Government in exile
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|Part of the Politics series|
|Basic forms of government|
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory. For example, during World War I, nearly all of Belgium was occupied by Germany, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, conversely, has lost all its territory.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup. For example, during German expansion in World War II, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom, rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. A government in exile may also form from widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. For instance, the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces was formed as a result of the Syrian civil war, which sought to end the rule of the ruling Ba'ath Party.
The effectiveness of a government in exile depends primarily on the amount of support it can receive, either from foreign governments or from the population of its own country. Some governments in exile develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the incumbent regime of the country, while others are maintained chiefly as a symbolic gesture.
The phenomenon of a government in exile predates formal use of the term. In periods of monarchical government, exiled monarchs or dynasties sometimes set up exile courts—as the House of Stuart did when driven from their throne by Oliver Cromwell and at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon did during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister, such as the Dutch government during World War II headed by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy.
- 1 Activities
- 2 Current governments in exile
- 2.1 Deposed governments of current states
- 2.2 Current government claimed of being a "government-in-exile"
- 2.3 Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
- 2.4 Deposed governments of subnational territories
- 2.5 Alternative governments of current states
- 2.6 Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
- 2.7 Exiled Governments with ambiguous status
- 3 Past governments in exile
- 4 See also
- 5 References
International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:
- becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
- amending or revising its own constitution
- maintaining military forces
- retaining, or newly obtaining, diplomatic recognition from other states
- issuing identity cards
- allowing the formation of new political parties
- holding elections
In cases where a host country holds a large expatriate population from a government in exile's home country, or an ethnic population from that country, the government in exile might come to exercise some administrative functions within such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India had such authority among the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.
Current governments in exile
Governments in exile may have little or no recognition from other states. Some exiled governments have some characteristics in common with rump states. Such disputed or partially in exile cases are noted in the tables below.
Deposed governments of current states
These governments in exile were created by deposed governments or rulers who continue to claim legitimate authority of the state they once controlled.
Current government claimed of being a "government-in-exile"
The 23x15px Republic of China government does not regard itself as a government-in-exile, but is claimed to be such by some participants in the debate on the political status of Taiwan. In addition to the territory it currently controls (being Taiwan and some other islands), the Republic of China formally maintains claims over territory now controlled by the 23x15px Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, 23x15px Kingdom of Bhutan, 23x15px People's Republic of China, Template:Country data India, Template:Country data Japan, 23x15px Mongolia, 23x15px Republic of the Union of Myanmar, 23x15px Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 23x15px Russian Federation, and 23x15px Republic of Tajikistan. While the Republic of China is usually considered either a former state or a rump state (i.e. a state which has lost most of its territory), an alternative argument has been advanced that it is a "government-in-exile". While often used as a rhetorical device, the usual formal reasoning on which this claim is based relies on an argument that the sovereignty of Taiwan was not handed to, or was not legitimately handed to, the Republic of China at the end of World War II, and on that basis the ROC is located in foreign territory, therefore effectively making it a government in exile. By contrast, this theory is not accepted by those who view the sovereignty of Taiwan as having been legitimately returned to the Republic of China at the end of the war. Both the People's Republic of China government and the Republic of China government hold the latter view.
Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories
These governments in exile are governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories. They claim legitimate authority over a territory they once controlled, or claim legitimacy of a post-decolonization authority. The claim may stem from an exiled group's election as a legitimate government.
From the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988 in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization, it has effectively functioned as the government in exile of the Palestinian State. In 1994, however the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO, Israel, the United States, and Russia. Between 1994 to 2013, the PNA functioned as an autonomy, thus while the government was seated in the West Bank it was not sovereign. In 2013, Palestine was upgraded to a non-member state status in the UN.
Deposed governments of subnational territories
These governments in exile claim legitimacy of autonomous territories of another state and have been created by deposed governments or rulers, who do not claim independence as a separate state.
Alternative governments of current states
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties, aspire to become actual governing authorities or claim to be legal successors to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories
These governments have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties, and separatist movements, and desire to become the governing authorities of their territories as independent states, or claim to be the successor to previously deposed governments, and have been created as alternatives to incumbent governments.
|Name||Claimed exile||Exile proclamation||Government presently controlling claimed territory||Notes||References|
|25px Government in Exile of the Free City of Danzig||1939||1947||23x15px Republic of Poland||Based in Australia|||
|23px Republic of South Maluku||1950||1950||Template:Country data Indonesia||Exiled in the Netherlands|
|23x15px West Papuan Government in Exile||1963||1969||Template:Country data Indonesia||Campaigns for an independent West Papua; based in the Netherlands|||
|23x15px Biafran Government in Exile||1970||2007||23x15px Federal Republic of Nigeria||An arm of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra; based in Washington, DC|||
|23px Republic of Cabinda||1975||1975||23x15px Republic of Angola||Based in Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo|
|23x15px Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||2000||2000||23x15px Russian Federation|| Some members are fighting as rebels against the Russian Armed Forces; based in Western Europe and the United States, with its leaders in London.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.
