Open Access Articles- Top Results for Gera
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A view of Gera.|
A view of Gera.
The 12 statistical districts are:
The 16 political districts are:
The main urban quarters are the city centre, Untermhaus (incorporated 1919) in the west, Langenberg (1950), Tinz (1919) and Bieblach (1905) in the north, Leumnitz (1919) in the east, Pforten (1919) and Zwötzen (1919) in the south-east as well as Debschwitz (1912) and Lusan (1919) in the south-west.
During the centuries, Gera has been a quite small town of 2,000 inhabitants. As the textile business saw a first peak, the population rose to 7,000 in 1800 and further to 17,000 after the early stage of industrialisation in 1870. Gera's heyday between 1870 and 1930 led to a demographic boom with a population of 83,000 at the end of this phase in 1930. In 1950, Gera had 98,000 inhabitants and the all-time peak was reached in 1988 with a population of 135,000. After the German reunification in 1990, the city saw a significant decline in population, despite the large incorporations of 1994. The population shrunk to 113,000 in 2000 and 95,000 in 2012.
The average decrease of population between 2009 and 2012 was approximately 0.55% p. a, whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Gera. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many inhabitants left Gera to search a better life in west Germany or other major east German cities like Jena or Leipzig. Since 2010, emigration is no big issue anymore. Now, the birth deficit, caused by the high average age of the population, is getting a bigger problem because the immigration isn't sufficient to compensate it yet. Despite urban planning activities to tear down unused flats, vacancy is still a problem with rates around 12% (according to 2011 EU census). A positive side effect for the inhabitants is that Gera has one of the lowest rent levels in Germany.
The birth deficit was 715 in 2012, this is -7.5 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +3.6 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of Gera migrants are bordering rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria.
Like other eastern German cities, Gera has only a small amount of foreign population: circa 1.6% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 5.0% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Gera are Russians, Vietnamese people and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved a bit: the unemployment rate declined from 22% in 2005 to 11% in 2013, which is still the highest one out of all Thuringian districts. Due to the official atheism in former GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 9.8% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 2.6% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census) making one of the world's lowest amounts of religious people.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
Culture, sights and cityscape
There are some museums in Gera:
- The Orangerie at Orangerieplatz hosts an exhibition of art from the Middle Ages to the contemporary period.
- The Otto-Dix-Haus at Mohrenplatz shows paintings of the famus Gera born painter Otto Dix as well as an exhibition about his life.
- The Museum für Angewandte Kunst at Greizer Straße shows 20th century contemporary art (inside "Ferber House"). It displays collections of Bauhaus ceramics by the artists Otto Lindig und Theodor Bogler; architectural works of Thilo Schoder; and photographs by Aenne Biermann.
- The Museum für Naturkunde at Nicolaiberg hosts a natural history exhibition (inside the "Schreiber House", the oldest building in the city), with its adjacent botanical garden, the Botanischer Garten Gera
- The Stadtmuseum at Museumsplatz shows an exhibition of Gera's municipal history.
- The Haus Schulenburg at Straße des Friedens is a factory owner's mansion, built in 1913/14 by the famous architect Henry van de Velde. It hosts topical furniture and decoration and can be visited.
- Orangerie in Gera.jpg
- Gera - Otto Dix Haus.jpg
- Gera - Ferbersches Haus.JPG
Museum für Angewandte Kunst
- Gera - Schreibersches Haus 2009.jpg
Museum für Naturkunde
- Stadtmuseum Gera.JPG
- Villa Schulenburg Gera.JPG
Same as the western neighbour-city Jena, Gera is a potracted city along a wide valley in south-northern direction. The historic city centre is quite small and located between Sorge in the north, Nicolaistraße in the east, Stadtgraben in the south and Reichsstraße in the west. It survived the World War II, but during the 1960s and 1970s, the GDR government demolished larger inner-city areas to rebuilt them with modern concrete architecture, which marks the view of Gera's centre, particularly in the north-west until today. Between 1870 and 1930, the city was largely extended to all directions. As distinct from other German cities, there is no city-wide spatial separation between the worker's quarters and the upper-class mansion districts, instead, the mansions and the tenements are situated near to each other, spread over all the districts. The hilly areas and those next to the river and the parks are more upscale, whereas the areas next to the railway and the factories are more working-class styled. Nevertheless, the Gründerzeit architecture is quite diverse and interesting in Gera. Most buildings were deeply refurbished after 1990. Especially Gera's mansion architecture from the 1900s and 1910s is unique. The 1920s brought some modern-style Bauhaus buildings to the then rich city. During the GDR period, urban growth was handled by establishing big Plattenbau settlements on the city's periphery, like the Lusan district in south and the Bieblach district in north.
