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Graphics processing unit

Not to be confused with Graphics card.
"GPU" redirects here. For other uses, see GPU (disambiguation).

A graphics processor unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processor unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display. GPUs are used in embedded systems, mobile phones, personal computers, workstations, and game consoles. Modern GPUs are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics and image processing, and their highly parallel structure makes them more effective than general-purpose CPUs for algorithms where processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be embedded on the motherboard or—in certain CPUs—on the CPU die.[1]

The term GPU was popularized by Nvidia in 1999, who marketed the GeForce 256 as "the world's first 'GPU', or Graphics Processing Unit, a single-chip processor with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping, and rendering engines that are capable of processing a minimum of 10 million polygons per second". Rival ATI Technologies coined the term visual processing unit or VPU with the release of the Radeon 9700 in 2002.


Arcade system boards have been using specialized graphics chips since the 1970s. Fujitsu's MB14241 video shifter was used to accelerate the drawing of sprite graphics for various 1970s arcade games from Taito and Midway, such as Gun Fight (1975), Sea Wolf (1976) and Space Invaders (1978).[2][3][4] The Namco Galaxian arcade system in 1979 used specialized graphics hardware supporting RGB color, multi-colored sprites and tilemap backgrounds.[5] The Galaxian hardware was widely used during the golden age of arcade video games, by game companies such as Namco, Centuri, Gremlin, Irem, Konami, Midway, Nichibutsu, Sega and Taito.[6][7] In the home video game console market, the Atari 2600 in 1977 used a video shifter called the Television Interface Adaptor.


In 1985, the Commodore Amiga featured a GPU advanced for a personal computer at the time. It supported line draw, area fill, and included a type of stream processor called a blitter which accelerated the movement, manipulation and combination of multiple arbitrary bitmaps. Also included was a coprocessor with its own (primitive) instruction set capable of directly invoking a sequence of graphics operations without CPU intervention. Prior to this and for quite some time after, many other personal computer systems instead used their main, general-purpose CPU to handle almost every aspect of drawing the display, short of generating the final video signal.

In 1986, Texas Instruments released the TMS34010, the first microprocessor with on-chip graphics capabilities. It could run general-purpose code, but it had a very graphics-oriented instruction set. In 1990-1991, this chip would become the basis of the Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture ("TIGA") Windows accelerator cards.

In 1987, the IBM 8514 graphics system was released as one of the first video cards for IBM PC compatibles to implement fixed-function 2D primitives in electronic hardware. The same year, Sharp released the X68000, which used a custom graphics chipset[8] that was powerful for a home computer at the time, with a 65,536 color palette and hardware support for sprites, scrolling and multiple playfields,[9] eventually serving as a development machine for Capcom's CP System arcade board. Fujitsu later competed with the FM Towns computer, released in 1989 with support for a full 16,777,216 color palette.[10]

In 1988, the first dedicated polygonal 3D graphics boards were introduced in arcades with the Namco System 21[11] and Taito Air System.[12]


In 1991, S3 Graphics introduced the S3 86C911, which its designers named after the Porsche 911 as an implication of the performance increase it promised. The 86C911 spawned a host of imitators: by 1995, all major PC graphics chip makers had added 2D acceleration support to their chips. By this time, fixed-function Windows accelerators had surpassed expensive general-purpose graphics coprocessors in Windows performance, and these coprocessors faded away from the PC market.

Throughout the 1990s, 2D GUI acceleration continued to evolve. As manufacturing capabilities improved, so did the level of integration of graphics chips. Additional application programming interfaces (APIs) arrived for a variety of tasks, such as Microsoft's WinG graphics library for Windows 3.x, and their later DirectDraw interface for hardware acceleration of 2D games within Windows 95 and later.

