Open Access Articles- Top Results for Grapefruit


This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Grapefruit (disambiguation).
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Scientific classification
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The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados.[1] When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit";[2] and it has also been misidentified with the pomelo or shaddock (C. maxima), one of the parents of this hybrid, the other being sweet orange (C. × sinensis).[3]


Grapefruit growing in the grape-like clusters from which their name derives.

The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around Script error: No such module "convert". tall, although they can reach Script error: No such module "convert".. The leaves are glossy dark green, long (up to Script error: No such module "convert".) and thin. It produces Script error: No such module "convert". white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and generally an oblate spheroid in shape; it ranges in diameter from Script error: No such module "convert".. The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness (generally, the redder varieties are sweeter). The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.[4]


One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin; the other was the Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima). One story of the fruit's origins is that a certain "Captain Shaddock"[5] brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the first fruit.[6] However, it probably originated as a naturally occurring hybrid.[1]

The Trunk, Leaves, and Flowers of this Tree, very much resemble
those of the Orange-tree.
The Fruit, when ripe, is something longer and larger than the largest
Orange; and exceeds, in the Delicacy of its Taste, the Fruit of every
Tree in this or any of our neighbouring Islands.
It hath somewhat of the Taste of a Shaddock; but far exceeds that, as
well as the best Orange, in its delicious Taste and Flavour.

—Description from Hughes' 1750 Natural History of Barbados.

The hybrid fruit, then called "the forbidden fruit", was first documented in 1750 by a Welshman, Rev. Griffith Hughes, who described specimens from Barbados in The Natural History of Barbados.[7][8] Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the "Seven Wonders of Barbados."[9]

The grapefruit was brought to Florida by Count Odet Philippe in 1823 in what is now known as Safety Harbor. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the Minneola tangelo (1931), and the oroblanco (1984).

The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the 19th century. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to grapes.[10] Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi, the "×" identifying its hybrid origin.[11][12]

File:KC Atwood.jpg
Kimball Chase Atwood

An early pioneer in the American citrus industry was Kimball Chase Atwood, a wealthy entrepreneur who founded the Atwood Grapefruit Co. in the late 19th century. The Atwood Grove became the largest grapefruit grove in the world, with a yearly output of 80,000 boxes of fruit.[13] It was there that pink grapefruit was first discovered in 1906.[14]

Ruby Red

The 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. The Red grapefruit, starting with the Ruby Red, has even become a symbolic fruit of Texas, where white "inferior" grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for decades.[citation needed] Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink.[15] The Rio Red variety is the current (2007) Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as "Reddest" and "Texas Choice". The Rio Red is a mutation bred variety which was developed by treatment of bud sticks with thermal neutrons. Its improved attributes of mutant variety are fruit and juice color, deeper red, and wide adaptation.[16]

Star Ruby

The Star Ruby is the darkest of the red varieties. Developed from an irradiated Hudson grapefruit, it has found limited commercial success because it is more difficult to grow than other varieties.[17][18]


The varieties of Texas and Florida grapefruit include: Oro Blanco, Ruby Red, Pink, Thompson, White Marsh, Flame, Star Ruby, Duncan, and Pummelo HB.[19]


File:2005grapefruit and pomelo.PNG
Grapefruit and pomelo output in 2005

China is the top producer of grapefruit and pomelo followed by The United States and Mexico.

Top ten grapefruit (inc. pomelos) producers — 2012
Country Production (metric tons) Footnote
23x15px People's Republic of China 3,800,000 F
23x15px United States 1,046,890
23x15px Mexico 415,471
23x15px Thailand 328,000 F
23x15px South Africa 304,559
Template:Country data Israel 246,618
23x15px Turkey 243,267
23x15px Argentina 200,000 F
Template:Country data India 200,000 F
23x15px Sudan 196,000
 World 8,040,038 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

Colors and flavors

Grapefruit comes in many varieties, determinable by color, which is caused by the pigmentation of the fruit with respect to its state of ripeness.[20] The most popular varieties cultivated today are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour to sweet and tart.[20] Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.[21]

Drug interactions

Grapefruit can have a number of interactions with drugs,[22] often increasing the effective potency of compounds. Researchers have identified 85 drugs with which grapefruit is known to have an adverse reaction.[23] Grapefruit contains a number of polyphenolic compounds, including the flavanone naringin, alongside the two furanocoumarins, bergamottin and dihydroxybergamottin. These inhibit the drug-metabolizing enzyme isoform CYP3A4 predominantly in the small intestine, but at higher doses also inhibit hepatic CYP3A4.[24] It is via inhibition of this enzyme that grapefruit increases the effects of a variety of drugs by increasing their bioavailability.[25][26][27][28][29][30] In particular grapefruit and bitter oranges are known to interact with statins.

