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|File:Dilating vaginal speculum inflating vagina and light illuminating.jpg|
|System||Female reproductive system|
|Subdivisions||Oncology, Maternal medicine, Maternal-foetal medicine|
|Significant diseases||Gynaecological cancers, Menstrual bleeding, Infertility|
|Specialist</th>||Gynaecologist</tr></table> Gynaecology or gynecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus and ovaries) and the breasts. Literally, outside medicine, it means "the science of women". Its counterpart is andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the male reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians (see obstetrics and gynaecology). In many areas, the specialties of gynaecology and obstetrics overlap.|
|Names||Doctor, Medical Specialist|
In the UK the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, based in London, encourages the study and advancement of both the science and practice of obstetrics and gynaecology. This is done through postgraduate medical education and training development, and the publication of clinical guidelines and reports on aspects of the specialty and service provision. The RCOG International Office works with other international organisations to help lower maternal morbidity and mortality in under-resourced countries.
Gender of physicians
Despite the patients being exclusively female, like all specialist areas of health, historically gynaecology has been dominated by male doctors. However, in recent times as many of the barriers to access the education and training required to successfully practice gynaecology were removed, women have started to outnumber the number of men in the field. There are a number of reasons for this, ranging from women being motivated to become gynaecologist after having bad experiences with male doctors to men choosing to specialize in different fields.
Possible reasons reported for the decrease in male gynaecologists range from there being a perception of a lack of respect from other doctors towards them, distrust about their motivations for wanting to work exclusively with female sexual organs and questions about their overall character, as well as a concern about being associated with other male gynaecologists who have been arrested for sex offences and limited future employment opportunities.
Surveys have also shown a large and consistent majority of women are uncomfortable being forced to have intimate exams done by a male doctor. They are also less likely to be embarrassed, so as a result talk more openly and in greater details, when discussing their sexual history with another woman rather than a man, leading to questions about the ability of male gynaecologists to offer quality care to patients. This, when coupled with more women choosing female physicians has decreased the employment opportunities for men choosing to become gynaecologists.
As women are becoming presented with a choice of their doctor's gender, their preferences are starting to being questioned too. Almost 70% of respondents to an online poll agreed it is normal for a husband to 'hate' that his wife saw a male gynecologist. While there have also been reports of relationships having ended due to selection of a male gynecologist  with some men feeling their partner's desire to have another man touching and penetrating their sexual organs for a routine checkup when there were capable and qualified women available an act of infidelity. Interviews with male gynecologists where the doctors openly admitted they liked being 'hit on' by some patients while performing intimate exams further underlined many of the suspicion towards men choosing to become gynecologists.
In the United States, it has been reported that 4 in 5 students choosing a residency in gynaecology are now female. In Sweden, to counter the lack of demand for male gynecologists, women have had the right to choose their doctor removed from them. In Turkey, due to patient preference to be seen by another female, there are now few male gynaecologists working in the field.
There have been a number of legal challenges in the US against healthcare providers who have started hiring based on gender of physicians. Dr Mircea Veleanu argued, in part, that his former employers discriminated against him by accommodating the wishes of female patients who had requested female doctors for intimate exams. A male nurse complained about an advert for an all female obstetrics and gynecology practice in Columbia, claiming this was a form of sexual discrimination. Dr. David Garfinkel, a New Jersey based ob-gyn sued his former employer after being fired due to, as he claimed, "because I was male, I wasn't drawing as many patients as they'd expected".
So far, all legal challenges by male gynecologists to remove patient choice have failed due to there being protection in law for 'bona fide occupational qualification' which in previous cases involving wash-room attendants and male nurses have recognized a justification for gender-based requirements for certain jobs.
It has been suggested that some medical establishments have started recruiting male gynecologists primarily due to their physical appearance to try to attract female patients in other ways.
- Childbirth and obstetrics in antiquity
- Genital schistosomiasis
- Hydatidiform mole
- List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota
- See American and British English spelling differences. Gynecology is the American spelling, but it is also common in international contexts, e.g. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
- Laurinda S. Dixon. Perilous Chastity: Women and Illness in Pre-Enlightenment Art and Medicine, Cornell University Press 1995, pp.15f.
- Semple, Henry Churchill (1923). J. Marion Sims, the Father of Modern Gynecology. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Daly, Mary (1990). Gyn/ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon Press. pp. 225–. ISBN 9780807014134. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- Adekunle, Julius O.; Williams, Hettie V. (2010-02-24). Color Struck: Essays on Race and Ethnicity in Global Perspective. University Press of America. pp. 397–. ISBN 9780761850922. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
- "From Past to Present: The Changing Demographics of Women in Medicine". 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Why Are Men Gynaecologists?". 2013-12-04. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Are Male Gynaecologists Creepy?". 2013-12-09. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Do patients talk differently to male and female physicians?: A meta-analytic review". 2002-12-02. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Patient choice: comparing criteria for selecting an obstetrician-gynaecologist based on image, gender, and professional attributes". 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Career Trends for OB/GYN Physician Jobs". Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Is it normal that I hate when my wife has to see a male gynecologist?". Retrieved 2014-07-23.
- "How Husbands Feel About Male Gynecologists". Retrieved 2014-07-23.
- "10 Men Explain Why They Became Gynecologists". Retrieved 2014-09-26.
- "Enhancing the Representation of Women as Senior Leaders in Obstetrics and Gynaecology" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Discrimination against male gynaecologists? Swedish clinics ban women from choosing female doctors.". 2007-01-29. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Male Gynaecologist in Turkey: Dying profession?". 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- "Women's Health Is No Longer a Man's World". 2001-02-07. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Nurse questions all female OB-GYN practice". 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
- "Women are queuing up to meet Dr Rico, the hottest gynaecologist ever". 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gynaecology.|
- Ingenious: archive of historical images related to obstetrics, gynaecology, and contraception.
- U.S. Federal Government Website for Women's Health Information.
- World Congress on Controversies in Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility (COGI).
- Gynecologists.com Expert Gynecological Information & Professionals
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