- Friedrich engels strasse gera.jpg
Gründerzeit architecture at Friedrich-Engels-Straße
- Villa eichenberg gera.JPG
- Villa hirsch gera.jpg
- Buga07 VillaJahr.JPG
Villa Jahr (1905–1907)
- Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-0327-315, Gera, Rundfunkgebäude.jpg
Haus Meyer (1927)
- Gera Privatklinik Schäfer.jpg
Former Klinik Schäfer, Bauhaus style (1929)
Sights and architectural heritage
- The St. Saviour's Church at Nicolaiberg is the evangelical main church of Gera, built between 1717 and 1720 by David Schatz in Baroque style.
- The Trinity Church at Heinrichstraße is an evangelical parish church (since 1886), built between 1609 and 1611 as cemetery church.
- The St. John's Church at Clara-Zetkin-Straße is an evangelical parish church, built between 1881 and 1885 in neo-Gothic style.
- The St. Mary's Church at Untermhaus district is the evangelical parish church of the former village Untermhaus, built around 1450.
- The St. Elizabeth's Church at Kleiststraße is the catholic parish church of Gera, built in 2000 in modern style as one of only few bigger new churches in Thuringia after 1990.
- The St. Martin's Church at Zwötzen district is an evangelical parish church, built in 1895 in neo-Gothic style.
- The Fourteen Holy Helpers Church at Langenberg district is an evangelical parish church, was rebuilt during the 1750s.
- Gera - Salvatorkirche.jpg
St. Saviour's Church
- Trinitatiskirche Gera.jpg
- Gera - Johanniskirche.jpg
St. John's Church
- Gera Untermhaus St. Marienkirche (2007).JPG
St. Mary's Church
- Zwötzen, Kirche.JPG
St. Martin's Church
Fourteen Holy Helpers Church
- The town hall at Marktplatz is one of the biggest Renaissance town halls in Germany with a nearly 60 m heigh tower, built between 1573 and 1576. The Marktplatz itself forms a good ensemble of 18th century patricians houses in late-Baroque style.
- The Stadttheater at Küchengartenallee is the former royal Reussian theatre, built in 1902 by Heinrich Seeling in neo-Baroque style.
- The Stadtapotheke (city pharmacy) is a Renaissance building at Marktplatz with a beautiful bay, established in 1592.
- The Küchengarten with the Orangerie is a park ensemble west of the city centre, established in 1732 by the Reussians.
- The Höhler is a cellar system under the city centre with a length of approx. Script error: No such module "convert"., established in 17th and 18th century for storing beer. A part can be visited via an entrance at Nicolaiberg 3.
- The Schloss Tinz was the royal summer residence of the Reussians, built in 1748 in Baroque style with a surrounding park.
- The Schloss Osterstein was the main royal residence of the Reussians, built during the 16th century in Renaissance style. It was hit by bombs in 1945 and partial demolished in 1962. Only the tower remained.
- The city wall was demolished in the 19th century, only a small part at Stadtgraben remained.
- Gera Rathaus 2008-2.JPG
- Gera Theater (2007).JPG
- Gera - Stadtapotheke 2009.jpg
- Gera Orangerie (2007).jpg
Orangerie at Küchengarten
- Gera - Schloss Tinz.jpg
- Gera Osterstein Bergfried.JPG
Schloss Osterstein: tower
- Gera - Stadtmauer.JPG
Economy and infrastructure
Agriculture, industry and services
Agriculture has some importance in the rural districts of Gera, especially in the northern and eastern city parts. Approximately 57% of the municipal territory is in agricultural use: growing maize, rapeseed and crops as well as pasturing cattle.