In the early- and mid-1990s, CPU-assisted real-time 3D graphics were becoming increasingly common in arcade, computer and console games, which led to an increasing public demand for hardware-accelerated 3D graphics. Early examples of mass-marketed 3D graphics hardware can be found in arcade system boards such as the Sega Model 1, Namco System 22, and Sega Model 2, and the fifth-generation video game consoles such as the Saturn, PlayStation and Nintendo 64. Arcade systems such as the Sega Model 2 and Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator were capable of hardware T&L (transform, clipping, and lighting) years before appearing in consumer graphics cards.[13][14] Fujitsu, which worked on the Sega Model 2 arcade system,[15] began working on integrating T&L into a single LSI solution for use in home computers in 1995.[16][17][18]

In the PC world, notable failed first tries for low-cost 3D graphics chips were the S3 ViRGE, ATI Rage, and Matrox Mystique. These chips were essentially previous-generation 2D accelerators with 3D features bolted on. Many were even pin-compatible with the earlier-generation chips for ease of implementation and minimal cost. Initially, performance 3D graphics were possible only with discrete boards dedicated to accelerating 3D functions (and lacking 2D GUI acceleration entirely) such as the PowerVR and the 3dfx Voodoo. However, as manufacturing technology continued to progress, video, 2D GUI acceleration and 3D functionality were all integrated into one chip. Rendition's Verite chipsets were among the first to do this well enough to be worthy of note. In 1997, Rendition went a step further by collaborating with Hercules and Fujitsu on a "Thriller Conspiracy" project which combined a Fujitsu FXG-1 Pinolite geometry processor with a Vérité V2200 core to create a graphics card with a full T&L engine years before Nvidia's GeForce 256. This card, designed to reduce the load placed upon the system's CPU, never made it to market.

OpenGL appeared in the early '90s as a professional graphics API, but originally suffered from performance issues which allowed the Glide API to step in and become a dominant force on the PC in the late '90s.[19] However, these issues were quickly overcome and the Glide API fell by the wayside. Software implementations of OpenGL were common during this time, although the influence of OpenGL eventually led to widespread hardware support. Over time, a parity emerged between features offered in hardware and those offered in OpenGL. DirectX became popular among Windows game developers during the late 90s. Unlike OpenGL, Microsoft insisted on providing strict one-to-one support of hardware. The approach made DirectX less popular as a standalone graphics API initially, since many GPUs provided their own specific features, which existing OpenGL applications were already able to benefit from, leaving DirectX often one generation behind. (See: Comparison of OpenGL and Direct3D.)

Over time, Microsoft began to work more closely with hardware developers, and started to target the releases of DirectX to coincide with those of the supporting graphics hardware. Direct3D 5.0 was the first version of the burgeoning API to gain widespread adoption in the gaming market, and it competed directly with many more-hardware-specific, often proprietary graphics libraries, while OpenGL maintained a strong following. Direct3D 7.0 introduced support for hardware-accelerated transform and lighting (T&L) for Direct3D, while OpenGL had this capability already exposed from its inception. 3D accelerator cards moved beyond being just simple rasterizers to add another significant hardware stage to the 3D rendering pipeline. The Nvidia GeForce 256 (also known as NV10) was the first consumer-level card released on the market with hardware-accelerated T&L, while professional 3D cards already had this capability. Hardware transform and lighting, both already existing features of OpenGL, came to consumer-level hardware in the '90s and set the precedent for later pixel shader and vertex shader units which were far more flexible and programmable.

2000 to 2006

With the advent of the OpenGL API and similar functionality in DirectX, GPUs added shading to their capabilities. Each pixel could now be processed by a short program that could include additional image textures as inputs, and each geometric vertex could likewise be processed by a short program before it was projected onto the screen. Nvidia was first to produce a chip capable of programmable shading, the GeForce 3 (code named NV20). By October 2002, with the introduction of the ATI Radeon 9700 (also known as R300), the world's first Direct3D 9.0 accelerator, pixel and vertex shaders could implement looping and lengthy floating point math, and in general were quickly becoming as flexible as CPUs, and orders of magnitude faster for image-array operations. Pixel shading is often used for things like bump mapping, which adds texture, to make an object look shiny, dull, rough, or even round or extruded.[20]

