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Gulf Arabic

Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission deniedLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Gulf Arabic (خليجيLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Khalījī local pronunciation: [χɐˈliːdʒi] or اللهجة الخليجيةLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied el-lahja el-Khalijiyya local pronunciation: [elˈlɑhdʒɐ lχɐˈliːdʒɪj.jɐ]) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia[1] around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Iraq,[2] Bahrain, eastern Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran[3] and northern Oman. These dialects are mutually intelligible.[4]

Gulf dialects differ in vocabulary, grammar and accent.[5] There are many differences between Kuwaiti Arabic and the dialects of Qatar and UAE—especially in accent.[5] Most Saudis do not speak Gulf Arabic because most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia.[5] There are only 200,000 Gulf Arabic speakers in Saudi Arabia, mostly in the coastal eastern province.[6][7] Gulf Arabic is distinct from Saudi Arabic.[6][7] Most Saudis speak Hejazi Arabic, Najdi Arabic and Bareqi Arabic dialects.[6][7]

Name

The dialect's full name el-lahja el-Khalijiyya (اللهجة الخليجيةLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied local pronunciation: [elˈlɑhdʒɐ lχɐˈliːdʒɪj.jɐ]) can be translated as 'the dialect of the gulf'. However, it is most commonly referred to as Khaliji (خليجيLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Khalījī local pronunciation: [χɐˈliːdʒi]), in which the noun خليجLua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied (Arabic pronunciation: [χɐˈliːdʒ]; Khalīj) has been suffixed with the Nisba, literally meaning 'of the bay' or 'of the gulf'.[8]

Phonology

Consonants

Gulf Arabic consonants[9]
  Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain pharyngealised plain pharyngealised plain pharyngealised
Stops voiced Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied ()       Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied       g      
voiceless (Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied)1         Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
Fricatives voiced       Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied2       Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied  
voiceless     Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied     Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
Affricates voiced                 Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied        
voiceless                 Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied        
Nasals voiced Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied (Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied)         Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied            
Laterals voiced           Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied3   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied3          
Flaps voiced             Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied          
Approximants voiced                 Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied      
  • ^1 The non-native Arabic letter Pāʼ (پ), or its native counterpart Bāʼ (ب), is used to denote that sound which occurs only in loanwords, e.g.: piyāḷah (پيالة or بيالة [pijɑːɫɑh], 'small glass'), from Hindi
  • ^2 Ḍad (ض) has merged to Ẓāʼ (ظ). For further information, see below.
  • ^3 The difference is not orthographically shown.
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The differences in the phonology of the Arabic dialect group of the Persian Gulf, compared to Modern Standard Arabic, are following:

Letter MSA pronunciation Khaliji varieties Examples Notes
ج /[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|d͡ʒ]]/ [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|j]]] or [d͡ʒ~ʒ] mōy or mōj (موج [moːj] or [moːd͡ʒ], 'wave');
masīd, masyid or masjid (مسجد [mɐˈsiːd], [ˈmɑsjɪd] or [ˈmɐsd͡ʒɪd], "mosque")
Changes are optional, although jim (ج) never changes to [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|j]]] in loanwords.[10]
ق /[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|q]]/ [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ɡ]]], optionally [d͡ʒ~ʒ] when followed by front vowels ([[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ɐ]]], [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|e]]], [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ɪ]]] or [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|i]]]) or following a consonant preceded by a front vowel jiddām or geddām (قدام [d͡ʒɪdˈdɑːm] or [ɡedˈdɑːm], "in front of");
sharji or shargi (شرقي [ˈʃɑɾd͡ʒi] or [ˈʃɑɾɡi], "eastern")
Some classicisms preserve the [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|q]]] sound. By Persian influence, sometimes the qaf (ق) changes to ghayn (غ) [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ʁ]]].[11]
غ /[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ʁ]]/ [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|q]]] qannā (غنى [ˈqɑnnɑ], "to sing") This change is extremely rare.[12]
ك /[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|k]]/ [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|t͡ʃ]]] if preceded or followed by a front vowel or if 2nd person feminine singular suffixed/object pronoun ubūch (أبوك [ʔʊˈbuːt͡ʃ]; 'your (f.sg.) father') This change is optional, but encountered with more often when the kaf (ك) is used to denote the 2nd person feminine singular suffixed/object pronoun.[13]
ض /[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|dˤ]]/ [[[Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied|ðˤ]]] ẓāʼ (ضاع [ðˤɑːʕ], 'to lose') Ẓāʼ (ظ) and Ḍad (ض) cannot be distinguished by pronunciation as the Gulf dialects lack the pharyngealised [d].[9]