|23x15px Republic of Serbian Krajina||1996||2005||23x15px Republic of Croatia||Reconstituted in 2005 in Belgrade, by the remains of the government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence|||
|23x15px Koma Civakên Kurdistan||—||1998||23x15px Republic of Turkey||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Turkey; successor organization of Kurdish parliament in exile|||
|23x15px Republic of Ambazonia||—||1999||23x15px Republic of Cameroon||Former British territory of Southern Cameroons; declared independence on December 31, 1999|||
|23x15px Western Kurdistan Government in Exile||—||2004||23x15px Syrian Arab Republic||Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London|||
|23x15px Coptic Government In Exile||—||1992||23x15px Arab Republic of Egypt||Aims to establish an independent state for the Coptic ethnic group|||
|23px Interim Government of Federated Shan States||—||2005||23x15px Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Aims to establish an independent state for the Shan ethnic group|||
|23px Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam||2009||2010||23x15px Sri Lanka||Aims to establish an independent state of Tamil Eelam|||
Exiled Governments with ambiguous status
These governments have ties to the area(s) they represent, but their claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into other categories.
|Name||Exile||Current control of claimed territory||Notes||References|
|23x15px Central Tibetan Administration||1959||23x15px People's Republic of China||Founded by the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India with cooperation of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru; see also Tibetan sovereignty debate and Tibetan independence movement||Tibet.net,|
|23x15px East Turkistan Government in Exile||1949||23x15px People's Republic of China||Seeking independence for Xinjiang as "East Turkestan"; based in Washington, DC|||
|23x15px Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan||2001||23x15px Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||The Taliban gained control over most of Afghanistan in the Afghan civil war, but were removed from power in the current Afghan war.||,|
Past governments in exile
|Name||Exiled or created(*) since||Defunct, reestablished,(*) or integrated(°) since||State that controlled its claimed territory||Notes||References|
|23x15px Privy Council of England||1649||1660°|| 23x15px Commonwealth of England (1649—1653)
23x15px Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653—1659)
23x15px Commonwealth of England (1659—1660)
|Based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II; actively supported Charles' claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland|
|23x15px Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh||1971*||1972°||23x15px Pakistan||Based in Calcutta; led by Tajuddin Ahmad, the first Prime Minister of Bangladesh, during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.|
|23x15px Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea||1919*||1948°||23x15px Empire of Japan||Based in Shanghai, and later in Chongqing; after Japan’s defeat in World War II, President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea|
|23x15px Czechoslovak government-in-exile||1939||1945°||23x15px Czechoslovakia||Based in Paris and later in London, during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. After the defeat of Germany, it took control of Czechoslovakia.|
|23x15px Azad Hind||1943||1945*||23x15px British Raj||Based in Rangoon and later in Port Blair. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was the leader of the government and the Head of State of this Provisional Indian Government in Exile. This government was disestablished in 1945 following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II|
|23x15px All-Palestine Government||1948||1959||23x15px Egypt||The All-Palestine government was proclaimed in Gaza in September 1948, but was shortly relocated to Cairo in fear of Israeli offensive. Despite Egyptian ability to keep control of the Gaza Strip, the All-Palestine Government was forced to remain in exile in Cairo, gradually stripping it of its authority, until in 1959 it was dissolved by President Nasser's decree.|
|23x15px Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic||1958*||1962*||23x15px French Algeria (France)||Established during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence; after the war, a compromise agreement with the Armée de Libération Nationale dissolved it but allowed most of its members to enter the post-independence government|
|23px Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile||1962*||1992°||23x15px Republic of Angola||Based in Kinshasa; its military branch, the National Liberation Front of Angola, was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament|
|23x15px Namibian Government in Exile||1966*||1989°||23x15px South Africa||Formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations; in 1990, Namibia achieved independence.|||
|23x15px Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea||1982*||1993°||23px People's Republic of Kampuchea||Established with UN recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.|
|23x15px Polish government-in-exile||1939*||1990°|| 23x15px23x15px Occupied Poland
23x15px People's Republic of Poland
|Based in Paris, Angers, and London, it opposed German occupied Poland and the Soviet satellite state, the People's Republic of Poland; disbanded following the fall of communism in Poland|
|23x15px Estonian government-in-exile||1953*||1992||23x15px Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic|| Established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government; did not achieve any international recognizion. In fact, it was not recognized even by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state.
