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Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. Geophysical surveys may use a great variety of sensing instruments, and data may be collected from above or below the Earth's surface or from aerial, orbital, or marine platforms. Geophysical surveys have many applications in Earth science, archaeology, mineral and energy exploration, oceanography, and engineering. Geophysical surveys are used in industry as well as for academic research.
Types of geophysical survey
There are many methods and types of instrumentation used in geophysical surveys. Technologies used for geophysical surveys include:
- Seismic methods, such as reflection seismology, seismic refraction, and seismic tomography.
- Seismoelectrical method
- Geodesy and gravity techniques, including gravimetry and gravity gradiometry.
- Magnetic techniques, including aeromagnetic surveys and magnetometers.
- Electrical techniques, including electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization and spontaneous potential.
- Electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, ground penetrating radar and transient/time-domain electromagnetics.
- Borehole geophysics, also called well logging.
- Remote sensing techniques, including hyperspectral.
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