2006 to present

With the introduction of the GeForce 8 series, which was produced by Nvidia, and then new generic stream processing unit GPUs became a more generalized computing device. Today, parallel GPUs have begun making computational inroads against the CPU, and a subfield of research, dubbed GPU Computing or GPGPU for General Purpose Computing on GPU, has found its way into fields as diverse as machine learning,[21] oil exploration, scientific image processing, linear algebra,[22] statistics,[23] 3D reconstruction and even stock options pricing determination. Over the years, the energy consumption of GPUs has increased and to manage it, several techniques have been proposed.[24]

Nvidia's CUDA platform was the earliest widely adopted programming model for GPU computing. More recently OpenCL has become broadly supported. OpenCL is an open standard defined by the Khronos Group which allows for the development of code for both GPUs and CPUs with an emphasis on portability.[25] OpenCL solutions are supported by Intel, AMD, Nvidia, and ARM, and according to a recent report by Evan's Data, OpenCL is the GPGPU development platform most widely used by developers in both the US and Asia Pacific.

GPU companies

File:Marktanteil GPU-Hersteller.png
GPU manufacturers market share

Many companies have produced GPUs under a number of brand names. In 2009, Intel, Nvidia and AMD/ATI were the market share leaders, with 49.4%, 27.8% and 20.6% market share respectively. However, those numbers include Intel's integrated graphics solutions as GPUs. Not counting those numbers, Nvidia and ATI control nearly 100% of the market as of 2008.[26] In addition, S3 Graphics[27] (owned by VIA Technologies) and Matrox[28] produce GPUs.

Computational functions

Modern GPUs use most of their transistors to do calculations related to 3D computer graphics. They were initially used to accelerate the memory-intensive work of texture mapping and rendering polygons, later adding units to accelerate geometric calculations such as the rotation and translation of vertices into different coordinate systems. Recent developments in GPUs include support for programmable shaders which can manipulate vertices and textures with many of the same operations supported by CPUs, oversampling and interpolation techniques to reduce aliasing, and very high-precision color spaces. Because most of these computations involve matrix and vector operations, engineers and scientists have increasingly studied the use of GPUs for non-graphical calculations.

In addition to the 3D hardware, today's GPUs include basic 2D acceleration and framebuffer capabilities (usually with a VGA compatibility mode). Newer cards like AMD/ATI HD5000-HD7000 even lack 2D acceleration; it has to be emulated by 3D hardware.

GPU accelerated video decoding

The ATI HD5470 GPU (above) features UVD 2.1 which enables it to decode AVC and VC-1 video formats

Most GPUs made since 1995 support the YUV color space and hardware overlays, important for digital video playback, and many GPUs made since 2000 also support MPEG primitives such as motion compensation and iDCT. This process of hardware accelerated video decoding, where portions of the video decoding process and video post-processing are offloaded to the GPU hardware, is commonly referred to as "GPU accelerated video decoding", "GPU assisted video decoding", "GPU hardware accelerated video decoding" or "GPU hardware assisted video decoding".

More recent graphics cards even decode high-definition video on the card, offloading the central processing unit. The most common APIs for GPU accelerated video decoding are DxVA for Microsoft Windows operating system and VDPAU, VAAPI, XvMC, and XvBA for Linux-based and UNIX-like operating systems. All except XvMC are capable of decoding videos encoded with MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 ASP (MPEG-4 Part 2), MPEG-4 AVC (H.264 / DivX 6), VC-1, WMV3/WMV9, Xvid / OpenDivX (DivX 4), and DivX 5 codecs, while XvMC is only capable of decoding MPEG-1 and MPEG-2.

