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The Hawker 400 is a small twin-engine jet corporate aircraft. Initially designed and built by Mitsubishi, it has been further developed and updated by the Beech Aircraft Company, now part of Hawker Beechcraft.
Design and development
The aircraft was originally designed as the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond, an all-new, all-jet development to complement and slot above the Mitsubishi MU-2 and provide Mitsubishi Heavy Industries with their top-of-the-line corporate aircraft model (hence the name "Diamond"). The aircraft first flew on 29 August 1978. It is a small, low-winged twin-turbofan aircraft of all metal construction, flown by a crew of two pilots and accommodating eight passengers in a pressurised cabin. Its wings use a computer designed, supercritical airfoil in order to minimise drag. Its two Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans are mounted on the rear fuselage.
Beechcraft bought the production rights and began manufacturing it as their own model, initially re-designated as the Beechjet 400. The Beechjet 400 was certificated by the Federal Aviation Administration in May 1986.
Raytheon/Beechcraft steadily developed their own improvements to the model, leading to the 400A in 1990. Improvements in the 400A include longer range, higher take-off weights and improved luxury appointments. An all-glass flight deck was also offered. Beechcraft also developed a version for the United States Air Force known as the T-1A Jayhawk, used as a trainer for large aircraft crews (such as tankers and strategic transports). A total of 180 T-1A trainers were delivered between 1992 and 1997. Another military variant is the Japan Air Self-Defense Force 400T trainer which shares the same Type Certificate as the T-1A.
In 1993 Raytheon purchased the Hawker business jet product line from British Aerospace. The Beechjet 400 was eventually renamed the Hawker 400 to map it into the Hawker product line. The Hawker 400XP incorporates further aerodynamic, mechanical and interior improvements gleaned from the Hawker 800XP.
In October 2008, Hawker Beechcraft announced upgrades to the design, resulting in the new model designation Hawker 450XP. Upgrades were to include new, more fuel efficient engines (Pratt & Whitney PW535Ds with 2,965 pounds of thrust each). The Hawker 450XP was canceled in June 2009 due to poor economic conditions.
Nextant Aerospace developed a program to remanufacture the Beechjet 400A, replacing the Pratt & Whitney engines with Williams FJ44s, plus a new avionics suite and interior, among other improvements. The remanufactured aircraft, called the Nextant 400XT, received FAA certification in October 2011.
- Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond I
- Initial model. Two prototypes and 89 production aircraft built, 56 in active use as of 2014.
- Mitsubishi MU-300-10 Diamond II
- Improved version of Diamond I; 11 built, all subsequently redesignated as Beechjet 400s.
- Beechcraft Model 400 Beechjet
- Version of Diamond II built after Beechcraft bought the production rights to the MU-300 from Mitsubishi, 54 built in addition to 11 Diamond IIs.
- Model 400A
- Upgraded model, initially produced as the Beechcraft Beechjet 400A, then Raytheon Beechjet 400A, then Raytheon Hawker 400XP, then Hawker Beechcraft Hawker 400XP. One prototype converted from Model 400 and 593 built as of the end of 2009.
- Model 400T
- Military version of the Model 400A, 180 built for the United States Air Force as the T-1 Jayhawk and 13 built for the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
- Hawker 400XPR
- A factory engineered and supported upgrade first flown May 2012. The conversion features new avionics, interior, winglets, and Williams FJ-44-4A-32 engines.
Specifications (Beechjet 400A)
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000General characteristics
- Crew: 2 pilots
- Capacity: 7—9 passengers
- Length: 48 ft 5 in (14.76 m)
- Wingspan: 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m)
- Height: 13 ft 11 in (4.24 m)
- Wing area: 241.4 sq ft (22.43 m²)
- Empty weight: 10,050 lb (4,558 kg)
- Useful load: 5,850 lb (2,653 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 16,100 lb (7,303 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-5 turbofan, 2,900 lbf (12.9 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 468 knots (866 km/h, 539 mph) (Mach 0.78 MMO)
- Cruise speed: 443 knots (820 km/h, 510 mph) at 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
- Stall speed: 92 knots (171 km/h, 106 mph) (full flaps)
- Range: 1,693 nmi (3,135 km, 1,949 mi) at 45,000 ft (13,700 m)
- Service ceiling: 45,000 ft (13,700 m)
- Rate of climb: 3,770 ft/min (19.2 m/s)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- NetJets Europe Fleet list retrieved 2010-03-19
- LAASdata list of Mitsubishi Diamond aircraft retrieved 2010-03-19
- LAASdata list of Beechjet 400/Hawker 400/T-1/400T aircraft retrieved 2010-03-19. The list includes US and Japanese military variants but these have not been included in the total.
- 2009 Business Aircraft Comparison Charts, Business and Commercial Aviation magazine (online version) retrieved 2010-03-19
- Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond, airliners.net
- Field and Hurst Flight International 30 September 1978, p.1264.
- Taylor 1988, pp. 339–340.
- Whitaker Flight International 18 July 1981, pp. 163–167.
- FAA Type Certificate Number A16SW (Hawker Beechcraft Model 400 series), Revision 25 retrieved 2010-03-19
- Hawker Beechcraft cancels 450XP jet
- FAA Type Certificate Number A14SW (Mitsubishi MU-300), Revision 9 retrieved 2010-03-19
- Hoyle, Craig (24 October 2014), "Big in Japan: Tokyo’s Top 10 aircraft projects", Flightglobal (Reed Business Information)
- Hawker Beechcraft aircraft Serial Number Lists 1945 to present retrieved 2010-03-19.
- Aviation Week & Space Technology: 68. 14 October 2013. Missing or empty
- Taylor 1999, pp. 521—522.
- Field, Hugh and Hurst, Mike. "The Great St Louis Meeting". Flight International, 30 September 1978, pp. 1261–1266.
- Taylor, John W.R. (editor). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. (editor). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London:Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
- Whitaker, Richard. "Diamond 1:Mitsubishi's first business jet". Flight International, 18 July 1981. pp. 163–170.
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