The city's economy features industrial machinery (Dagro Gera GmbH), communications (DTKS GmbH, Deutsche Telekom), security locks (Schloßsicherungen Gera GmbH), optics (POG Präzisionsoptik Gera GmbH), electrical equipment (Electronicon Kondensatoren GmbH), and margarine manufacturing (Othüna). Other companies include a compressor manufacturer (Kompressorenwerk Kaeser), a precision-tool maker (SMK-Präzisionsmechanik), and a subsidiary of the construction company Max Bögl. The e-commerce service-provider D+S Europe has a service centre in Gera with several hundred workers, and Rittal, a manufacturer of information-technology enclosures, recently[update] moved from Bad Köstritz to Gera. Some industrial branches operating before 1990 no longer have major importance. Sectors either no longer existing or sharply reduced include those in toolmaking (VEB Wema Union), textiles (VEB Modedruck), textile machinery (VEB Textima), electronic equipment (VEB Elektronik Gera). Other industries that had a presence included VEB Carl Zeiss Jena and a brewery. One important industrial branch had been uranium-ore mining in nearby Ronneburg (Wismut), whereby the region became the Soviet Union's leading uranium supplier. In 2012 Gera had 41 companies with more than 20 workers in the industrial sector, employing 3,400 people and generating an overall turnover of €452 million.
Gera is a supra-centre according to the Central Place Theory in German regional planning. This makes the city a regional centre for retailing, with three major shopping centres: Gera-Arcaden, Amthor-Passage and Elster-Forum. Health services are important, with one of the biggest hospitals in Thuringia, the SRH Waldklinikum. Nevertheless, Gera's economy is weak compared to equal-sized neighbouring cities like Jena or Zwickau. While Jena counts 51,000 and Zwickau 50,000 jobs liable to pay into the German social insurance, Gera has only 35,000 of that full-time jobs in 2012. The commuter balance was +14,000 in Jena and +16,000 in Zwickau, but only +2,000 in Gera, which is one of the lowest ratios among German supra-centres, highlighting the lack of ability of Gera to provide jobs for the region. The unemployment rate reached 11.2% in September 2013 - the highest among all Thuringian districts.
Since the late 19th century, Gera has been a knot in railway network. The first railway ran to the Thuringian Railway in Weißenfels (with connection to Halle) via Zeitz in 1859. Further main lines were opened to Gößnitz (with connection to Chemnitz) in 1865, to Saalfeld in 1871, to Leipzig (via Zeitz) in 1873, to Plauen in 1875, to Weimar (with connection to Erfurt) via Jena in 1876 and to Hof in 1883. The secondary railways to Werdau (opened in 1876) and Meuselwitz (opened via Pölzig in 1901 and via Lumpzig in 1887) are abandoned. Nevertheless, none of this lines is electrified or in use for long-distance trains. Today, there are regional express trains to Göttingen via Jena and Erfurt, to Leipzig via Zeitz, to Altenburg, Glauchau and Zwickau via the Gößnitz line, to Greiz, to Hof and to Saalfeld. Local trains provide connections to Weimar via Jena, Leipzig, Weischlitz (near Plauen), Hof and Saalfeld. The most lines run every two hours, so that there is hourly service (express and local trains in alternation) to most directions. The electrification of the west-eastern mainline Weimar – Jena – Gera – Gößnitz is in discussion for closing that gap in the network and enable Gera's connection to long-distance trains, which can be reached today either via Jena or via Leipzig.
The most important stations in Gera are the Gera main station (former Prussian station), where all the trains stop, and the Gera southern station (former Saxonian station), where all the trains, except the local ones to Weimar, stop. More stations in Gera are Langenberg at the Leipzig line, Zwötzen at the Saalfeld and Hof line as well as Gera Ost and Liebschwitz at the Plauen line. Freight transport by rail is immaterial in Gera since the 1990s.
The two Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at Hermsdorf junction are the Bundesautobahn 4 (Frankfurt–Dresden) and the Bundesautobahn 9 (Berlin–Munich), which were both built during the 1930s. Furthermore, there are three Bundesstraßen connecting Gera: the Bundesstraße 2 to Zeitz in the north and Hof in the south, the Bundesstraße 7 to Jena (via Eisenberg) in the west and to Altenburg in the east and the Bundesstraße 92 to Plauen (via Greiz) in the south. Important secondary roads run to Altenburg (via Lumpzig), to Werdau (via Linda), to Wünschendorf, to Stadtroda and to Hermsdorf. As part of the Bundesgartenschau 2007, a new bypass road was built in the east to better the connection of southern city parts to the A 4 and to relieve the city centre from transit traffic.