Video decoding processes that can be accelerated

The video decoding processes that can be accelerated by today's modern GPU hardware are:

GPU forms

Dedicated graphics cards

Main article: Video card

The GPUs of the most powerful class typically interface with the motherboard by means of an expansion slot such as PCI Express (PCIe) or Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and can usually be replaced or upgraded with relative ease, assuming the motherboard is capable of supporting the upgrade. A few graphics cards still use Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots, but their bandwidth is so limited that they are generally used only when a PCIe or AGP slot is not available.

A dedicated GPU is not necessarily removable, nor does it necessarily interface with the motherboard in a standard fashion. The term "dedicated" refers to the fact that dedicated graphics cards have RAM that is dedicated to the card's use, not to the fact that most dedicated GPUs are removable. Dedicated GPUs for portable computers are most commonly interfaced through a non-standard and often proprietary slot due to size and weight constraints. Such ports may still be considered PCIe or AGP in terms of their logical host interface, even if they are not physically interchangeable with their counterparts.

Technologies such as SLI by Nvidia and CrossFire by AMD allow multiple GPUs to draw images simultaneously for a single screen, increasing the processing power available for graphics.

Integrated graphics solutions

A motherboard with integrated graphics, which has HDMI, VGA and DVI outs.

Integrated graphics solutions, shared graphics solutions, or integrated graphics processors (IGP) utilize a portion of a computer's system RAM rather than dedicated graphics memory. IGPs can be integrated onto the motherboard as part of the chipset, or within the same die as CPU (like AMD APU or Intel HD Graphics). On certain motherboards [29] AMD's IGPs can use dedicated sideport memory. This is a separate fixed block of high performance memory that is dedicated for use by the GPU. Computers with integrated graphics account for 90% of all PC shipments.[30][needs update] These solutions are less costly to implement than dedicated graphics solutions, but tend to be less capable. Historically, integrated solutions were often considered unfit to play 3D games or run graphically intensive programs but could run less intensive programs such as Adobe Flash. Examples of such IGPs would be offerings from SiS and VIA circa 2004.[31] However, modern integrated graphics processors such as AMD Accelerated Processing Unit and Intel HD Graphics are more than capable of handling 2D graphics or low stress 3D graphics.

As a GPU is extremely memory intensive, an integrated solution may find itself competing for the already relatively slow system RAM with the CPU, as it has minimal or no dedicated video memory. IGPs can have up to 29.856 GB/s of memory bandwidth from system RAM, however graphics cards can enjoy up to 264 GB/s of bandwidth between its RAM and GPU core. This bandwidth is what is referred to as the memory bus and can be performance limiting.[citation needed] Older integrated graphics chipsets lacked hardware transform and lighting, but newer ones include it.[32][33] [clarification needed]

Hybrid solutions

This newer class of GPUs competes with integrated graphics in the low-end desktop and notebook markets. The most common implementations of this are ATI's HyperMemory and Nvidia's TurboCache.

Hybrid graphics cards are somewhat more expensive than integrated graphics, but much less expensive than dedicated graphics cards. These share memory with the system and have a small dedicated memory cache, to make up for the high latency of the system RAM. Technologies within PCI Express can make this possible. While these solutions are sometimes advertised as having as much as 768MB of RAM, this refers to how much can be shared with the system memory.

Stream Processing and General Purpose GPUs (GPGPU)

Main articles: GPGPU and Stream processing

It is becoming increasingly common to use a general purpose graphics processing unit as a modified form of stream processor. This concept turns the massive computational power of a modern graphics accelerator's shader pipeline into general-purpose computing power, as opposed to being hard wired solely to do graphical operations. In certain applications requiring massive vector operations, this can yield several orders of magnitude higher performance than a conventional CPU. The two largest discrete (see "Dedicated graphics cards" above) GPU designers, ATI and Nvidia, are beginning to pursue this approach with an array of applications. Both Nvidia and ATI have teamed with Stanford University to create a GPU-based client for the Folding@home distributed computing project, for protein folding calculations. In certain circumstances the GPU calculates forty times faster than the conventional CPUs traditionally used by such applications.[34][35]

GPGPU can be used for many types of embarrassingly parallel tasks including ray tracing. They are generally suited to high-throughput type computations that exhibit data-parallelism to exploit the wide vector width SIMD architecture of the GPU.