When drugs are taken orally, they enter the gut lumen to be absorbed in the small intestine and sometimes, in the stomach. In order for drugs to be absorbed, they must pass through the epithelial cells that line the lumen wall before they can enter the hepatic portal circulation to be distributed systemically in blood circulation. Drugs are metabolized by drug-specific metabolizing enzymes in the epithelial cells. Metabolizing enzymes transform these drugs into metabolites. The primary purpose for drug metabolism is to detoxify, inactivate, solubilize and eliminate these drugs.[31] As a result, the amount of the drug in its original form that reaches systemic circulation is reduced due to this first-pass metabolism.

Mechanism of grapefruit–drug interaction

Grapefruit juice contains furanocoumarins. Furanocoumarins irreversibly inhibit a cytochrome P450 metabolizing enzyme called CYP3A4, as stated above. CYP3A4 is a metabolizing enzyme for almost 50% of drugs, and is found in the liver and small intestinal epithelial cells.[32] As a result, many drugs are impacted by consumption of grapefruit juice. When the metabolizing enzyme is inhibited, less of the drug will be metabolized by it in the epithelial cells. A decrease in drug metabolism means more of the original form of the drug could pass unchanged to systemic blood circulation.[31] An unexpected high dose of the drug in the blood could lead to fatal drug toxicity.[32]

The furanocoumarins found in grapefruit juice are natural chemicals. Thus, they are present in all forms of the fruit, including freshly squeezed juice, frozen concentrate, and whole fruit. All these forms of the grapefruit juice have the potential to limit the metabolizing activity of CYP3A4. One whole grapefruit, or a glass of Script error: No such module "convert". of grapefruit juice can cause drug overdose toxicity.[2][33]

According to a review done by the Canadian Medical Association, there is an increase in the number of potential drugs that can interact with grapefruit juice. From 2008 to 2012, the percentage of drugs that interact with grapefruit juice and cause serious harmful effects (gastrointestinal bleeding, nephrotoxicity) has increased from 17 to 43 percent.[2][33]

The interaction between grapefruit juice and other medication depends on the drug, and not the class of the drug. Drugs that interact with grapefruit juice share 3 common features: they are taken orally, normally only a small amount enters systemic blood circulation, and they are metabolized by CYP3A4.[2]

Inhibition of the CYP3A4 enzyme is irreversible and lasts a significant period of time. It takes around 24 hours to regain 50% of the enzyme activity and it can take 72 hours for the enzyme to completely return to activity. For this reason, simply separating grapefruit consumption and medication taken daily does not avoid the interaction.[34][35][36][37] For medications that interact due to inhibition of OATP (organic anion-transporting polypeptides), a relative short period of time is needed to avoid this interaction. A 4-hour interval between grapefruit consumption and the medication should suffice.[34] For drugs recently sold on the market, drugs have information pages (monographs) that provide information on any potential interaction between a medication and grapefruit juice.[32] Because there is a growing number of medications that are known to interact with grapefruit juice,[2] patients should consult a pharmacist or physician before planning to take grapefruit juice with their medications.

Grapefruit juice may be the first drug-interacting fruit juice documented, but apple and orange juices have been also implicated in interfering with etoposide, a chemotherapy drug, some beta blocker drugs used to treat high blood pressure, and cyclosporine, taken by transplant patients to prevent rejection of their new organs.[38] Unlike other fruits, grapefruit contains a large amount of naringin, and it can take up to 72 hours before the effects of the naringin on the CYP3A4 enzyme are seen. This is problematic as a 4 oz portion of grapefruit contains enough naringin to inhibit the metabolism of substrates of CYP3A4.

Nutritional properties

Grapefruit, raw, white, all areas
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
8.41 g
Sugars 7.31 g
Dietary fiber 1.1 g
0.10 g
0.69 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.037 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.020 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.269 mg
0.283 mg
Vitamin B6
0.043 mg
Folate (B9)
10 μg
7.7 mg
Vitamin C
33.3 mg
Vitamin E
0.13 mg
Trace metals
12 mg
0.06 mg
9 mg
0.013 mg
8 mg
148 mg
0.07 mg
Other constituents
Water 90.48 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

A 100 gram serving of grapefruit is a rich source (>20% of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C,[20][39] contains the fiber pectin,[40] and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene.[20][41] Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol,[20][42] and there is evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties.[43] Grapefruit forms a core part of the "grapefruit diet", the theory being that the fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn fat.[44]

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties against fungi.[45] It is also believed to have antimicrobial properties for bacteria; however, there are no known studies that demonstrate its efficacy. Additionally, although GSE is promoted as a highly effective plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives.[46][47][48][49][50]

There is a popular myth that grapefruits contain high amounts of spermidine, a simple polyamine that may be related to aging. The myth probably relies on the confusion between spermidine and putrescine. While citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very little spermidine.[51]