Vowels

Following vowel chart applies to the Gulf Arabic dialect continuum:[14]

  Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied     Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
Close-mid   Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied     Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
Open-mid            
Near-open Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied        
Open     Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
Qafisheh stipulates at least two qualities of /a/:
a has a low back quality in the environment of pharyngealized consonants and frequently before or after /q/. This sound is similar to the a sound in father but shorter and farther back. (...) Before or after the pharyngeals 9 [= ʿAyin] and H [= ḥ], or any other plain consonant, a is farther front than the a in father; its quality ranges between the e in pen and the a in pan.
—Hamdi A. Qafisheh, A Short Reference Grammar of Gulf Arabic, p. 16
He further explains that these qualities also apply to /aː/, so that [ɑ(ː)]~[ä(ː)]~[æ(ː)] can therefore be assumed.

Morphology

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Gulf Arabic has 10 personal pronouns.[15] The conservative dialect has preserved the gender differentiation of the 2nd and 3rd person in the plural forms, whereas dual forms have not survived. The following table bears the generally most common pronouns:

Person Singular Plural
1st ānā (آنَا) niḥin (نِحِنْ)
2nd masculine inta (إِنْتَ) intum (إِنْتُمْ)
feminine inti (إِنْتِ) intin1 (إِنْتِنْ)
3rd masculine huwa (هُوَ) hum (هُمْ)
feminine hiya (هِيَ) hin2 (هِنْ)
  • ^1 Many speakers do not distinguish between masculine and feminine forms in the second person plural, replacing intum and intin with intu (إنْتُ).
  • ^2 Speakers that do not distinguish between masculine and feminine forms in the third person plural will also use hum (هُمْ) for both genders in the third person plural, respectively.
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Some pronouns, however, have other (less frequent, resp. local) forms:

  • ānā (آنَا):
    anā (أَنَا)
    āni (آنِي) (especially Baḥrānī)
  • inta (إِنْتَ):
    init (إِنِتْ)
  • huwa (هُوَ):
    (هُوْ)
    huwwa (هُوَّ) (especially Qaṭarī)
    uhu (أُهُو)
  • hiya (هِيَ):
    (هِيْ)
    hiyya (هِيَّ) (especially Qaṭarī)
    ihi (إِهِي)
  • niḥin (نِحِنْ):
    niḥna (نِحْنَ)
    iḥna (إِحْنَا) (especially Baḥrānī and Qatarī)
  • intum (إِنْتُمْ):
    intu (إنْتُ)[Note 1]
  • hum (هُمْ):
    humma (هُمَّ) (especially Qatarī)
    uhum (أُهُمْ)
  1. ^ For a more detailed info, look at the table above.

References

  1. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  2. ^ Arabic, Gulf Spoken - A Language of Iraq Ethnologue
  3. ^ Languages of Iran Ethnologue
  4. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  5. ^ a b c Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  6. ^ a b c Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  7. ^ a b c Languages of Saudi Arabia Ethnologue
  8. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  9. ^ a b Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  10. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  11. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  12. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  13. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  14. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied
  15. ^ Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied

See also

Lua error: Cannot create process: proc_open(/home/file.log): failed to open stream: Permission denied