For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation).

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Scientific classification e</small>
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This page is a soft redirect. Zingiber officinale
Roscoe 1807[1]


Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a flowering plant in the family Zingiberaceae whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a medicine.

It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger is indigenous to south China, and was spread eventually to the Spice Islands, other parts of Asia and subsequently to West Africa and the Caribbean.[2] Ginger was exported to Europe via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade.[2][3] India is now the largest producer of ginger.[2]

Other members of the family Zingiberaceae include turmeric, cardamom, and galangal. The distantly related dicots in the genus Asarum are commonly called wild ginger because of their similar taste.


The origin of "ginger" is from the mid-14th century, from Old English gingifer, from Medieval Latin gingiber, from Latin zingiberi, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" + vera- "body", from the shape of its root. But this may be Sanskrit folk etymology, and the word may be from an ancient Dravidian name that also produced the Malayalam name for the spice, inchi-ver, from inchi "root." cf. gin (v.). The word apparently was readopted in Middle English from Old French gingibre (modern French gingembre).[4]


File:Ginger Plant vs.jpg
Ginger plant with flower - South India
File:Ornamental Ginger.jpg
Ornamental Ginger near Cooktown, Queensland, Australia

Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall. Traditionally, the rhizome is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting. The fragrant perisperm of Zingiberaceae is used as sweetmeats by Bantu, also as a condiment and sialogogue.[5]


Top 6 ginger producers, 2012 
Country Production (tonnes)
Template:Country data India 703,000
23x15px China 425,000
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 255,208
23x15px Nigeria 156,000
23x15px Thailand 150,000
Template:Country data Indonesia 113,851
 World 2,095,056

Source: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations[6]

From 1585, Jamaican ginger was the first oriental spice to be grown in the New World and imported back to Europe.[7]

In 2012, India, with over 33% of the global production, now leads in growing ginger, replacing China, now in second position (about 20%), followed by Nepal (about 12%), Nigeria and Thailand (each about 7%) and Indonesia (about 5%).


File:Gari ginger.jpg
Gari, a type of pickled ginger

Ginger produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice.[8] Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may be added. Ginger can be made into candy, or ginger wine, which has been made commercially since 1740.

Mature ginger rhizomes are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from ginger roots is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and is a common ingredient of Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood, meat, and vegetarian dishes.

Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of six to one, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.

Candied ginger, or crystallized ginger, is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.

Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Regional use

File:Ingwer 2 fcm.jpg
Fresh ginger rhizome

In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger also has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced Masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Bangladesh, it is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside onion and garlic.

In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is made into a candy called shoga no sato zuke. In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is either finely minced or just juiced to avoid the fibrous texture and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.

In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, with a variety of nuts and seeds.

In Thailand it is called ขิง khing and is used to make a ginger garlic paste in cooking.

In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes.

In Malaysia, ginger is called halia and used in many kinds of dishes, especially a soup.

In the Philippines, it is a common ingredient in local dishes, and it is brewed into a tea called salabat.[9][10]

In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.

In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. Candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and an herbal tea can be prepared from ginger.

In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking and for making drinks such as sorrel, a drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.

File:Ginger in China 01.jpg
Two varieties of ginger as sold in Haikou, Hainan, China

On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil and in some parts of the Middle East, gin�gayu (生姜湯).[11] The Hebrew name for the spice, zangevil, is a variation on the name. A ginger tea that is spicy and stimulating is made.[12]

In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits, and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.

Nutritional information

Ginger root (ground)
A packet of ginger powder
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
71.62 g
Sugars 3.39 g
Dietary fiber 14.1 g
4.24 g
8.98 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.046 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
9.62 mg
0.477 mg
Vitamin B6
0.626 mg
Folate (B9)
13 μg
Vitamin C
0.7 mg
Vitamin E
0.0 mg
Trace metals
114 mg
19.8 mg
214 mg
33.3 mg
168 mg
1320 mg
27 mg
3.64 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Ginger root (raw)
Ginger section
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
17.77 g
Sugars 1.7 g
Dietary fiber 2 g
0.75 g
1.82 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.025 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.034 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.75 mg
0.203 mg
Vitamin B6
0.16 mg
Folate (B9)
11 μg
Vitamin C
5 mg
Vitamin E
0.26 mg
Trace metals
16 mg
0.6 mg
43 mg
0.229 mg
34 mg
415 mg
13 mg
0.34 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Composition and safety

In a typical spice serving amount of one US tablespoon or 5 g, ginger powder provides negligible content of essential nutrients, with the exception of the dietary mineral manganese, which is present in the Daily Value amount of 79%.