Grapefruit sweets

In Costa Rica, especially in Atenas, grapefruit are often cooked to remove their sourness, rendering them as sweets; they are also stuffed with dulce de leche, resulting in a dessert called toronja rellena (stuffed grapefruit). In Haiti, grapefruit is used primarily for its juice (jus de Chadèque), but is also used to make jam (confiture de Chadèque).[citation needed]

Other uses

Grapefruit has also been investigated in cancer medicine pharmacodynamics. Its inhibiting effect on the metabolism of some drugs may allow smaller doses to be used, which can help to reduce costs.[52]

See also


  1. ^ a b Carrington, Sean; Fraser, HenryC (2003). "Grapefruit". A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-333-92068-6. One of many citrus species grown in Barbados. This fruit is believed to have originated in Barbados as a natural cross between sweet orange (C. sinesis) and Shaddock (C. grandis), both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century. The grapefruit first appeared as an illustration entitled 'The Forbidden Fruit Tree' in the Rev. Griffith Hughes' The Natural History of Barbados (1750). This accords with the scientific name which literally is 'citrus of paradise'. The fruit was obviously fairly common around that time since George Washington in his Barbados Journal (1750-1751) mentions 'the Forbidden Fruit' as one of the local fruit available at a dinner party he attended. The plant was later described in the 1837 Flora of Jamaica as the Barbados Grapefruit. The historical arguments and experimental work on leaf enzymes and oils from possible parents all support a Barbadian origin for the fruit. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL: J. F. Morton. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. OCLC 16947184. 
  3. ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie R.; Lu Z.; Zhou Z. (July 2010). "The Origin of Cultivated Citrus as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 135 (4): 341. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Texas grapefruit history, TexaSweet. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  5. ^ A possible identification with an actual Captain Chaddock who traded in the West Indies in the 17th century, was suggested by J. Kumamoto, R. W. Scora, H. W. Lawton and W. A. Clerx, "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae)", Economic Botany, 41.1 (January, 1987:97-107).
  6. ^ Grapefruit: a fruit with a bit of a complex in Art Culinaire (Winter, 2007)
  7. ^ World Wide Words: Questions & Answers; Grapefruit. Abstract
  8. ^ Admin. (2010). "Welchman Hall Gully, Barbados". Barbados National Trust. Retrieved 11 July 2010. The Development of the Gully - The Gully was once part of a plantation owned by a Welshman called General William Asygell Williams over 200 years ago. Hence the name "Welchman Hall" gully. It was this man who first developed the gully with exotic trees and an orchard. Interestingly, the grapefruit is originally from Barbados and is rumoured to have started in Welchman Hall Gully. 
  9. ^ Barbados Seven Wonders: The Grapefruit Tree. Abstract
  10. ^ "How did the grapefruit get its name?" Library of Congress. Science Reference Service, Everyday Mysteries. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
  11. ^ Texas Citrus: Puzzling Beginnings. Article
  12. ^ University of Florida: IFAS Extension; The Grapefruit. Fact Sheet PDF
  13. ^ "Manatee County a big part of citrus history". 2004-08-16. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  14. ^ "Article". Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  15. ^ William J Broad (28 August 2007). "Useful Mutants, Bred With Radiation". New York Times. 
  16. ^ "Mutation Enhanced Technology". IAEA. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  17. ^ Sauls, Julian W. (1998). "Home fruit Production-Grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  18. ^ Citrus Variety Collection. "Star Ruby grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  19. ^ "Go Florida Grapefruit". Go Florida Grapefruit. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  20. ^ a b c d e The World's Healthiest Foods; Grapefruit. The George Mateljan Foundation. Article
  21. ^ A. Buettner, P. Schieberle (1999). "Characterization of the Most Odor-Active Volatiles in Fresh, Hand-Squeezed Juice of Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (12): 5189–5193. PMID 10606593. doi:10.1021/jf990071l. 
  22. ^ Seden K. Dickinson L. Khoo S. Back D.. Grapefruit-drug interactions. [Review]. Drugs. 2010;70(18):2373-407. doi:10.2165/11585250-000000000-00000. PMID 21142260.
  23. ^ Rabin, Roni Caryn (December 17, 2012). "Grapefruit Is a Culprit in More Drug Reactions". New York Times. 
  24. ^ Veronese ML, Gillen LP, Burke JP, Dorval EP, Hauck WW, Pequignot E, Waldman SA, Greenberg HE. Exposure-dependent inhibition of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4 in vivo by grapefruit juice. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2003;43(8):831–9. doi:10.1177/0091270003256059. PMID 12953340.
