Grand Duke of Luxembourg
|Grand Duke of Luxembourg|
|Style||Royal Highness Majesty|
|Heir apparent||Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg|
William I of the Netherlands (1815) (personal union began)|
Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, (after 1890) (As a Sovereign Grand Duke)
|Formation||March 15, 1815|
|Residence||Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg|
|Website||www.monarchie.lu (french only)|
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the monarchial head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been a grand duchy since 15 March 1815, when it was elevated from a duchy, and was in personal union with the Netherlands until 1890. Since 1815, there have been 9 monarchs of Luxembourg, including the incumbent, Henri. Since 1890, all grand dukes/duchesses of Luxembourg have ruled as sovereign monarchs.
|“||The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the Constitution and the laws of the country.||”|
After a constitutional change (to article 34) in December 2008 resulting from Henri's refusal to sign a law legalizing euthanasia, laws now take effect without the grand duke's assent. As a result, the grand duke no longer has any formal role in the legislative process, but his task to promulgate the law as chief executive remains.
Succession to the throne was governed by Salic law, as dictated by the Nassau Family Pact, first adopted on 30 June 1783. The right to reign over Luxembourg was until June 2011 passed by agnatic-cognatic primogeniture within the House of Nassau, as stipulated under the 1815 Final Act of the Congress of Vienna and as confirmed by the 1867 Treaty of London. The Nassau Family Pact itself can be amended by the usual legislative process, having been so on 10 July 1907 to exclude the Count of Merenberg branch of the House, which was descended from a morganatic marriage.
An heir apparent may be granted the style 'Hereditary Grand Duke'. The current heir apparent is Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume. In June 2011, agnatic primogeniture was dropped in favor of absolute primogeniture, allowing any legitimate female descendants within the House of Nassau to be included in the line of succession.