Furthermore, GPU-based high performance computers are starting to play a significant role in large-scale modelling. Three of the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world take advantage of GPU acceleration.[36]

NVIDIA cards support API extensions to the C programming language such as CUDA and OpenCL. CUDA is specifically for NVIDIA GPUs whilst OpenCL is designed to work across a multitude of architectures including GPU, CPU and DSP (using vendor specific SDKs). These technologies allow specified functions (kernels) from a normal C program to run on the GPU's stream processors. This makes C programs capable of taking advantage of a GPU's ability to operate on large matrices in parallel, while still making use of the CPU when appropriate. CUDA is also the first API to allow CPU-based applications to directly access the resources of a GPU for more general purpose computing without the limitations of using a graphics API.

Since 2005 there has been interest in using the performance offered by GPUs for evolutionary computation in general, and for accelerating the fitness evaluation in genetic programming in particular. Most approaches compile linear or tree programs on the host PC and transfer the executable to the GPU to be run. Typically the performance advantage is only obtained by running the single active program simultaneously on many example problems in parallel, using the GPU's SIMD architecture.[37][38] However, substantial acceleration can also be obtained by not compiling the programs, and instead transferring them to the GPU, to be interpreted there.[39][40] Acceleration can then be obtained by either interpreting multiple programs simultaneously, simultaneously running multiple example problems, or combinations of both. A modern GPU (e.g. 8800 GTX or later) can readily simultaneously interpret hundreds of thousands of very small programs.

External GPU (eGPU)

An external GPU is a graphics processor located outside of the housing of the computer. External Graphics Processors are often used with laptop computers. Laptops might have a substantial amount of RAM and a sufficiently powerful Central Processing Unit(CPU), but often lack a powerful graphics processor (and instead have a less powerful, but energy efficient on-board graphics chip). On-board graphics chips are often not powerful enough for playing the latest games, or for other tasks (video editing, ...).

Therefore it is desirable to be able to attach to some external PCIe bus of a notebook. That may be an x1 2.0 5Gbit/s expresscard or mPCIe (wifi) port or a 10Gbit/s/16Gbit/s Thunderbolt1/Thunderbolt2 port. Those ports being only available on certain candidate notebook systems.[41][42]

External GPU's have had little official vendor support. Promising solutions such as Silverstone T004 (aka ASUS XG2)[43] and MSI GUS-II[44] were never released to the general public. MSI's Gamedock [45] promising to deliver a full x16 external PCIe bus to a purpose built compact 13" MSI GS30 notebook. Lenovo and Magma partnering in Sep-2014 to deliver official Thunderbolt eGPU support.[46]

This has not stopped enthusiasts from creating their own DIY eGPU solutions.[47][48] expresscard/mPCIe eGPU adapters/enclosures are usually acquired from BPlus (PE4C, PE4L, PE4C),[49] or EXP GDC.[50] native Thunderbolt eGPU adaptere/enclosures acquired from One Stop Systems,[51] AKiTiO,[52] Sonnet (often rebadge as Other World Computing — OWC) and FirmTek.