If consumed in reasonable quantities, ginger has few negative side effects.[13] It is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list,[14] though it does interact with some medications, including the anticoagulant drug, warfarin.[15]

Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash. Although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn, bloating, gas, belching, or nausea, particularly if taken in powdered form. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage, and individuals who have had ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.[16] It can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[16][17] There are suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure, clotting, and heart rhythms.[16]

Products of Chinese origin found in Taiwan contained ginger contaminated with diisobutyl phthalate, causing some 80,000 nutritional supplement capsules made with imported ginger powder to be seized by the Public Health Department of Taiwan in June 2011.[18]

Medicinal use and research

According to the American Cancer Society, ginger has been promoted as a cancer treatment "to keep tumors from developing," but "available scientific evidence does not support this." They add: "Recent preliminary results in animals show some effect in slowing or preventing tumor growth. While these results are not well understood, they deserve further study. Still, it is too early in the research process to say whether ginger will have the same effect in humans."[19]

In limited studies, ginger was found to be more effective than placebo for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness, and chemotherapy,[20][21][22][23] although it was not found superior to placebo for pre-emptively treating postoperative nausea. Some studies advise against taking ginger during pregnancy,[21] suggesting that ginger is mutagenic, though some other studies have reported antimutagenic effects.[21]


The essential oil of ginger

The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols, and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic, and antibacterial properties.[24] Gingerols can inhibit growth of ovarian cancer cells in vitro.[25][26][27] [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger.

Ginger contains up to 3% of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (−)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene, and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified.

The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.[28] Ginger is a minor chemical irritant and, because of this, was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.

Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.[29]

Folk medicine

One traditional medical form of ginger historically was called 'Jamaica ginger'; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow motility symptoms, constipation, and colic.[30] It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines.[31]

Some studies indicate ginger may provide short-term relief of pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting.[32] Studies are inconclusive about effects for other forms of nausea or in treating pain from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or joint and muscle injury. Side effects, mostly associated with powdered ginger, are gas, bloating, heartburn, and nausea.[33]

Tea brewed from ginger is a common folk remedy for colds. Ginger ale and ginger beer are also drunk as stomach settlers in countries where the beverages are made.

  • In Burma, ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.
  • In China, ginger is included in several traditional preparations. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[34] "Ginger eggs" (scrambled eggs with finely diced ginger root) is a common home remedy for coughing.[citation needed] A kind of Chinese dried ginger candy that is fermented in plum juice and sugared, is commonly consumed to suppress coughing. Ginger has been historically used to treat inflammation, which several scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[17]
  • In Colombia, ginger is mixed with hot agua de panela to relieve cold and flu-like symptoms.
  • In the Congo, ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice, which is considered a panacea.
  • In India, ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache, and is consumed when suffering from the common cold. Ginger with lemon and black salt is used for nausea.[32]
  • In Indonesia, ginger (jahe in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue, reducing "winds" in the blood, prevent and cure rheumatism and control poor dietary habits.[citation needed]
  • In Nepal, ginger is called aduwa, अदुवा, and is widely grown and used throughout the country as a spice for vegetables, used medically to treat cold and sometimes used to flavor tea.
  • In the Philippines, ginger, known as luya, is used as a throat lozenge in traditional medicine to relieve sore throat.
  • In the United States], ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sicknesses.[citation needed] It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration[35] and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement. Ginger water is also used to avoid heat cramps.[citation needed]
  • In Peru, ginger is sliced in hot water as an infusion for stomach aches as infusión de Kión.
  • In Japan, it is purported to aid blood circulation.[36] Scientific studies investigating these effects have been inconclusive.[33]

Similar ingredients

Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine; the flower buds are the part eaten.

Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family, galangal, is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Galangal is also called Thai ginger, fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), Chinese ginger, or the Thai krachai.