The next regional airports are the Leipzig/Halle Airport, about Script error: No such module "convert". north and the Erfurt-Weimar Airport, about Script error: No such module "convert". west of Gera. Both serve mainly for holiday flights. The nearest major airports are the Frankfurt Airport, the Munich Airport and prospective the Berlin Brandenburg Airport. In the eastern part of Gera lies the airfield Gera-Leumnitz for private aviation.
Biking is getting more and more popular since the construction of quality cycle tracks began in the 1990s. For tourism serve the Weiße Elster track and the Thuringian city string track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). Both connect points of tourist interest, the first along the Weiße Elster valley from the Elster Mountains at the Czech border to Saale river in Halle and second from Eisenach via Erfurt, Weimar, Jena and Gera to Altenburg. For inner city every-day traffic exist some cycle lanes along several main streets.
Trams and buses
The Gera tram network was the second in Germany that launched electrical engine in 1892. Today, there are two long lines, one from Bieblach via city centre to Lusan (line 3) and another one – opened in 2006 – from Untermhaus via city centre to Zwötzen (line 1). The third short line is a connection between Lusan and the Zwötzen railway station (line 2). Another line is planned to connect Langenberg and the northern city parts. On line 3 is one course every 5 minutes, on line 1 every 10 minutes and on line 2 every 20 minutes.
The bus network connects districts without trams as well as neighbouring municipalities without rail connection.
Tertiary institutions are the private college SRH Fachhochschule für Gesundheit Gera (university of applied sciences for health) with 500 students and the Berufsakademie Gera (Cooperative education) with 700 students.
Furthermore, there are four Gymnasiums, all of them are state-owned. The Goethe-Gymnasium/Rutheneum offers a focus in music education as an elite boarding school additionally to the common curriculum.
Mayor and city council
The current mayor Viola Hahn (independent) is in office since 2012 and the first female mayor in Gera's history. Since 1990, there have been five free elected mayors.
The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:
|Party||Percentage||Seats in council|
|The Left (post-socialistic left)||31.0||14|
|SPD (social democratic)||12.5||6|
|Arbeit für Gera (citizen-oriented/populist)||12.2||6|
|FDP (classical liberal)||6.2||3|
Gera is twinned with:
- Johann Heinrich Gottfried Koch, (1705–1775)
- Heinrich Reinhold, (1788-1825), painter and engraver
- Heinrich Gustav Beck, (1857–1933), Minister-president of Saxony 1914–1918
- Otto Lummer (1860–1925), physicist
- Otto Dix (1891–1969), artist
- Rudolf Paul, (1893–1978), President of Thuringia 1945–1947
- Dietrich Peltz (born 1914), Luftwaffe legend
- Nahum Golan (1915–1991), Israeli officer, commander of the Golani Brigade
- Karl Weschke, (1925–2005), painter
- Edmund Roßmann (1918 - 2005) Knights Cross holder
- Georg Buschner, (1925–2007), head coach East Germany national football team
- Max Frankel, (born 1930), executive editor, New York Times 1986–1994
- Helga Königsdorf, (born 1938), mathematician and author
- Thilo Sarrazin, (born 1945), German politician
- Wolfgang Tiefensee, (born 1955), politician
- Marlies Göhr, (born 1958), athlete
- Olaf Ludwig, (born 1960), racing cyclist
- Heike Drechsler, (born 1964), Olympic gold medallist long jumper
- Jens Heppner, (born 1964), racing cyclist
- John Degenkolb, (born 1989), racing cyclist
- "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, erfüllenden Gemeinden und Verwaltungsgemeinschaften nach Geschlecht in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German). 13 July 2013.
- Christopher Clark, "The Iron Kingdom" (London, 2006), p. 305
- Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. ISSN 1027-5606. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
- According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
- Museum for Applied Arts German website, last accessed January 13, 2010. Gera.de (2009-12-23). Retrieved on 2011-06-19.
- According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gera.|
|Naumburg|| Halle — Leipzig
|Erfurt — Weimar — Jena||North||Chemnitz — Dresden|
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