In 2013, 438.3 million GPUs were shipped globally and the forecast for 2014 was 414.2 million.[53]

See also





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  4. ^ "Arcade/SpaceInvaders – Computer Archeology". 
  5. ^ "mame/galaxian.c at master 路 mamedev/mame 路 GitHub". GitHub. 
  6. ^ "mame/galaxian.c at master 路 mamedev/mame 路 GitHub". GitHub. 
  7. ^ "MAME - src/mame/drivers/galdrvr.c". Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. 
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  9. ^ "musem ~ Sharp X68000". Retrieved 2015-01-28. 
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  12. ^ "System 16 - Taito Air System Hardware (Taito)". 
  13. ^ "System 16 - Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator Hardware (Namco)". 
  14. ^ "MAME - src/mame/video/model2.c". Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. 
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  16. ^
  17. ^
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  19. ^ 3dfx Glide API
  20. ^ Søren Dreijer. "Bump Mapping Using CG (3rd Edition)". Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  21. ^ "Large-scale deep unsupervised learning using graphics processors". 2009-06-14. doi:10.1145/1553374.1553486. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  22. ^ "Linear algebra operators for GPU implementation of numerical algorithms", Kruger and Westermann, International Conf. on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, 2005
  23. ^ "ABC-SysBio—approximate Bayesian computation in Python with GPU support", Liepe et al., Bioinformatics, (2010), 26:1797-1799 [1]
  24. ^ "A Survey of Methods for Analyzing and Improving GPU Energy Efficiency", Mittal et al., ACM Computing Surveys, 2014.
  25. ^ "OpenCL - The open standard for parallel programming of heterogeneous systems". 
  26. ^ "GPU sales strong as AMD gains market share". 
  27. ^ "Products". S3 Graphics. Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  28. ^ "Matrox Graphics - Products - Graphics Cards". Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  29. ^ "GA-890GPA-UD3H overview". 
  30. ^ Gary Key. "AnandTech - µATX Part 2: Intel G33 Performance Review". 
  31. ^ Tim Tscheblockov. "Xbit Labs: Roundup of 7 Contemporary Integrated Graphics Chipsets for Socket 478 and Socket A Platforms". Retrieved 2007-06-03. 
  32. ^ Bradley Sanford. "Integrated Graphics Solutions for Graphics-Intensive Applications" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  33. ^ Bradley Sanford. "Integrated Graphics Solutions for Graphics-Intensive Applications". Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  34. ^ Darren Murph. "Stanford University tailors Folding@home to GPUs". Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  35. ^ Mike Houston. "Folding@Home - GPGPU". Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  36. ^ "Top500 List - June 2012 | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". Retrieved 2014-01-21. 
  37. ^ John Nickolls. "Stanford Lecture: Scalable Parallel Programming with CUDA on Manycore GPUs". 
  38. ^ S Harding and W Banzhaf. "Fast genetic programming on GPUs". Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  39. ^ W Langdon and W Banzhaf. "A SIMD interpreter for Genetic Programming on GPU Graphics Cards". Retrieved 2008-05-01. 
  40. ^ V. Garcia and E. Debreuve and M. Barlaud. Fast k nearest neighbor search using GPU. In Proceedings of the CVPR Workshop on Computer Vision on GPU, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, June 2008.
  41. ^ "eGPU candidate system list". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  42. ^ Neil Mohr. "How to make an external laptop graphics adaptor". TechRadar. 
  43. ^ "[THUNDERBOLT NEWS] Silverstone T004... Now the ASUS XG2". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  44. ^ "MSI's GUS II: External Thunderbolt GPU". 
  45. ^ "MSI eGPU dock in the works for GS30?". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  46. ^ "Lenovo + Magma partnership delivers official Thunderbolt eGPU support". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  47. ^ "DIY eGPU on Tablet PC's: experiences, benchmarks, setup, ect...". 
  48. ^ "Implementations Hub: TB, EC, mPCIe". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  49. ^ BPlus eGPU adapters
  50. ^ "首页-数码工场-淘宝网". 
  51. ^ Jim Galbraith (28 March 2014). "Expo Notes: Thunderbolt takes over". Macworld. 
  52. ^ "US$200 AKiTiO Thunder2 PCIe Box (16Gbps-TB2)". Tech-Inferno Forums. 
  53. ^ "Graphics chips market is showing some life". TG Daily. August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014. 
  54. ^ "MATLAB Adds GPGPU Support". 2010-09-20. 

External links

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