Open Access Articles- Top Results for Glibenclamide
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical TechniquesValidated Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Determination of Metformin, Pioglitazone, Sitagliptin, Repaglinide, Glibenclamide and Glicl
International Journal of Pharma Research & ReviewPharmaceutical Evaluation of Type II Oral Antidiabetic Agent
Clinical & Medical BiochemistryAny Polymorphisms of CYP2C9 Affects the Biochemical Profile of Diabetic Patients Receiving Glibenclamide
International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental SciencesANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM MACROCARPUM HOOK.F.LEAVES ON ALLOXAN- INDUCED DIABETIC SWISS ALBINO MICE
Journal of Applied PharmacyHYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ANDROGRAPHIS ECHIOIDES ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL RATS
|File:Glibenclamide structural formula V.1.svg|
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Diabeta, Glynase, Micronase Daonil, Semi-Daonil, Euglucon, Delmide, Glybovin Gilemal|
|Licence data||US FDA:|
|Metabolism||Hepatic hydroxylation (CYP2C9-mediated)|
|Excretion||Renal and biliary|
|14px (what is this?)|
Glibenclamide (AAN, BAN, INN), also known as glyburide (USAN), is an antidiabetic drug in a class of medications known as sulfonylureas, closely related to sulfa drugs. It was developed in 1966 in a cooperative study between Boehringer Mannheim (now part of Roche) and Hoechst (now part of Sanofi-Aventis).
It is sold in doses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg, under the trade names Diabeta, Glynase, and Micronase in the United States and Daonil, Semi-Daonil, and Euglucon in the United Kingdom, and Delmide, Glybovin in India. It is also sold in combination with metformin under the trade names Glucovance, Benimet, and Glibomet, as well as Glucored and Glucored Forte (by Sun Pharmaceutical) in Russia, Belarus and other countries of the CIS.
It is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As of 2011[update], it is one of only two oral antidiabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being metformin). As of 2003, in the United States, it was the most popular sulfonylurea.
Side effects and contraindications
Glibenclamide may be contraindicated in those with G6PD deficiency, as it may cause acute haemolysis.
Recently published data suggest glibenclamide is associated with significantly higher annual mortality when combined with metformin than other insulin-secreting medications, after correcting for other potentially confounding patient characteristics. The safety of this combination has been questioned. Glibenclamide causes cholestasis as the major side effect.
Mechanism of action
The drug works by binding to and activating the ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) inhibitory regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1)  in pancreatic beta cells. This inhibition causes cell membrane depolarization, opening voltage-dependent calcium channels. This results in an increase in intracellular calcium in the beta cell and subsequent stimulation of insulin release.
After a cerebral ischemic insult, the blood–brain barrier is broken and glibenclamide can reach the central nervous system. Glibenclamide has been shown to bind more efficiently to the ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, under ischemic conditions SUR1, the regulatory subunit of the KATP- and the NCCa-ATP-channels, is expressed in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells and by reactive microglia.
Glibenclamide improves outcome in animal stroke models by preventing brain swelling and enhancing neuroprotection. A retrospective study showed, in type 2 diabetic patients already taking glyburide, NIH stroke scale scores on were improved on discharge compared to diabetic patients not taking glyburide.
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- Serrano-Martín X, Payares G, Mendoza-León A (December 2006). "Glibenclamide, a blocker of K+(ATP) channels, shows antileishmanial activity in experimental murine cutaneous leishmaniasis". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50 (12): 4214–6. PMC 1693980. PMID 17015627. doi:10.1128/AAC.00617-06.
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- Ahmadi, A; Khalili, M; Khatami, K; Farsadrooh, M; Nahri-Niknafs, B (2014). "Synthesis and investigating hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of some glibenclamide analogues in rats". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 14 (2): 208–13. PMID 24387708.
- Simard JM, Chen M, Tarasov KV, Bhatta S, Ivanova S, Melnitchenko L, Tsymbalyuk N, West GA, Gerzanich V (April 2006). "Newly expressed SUR1-regulated NC(Ca-ATP) channel mediates cerebral edema after ischemic stroke". Nat. Med. 12 (4): 433–40. PMC 2740734. PMID 16550187. doi:10.1038/nm1390.
- Kunte H, Schmidt S, Eliasziw M, del Zoppo GJ, Simard JM, Masuhr F, Weih M, Dirnagl U (September 2007). "Sulfonylureas improve outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute ischemic stroke". Stroke 38 (9): 2526–30. PMC 2742413. PMID 17673715. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.482216.