A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America, Asarum canadense, is also known as "wild ginger", and its root has similar aromatic properties, but it is not related to true ginger. The plant contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.[37] The United States Food and Drug Administration warns that consumption of aristolochic acid-containing products is associated with "permanent kidney damage, sometimes resulting in kidney failure that has required kidney dialysis or kidney transplantation. In addition, some patients have developed certain types of cancers, most often occurring in the urinary tract."[37]

See also


  1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c "Spices: Exotic Flavors & Medicines: Ginger". Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  3. ^ "What are the benefits of ginger?". Medical News Today. 29 August 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  4. ^ "ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  5. ^ Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa - Watt & Brandwijk
  6. ^ "Final 2012 Production Quantity for Ginger in Metric Tons, World List Nested by Country". Food And Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  7. ^ "ginger" A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Ed. David A. Bender. Oxford University Press 2009
  8. ^ Ginger n Oxford Dictionary of English
  9. ^ Hardon, Anita (2001). Applied health research manual: anthropology of health and health care. Het Spinhuis. ISBN 90-5589-191-6. 
  10. ^ Taguba, Yvonne B. (1984). Common medicinal plants of the Cordillera region (Northern Luzon, Philippines). Community Health Education, Services and Training in the Cordillera Region (CHESTCORE). 
  11. ^ "Japanese Cold Remedies". 9 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Plain Ginger Tea". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  13. ^ Marcello Spinella (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-262-69265-6. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  14. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 182, Sec. 182.20: Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates): Substances Generally Recognized As Safe". US Food and Drug Administration. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  15. ^ Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, Ingaszewski A, Kerr C (2007). "Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis". Pharmacotherapy 27 (9): 1237–47. PMID 17723077. doi:10.1592/phco.27.9.1237. 
  16. ^ a b c Mayo Clinic (1 May 2006). "Drugs & Supplements: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)". Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  17. ^ a b University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Ginger". Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  18. ^ "Taichung City: Nutrition products made with contaminated ginger powder seized – Taiwan News Online". 16 June 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  19. ^ "Ginger". American Cancer Society. May 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  20. ^ Marx, WM; Teleni L; McCarthy AL; Vitetta L; McKavanagh D; Thomson D; Isenring E. (2013). "Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review". Nutr Rev 71 (4): 245–54. PMID 23550785. doi:10.1111/nure.12016. 
  21. ^ a b c Ernst, E.; Pittler, M.H. (1 March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. PMID 10793599. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013442. Retrieved 6 September 2006. 
  22. ^ Wood, C. (1988). "Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs". Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff 6 (2): 129–36. PMID 11538042. 
  23. ^ Grøntved, A. (1988). "Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea". Acta Otolaryngol. 105 (1-2): 45–9. PMID 3277342. doi:10.3109/00016488809119444. 
  24. ^ O'Hara, Mary; Kiefer, David; Farrell, Kim; Kemper, Kathi (1998). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Archives of Family Medicine 7 (6): 523–536. PMID 9821826. doi:10.1001/archfami.7.6.523. 
  25. ^ Rhode, J.; Fogoros, S.; Zick, S.; Wahl, H.; Griffith, K. A.; Huang, J.; Liu, J. R. (2007). "Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells". BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine 7: 44. PMC 2241638. PMID 18096028. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-7-44. 
  26. ^ Kim, J. S.; Park, Hye Won; Yang, Jae Heon; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Sung-Hoon et al. (2008). "Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe". Archives of Pharmacal Research 31 (4): 415–418. PMID 18449496. doi:10.1007/s12272-001-1172-y. 
  27. ^ Choudhury, D.; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Gopal et al. (2010). "Aqueous extract of ginger shows antiproliferative activity through disruption of microtubule network of cancer cells". Food Chem Toxicol. 48 (10): 2872–2880. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.020. 
  28. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner. pp. 425–426. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  29. ^ Wood, George B. (1867). "Class IX. Sialagogues". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica: Volume 2. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  30. ^ Wood, George B. (1867). "XV. Ginger. Zingiber. U.S., Br". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica Volume 1. J. B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  31. ^ Al-Achi, Antoine. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  32. ^ a b "Tamilnadu Herb Ginger". 17 February 2013. 
  33. ^ a b "Ginger NCCIH Herbs at a Glance". Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  34. ^ Jakes, Susan (15 January 2007). "Beverage of Champions". Times on-line. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  35. ^ "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". 26 December 2013{{inconsistent citations}} 
  36. ^ "Traditional Japanese Cold Remedies". 27 June 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  37. ^ a b [1] April 11, 2001.

12px This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWard, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 

External links

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