currently insists on dividing the Caspian Sea resources equally among the five littoral states, after the Russian-backed former soviet breakaway republics refused to respect the 50-50 agreements between Iran and the Soviet Union (despite their international obligation). Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan continue to claim territorial waters thus regarding the Caspian Sea as open international body of water, dismissing its geographically lake nature.[15]

See also

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External links

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