Heinkel He 114
|Role||National origin|| Manufacturer
||First flight||Introduction||Retired|| Primary users
The Heinkel He 114 was a sesquiwing reconnaissance seaplane produced for the Kriegsmarine in the 1930s for use from warships. It replaced the company's He 60, but did not remain in service long before being replaced in turn by the Arado Ar 196 as Germany's standard spotter aircraft.
Design and development
While the fuselage and flotation gear of the He 114 were completely conventional, its wing arrangement was highly unusual. The upper set of wings was attached to the fuselage with a set of cabane struts, as in a parasol wing monoplane, whereas the lower set was of much lesser span while having approximately the same chord. (Note that this general layout isn't especially unusual, and is known as a "Sesquiplane", or a biplane which has a smaller lower wing. Typically, the lower wing is about 3/4 of the span of the upper wing, and has a smaller chord as well. The He 114 has a much shorter lower wing than usual, but has the same chord as the upper wing, which keeps the wing area ratio similar.)
The He 114 was never a great success, was not built in large numbers, and served with the Luftwaffe for only a short time. While the He 60 had handled very well on the water but been sluggish in the air, the He 114's handling while afloat was poor and its performance in the air scarcely better than the aircraft it replaced.
On 27 June 2012, two divers Pascale Roibu and Iulian Rusu found a wrecked Heinkel 114 underwater in Lake Siutghiol near Mamaia, Constanta, Romania. Near the Heinkel 114, the two divers have also found pieces of two other seaplanes; a Savoia-Marchetti S.55 and a Junkers W 34.
- He 114A-0
- 10 pre-production aircraft, powered by a 656 kW (880 hp) BMW 132Dc engine.
- He 114A-1
- Training version, powered by a 656 kW (880 hp) BMW 132Dc engine. 33 built.
- He 114A-2
- Main production shipborne version.
- He 114B-1
- Export version of the He 114A-2 for Sweden. 12 built.
- He 114B-2
- Export version of the He 114A-2 for Romania. Six built.
- He 114B-3
- Export version for Romania. 12 built.
- He 114C-1
- Reconnaissance biplane for the Luftwaffe. 14 built.
- He 114C-2
- Unarmed shipborne (Kriegsmarine commerce raider) version. Four built.
Specifications (He 114A-2)
Data from Warplanes of the Luftwaffe. General characteristics
- Crew: two, pilot and observer
- Length: 38 ft 2½ in (11.65 m)
- Wingspan: 44 ft 7½ in (13.60 m)
- Height: 17 ft 2 in (5.23 m)
- Wing area: 455 ft² (42.3 m²)
- Empty weight: 5,070 lb (2,300 kg)
- Loaded weight: 8,091 lb (3,670 kg)
- Powerplant: 1× BMW 132K 9-cylinder radial engine, 960 hp (716 kW)
- Maximum speed: 181 kn, 208 mph (335 km/h)
- Range: 497 nmi, 571 mi (920 km)
- Service ceiling: 16,075 ft (4,900 m)
- Rate of climb: 1082 ft/min (5.5 m/s )
- Wing loading: 17.8 lb/ft² (86.8 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0.12 lb/hp (0.20 kW/kg)
- Climb to 1,000 m (3,280 ft): 4.5 min</ul></ul>Armament
- 1 × 7.92x57mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine gun in flexible mount for observer
- 2 × 50 kg (110 lb) bombs
- Related lists
- List of aircraft of World War II
- List of military aircraft of Germany
- List of seaplanes and flying boats
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heinkel He 114.|
- BOZÎNTAN - DUMITROV, Florentina. "Hidroavion din Al Doilea Război Mondial, descoperit în lacul Taşaul". Cuget Liber. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- Donald 1994, p.107.
- Smith and Kay 1972, p.268.