  25. ^ He K, Iyer KR, Hayes RN, Sinz MW, Woolf TF, Hollenberg PF (1998). "Inactivation of cytochrome P450 3A4 by bergamottin, a component of grapefruit juice". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11 (4): 252–9. PMID 9548795. doi:10.1021/tx970192k. 
  26. ^ Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD (1998). "Grapefruit juice–drug interactions". Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (2): 101–10. PMC 1873672. PMID 9723817. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1998.00764.x. 
  27. ^ Garg SK, Kumar N, Bhargava VK, Prabhakar SK (1998). "Effect of grapefruit juice on carbamazepine bioavailability in patients with epilepsy". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 64 (3): 286–8. PMID 9757152. doi:10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90177-1. 
  28. ^ Bailey DG, Dresser GK (2004). "Interactions between grapefruit juice and cardiovascular drugs". Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 4 (5): 281–97. PMID 15449971. doi:10.2165/00129784-200404050-00002. 
  29. ^ Bressler R (2006). "Grapefruit juice and drug interactions. Exploring mechanisms of this interaction and potential toxicity for certain drugs". Geriatrics 61 (11): 12–8. PMID 17112309. 
  30. ^ Bakalar, Nicholas (21 March 2006). "Experts Reveal the Secret Powers of Grapefruit Juice". New York Times. 
  31. ^ a b Pandit Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences
  32. ^ a b c Pirmohamed Drug-grapefruit juice interactions BMJ 2013;346:f1
  33. ^ a b Bailey, David G.; Dresser, George; Arnold, J. Malcolm O. (2012). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". Canadian Medical Association Journal (Canadian Medical Association). doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951
  34. ^ a b BMJ 2013;346:f1
  35. ^ "Grapefruit Juice Drug Interactions". PharmacistAnswers. 
  36. ^ Greenblatt, DJ; Patki, KC; von Moltke, LL; Shader, RI (2001). "Drug interactions with grapefruit juice: an update". J Clin Psychopharmacol 21: 357–9. doi:10.1097/00004714-200108000-00001. 
  37. ^ Greenblatt, DJ; von Moltke, LL; Harmatz, JS et al. (2003). "Time course of recovery of cytochrome P450 3A function after single doses of grapefruit juice". Clin Pharmacol Ther 75: 121–9. 
  38. ^ "Fruit juice 'could affect drugs'". BBC News. 20 August 2008. 
  39. ^ Fellers PJ, Nikdel S, Lee HS (August 1990). "Nutrient content and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice products". J Am Diet Assoc 90 (8): 1079–84. PMID 2380455. 
  40. ^ Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, Baumgartner TG, Rice RW (September 1988). "The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle". Clin Cardiol 11 (9): 589–94. PMID 3229016. doi:10.1002/clc.4960110902. 
  41. ^ Lee HS (May 2000). "Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (5): 1507–11. PMID 10820051. doi:10.1021/jf9907236. 
  42. ^ Platt R (2000). "Current concepts in optimum nutrition for cardiovascular disease". Prev Cardiol 3 (2): 83–7. PMID 11834923. doi:10.1111/j.1520-037X.2000.80364.x. 
  43. ^ Armando C, Maythe S, Beatriz NP (1997). "Antioxidant activity of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils". J Sci Food Agric. 77 (4): 463–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:4<463::AID-JSFA62>3.0.CO;2-1. 
  44. ^ WMUR Ch. 9: New Hampshire news, weather, sports and entertainment. Researchers Put Grapefruit Diet To Test: Grapefruit Compound Lowers Cholesterol, Helps Regulate Insulin. June 11, 2003. Article
  45. ^ Ignacio, C. and Thai, D. (2005). "Comparative Analysis of Antifungal Activity of Natural Remedies Versus Miconazole Nitrate Salt Against Candida Albicans"
  46. ^ Sakamoto S, Sato K, Maitani T, Yamada T (1996). "[Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS]". Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku (in Japanese) (114): 38–42. PMID 9037863. 
  47. ^ von Woedtke T, Schlüter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Jülich WD (June 1999). "Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained". Pharmazie 54 (6): 452–6. PMID 10399191. 
  48. ^ Takeoka G, Dao L, Wong RY, Lundin R, Mahoney N (July 2001). "Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (7): 3316–20. PMID 11453769. doi:10.1021/jf010222w. 
  49. ^ Takeoka GR, Dao LT, Wong RY, Harden LA (September 2005). "Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (19): 7630–6. PMID 16159196. doi:10.1021/jf0514064. 
  50. ^ Ganzera M, Aberham A, Stuppner H (May 2006). "Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3768–72. PMID 16719494. doi:10.1021/jf060543d. 
  51. ^ Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta (2011). "Polyamines in foods: development of a food database". Food Nutr Res. 55: 5572. PMID 21249159. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5572. 
  52. ^ Gandey A (18 July 2007). "Cut Cancer Drug Costs By Exploring Food Interactions". Medscape Medical News. 

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