A rival government was created by another group of Estonian exiles in the same year in Munich but it was short lived.
|23x15px Spanish Republican government in exile||1939||1977||23x15px Spanish State||Created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état; first based in Paris, France from 1939 until 1940 when France fell to the Nazis. The exiled government was then moved to Mexico City and stayed there from 1940 to 1946, when it was moved back to Paris, where it lasted until Franco's death and Democracy in Spain was restored.|
|23x15px Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile||1921||1954||23x15px Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic||Formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921; based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France|
|23x15px Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991||1992||23x15px Republic of Croatia||Formed in Cavtat with the help of the Yugoslav People's Army after Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia. Claimed to be the historic successor of the Republic of Ragusa (1358-1808).|||
|23x15px Ukrainian People's Republic||1920||1992|| 23x15px Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
23x15px Second Polish Republic
23x15px Czechoslovak Republic
23x15px Kingdom of Romania
|Organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine|
|23x15px Free Aceh Movement||1976*||2005||Template:Country data Indonesia Republic of Indonesia||Headquartered in Sweden; surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian government|
|23x15px Bongo Doit Partir||1998||2009||23x15px Gabon||Founded by Daniel Mengara in opposition to president Omar Bongo; after Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections|||
|23x15px Confederate government of Missouri||1861||1865||23x15px United States of America (Union)||Missouri had both Union and Confederate governments, but the Confederate government was exiled, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas.|||
|23x15px Confederate government of Kentucky||1861||1865||23x15px United States of America (Union)||Kentucky had both Union and Confederate governments. The Confederate government was soon forced out of the state, and was an exiled government traveling with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, except for during a short return when the Confederate army briefly occupied Frankfort.|
|23x15px Kingdom of Hawaii||1893||1895||23x15px Republic of Hawaii||Formed by members of the deposed government of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii; a failed insurgency in 1895 forced the queen to formally disband the kingdom|
|23x15px De Broqueville government in exile||1914||1918||23x15px German Empire||Formed in 1915 by the Government of Belgium following the German invasion during World War I. It was disbanded following the restoration of Belgian sovereignty with the Armistice with Germany.|
|23x15px National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma||1990||2012||23x15px Republic of the Union of Myanmar||Led by Sein Win and composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office; based in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland, U.S.|||
|23x15px Commonwealth of the Philippines in exile||1942||1944°|| 23x15px Empire of Japan(1943)
23x15px Second Philippine Republic(1943—1945)
|After Japanese forces took control over the Philippine islands, the Philippine commonwealth government in exile led by Manuel Quezon in Melbourne, Australia and was administered from Washington D.C., United States from May 1942 to October 1944.|
|Template:Country data Indonesia Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia||1948*||1949°||23x15px Dutch East Indies||Based in Bukittinggi; led by Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, founded after Operatie Kraai in December 1948.|
|23x15px Vichy France||1944*||1945°||23x15px Provisional Government of the French Republic||Based in Sigmaringen, it was lead by Philippe Petain following the Liberation of France by Allied forces.|
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government in exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the independent Republic of Malta.
World War II
Governments in London
A large number of European governments-in-exile were set up in London. Template:Governments in exile
The Danish exception
The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently until August 1943 when it was dissolved, placing Denmark under full German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II.)
Governments-in-exile in Asia
The Philippine Commonwealth (invaded 9 December 1941) established a government in exile in Australia and the United States.
While formed long before World War II, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea continued in exile in China until the end of the war.
Under the auspices of the Axis powers, Axis-aligned groups from some countries set up "governments-in-exile" in Axis territory, even though internationally recognized governments remained in place in their home countries.
A Bulgarian government in exile was based in Austria and allied with the Axis.
The Provisional Government of Free India (1943–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war under Japanese auspices. It was affiliated to the Axis and claimed power over an Allied (specifically, British) territory.
Persian Gulf War
Following the Ba'athist Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait, during the Persian Gulf War, on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile in Dhahran. The Kuwaiti government in exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks—of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Ba'athist Iraqi occupation and mobilizing public opinion in the western hemisphere in favor of war with Ba'athist Iraq. In March 1991, following the defeat of Ba'athist Iraq at the hands of coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.
Municipal Councils in Exile
Following the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the displacement of many Greek Cypriotes from North Cyprus, displaced inhabitants of several towns set up what are in effect Municipal Councils in Exile, headed by Mayors in Exile. The idea is the same as with a national Government in Exile - to assert a continuation of legitimate rule, even though having no control of the ground, and working towards restoration of such control. Meetings of the exiled Municipal Council of Lapithos took place in the homes of its members until the Exile Municipality was offered temporary offices at 37 Ammochostou Street, Nicosia. The current Exile Mayor of the town is Athos Eleftheriou. The same premises are shared with the Exile Municipal Council of Kythrea.
- Exclusive mandate
- Provisional government
- Shadow government (disambiguation)
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of historical unrecognized countries
- List of territorial disputes
- List of unrecognized countries
- United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
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