Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Help:IPA for Dutch

Help:IPA for Dutch

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Dutch pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Dutch phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Dutch, as well as dialectal variations that are not represented here.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.b]]
beet beet
[[voiceless palatal stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.c]]
tientje1 Somewhat like cheer
[[voiced alveolar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.d]]
dak den
[[voiceless labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.f]]
fiets fast
[[voiced labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.v]]
ver2 oven
[[voiceless velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.x]]
acht,2 weg3 loch (Scottish English)
[[voiced velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɣ]]
gaan2 roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
[[voiced glottal fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɦ]]
had2 behind
[[palatal approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.j]]
jas yard
[[voiceless velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.k]]
kat skin
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
land land
[[bilabial nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.m]]
mens man
[[alveolar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.n]]
nek4 neck
[[palatal nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɲ]]
oranje1 Somewhat like canyon
[[velar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ŋ]]
eng long
[[voiceless bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.p]]
pen, rib3 sport
[[alveolar trill#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.r]]
ras5 rolled r; similar to water (American English)
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
sok sock
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
zeep2 jazz
[[voiceless alveolar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.t]]
tak, had3 stop
[[labiodental approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʋ]]
wang6 between wine and vine
Marginal consonants
[[glottal stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʔ]]
beëindig7
[bəˈʔɛindəx]
the catch in uh-oh!
[[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
goal8 goal
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
sjabloon, chef9 shall
[[voiced palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʒ]]
jury2 9 vision
[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
check, Tsjechië chat
Stress
[[stress (linguistics)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˈ]]
vóórkomen
voorkómen10
as in battleship
/ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
[[secondary stress#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˌ]]
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Checked vowels11
[[open back unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɑ]]
bad father (shorter)
[[open-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛ]]
bed bed
[[near-close near-front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɪ]]
vis sit
[[open-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔ]]
bot soft
[[near-close near-front rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʏ]]
hut roughly like cute
Free vowels11
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.aː]]
aap car (Australian English)
[[close-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.eː]]
beet, ezel12 mate
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
diep deep
[[close-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.oː]]
boot12 roughly like goat or British English law
[[close front rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.y]]
fuut roughly like cute
[[close-mid front rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.øː]]
neus12 roughly like nurse
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
hoed boot
ɛi bijt, ei13 may
œy buit13 house (Scottish English)
ʌu jou, dauw13 out
ɑi ai price
ɔi hoi choice
iu nieuw
yu duw
ui groei to eternity
aːi draai prize
eːu sneeuw say oo
oːi nooit boys
[[mid central vowel#Mid-central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ə]]
hemel again
Marginal vowels
[[open-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔː]]
roze14 15 law
[[open-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛː]]
scène14 square (British English)
[[open-mid front rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.œː]]
freule14 roughly like sir
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.iː]]
analyse14 beat
[[close front rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.yː]]
centrifuge14 roughly like use
ɑ̃ː genre14 roughly like croissant
ɛ̃ː hautain14 uh-huh
ɔ̃ː chanson14 roughly like own
[[near-open front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.æ]]
slash14 16 slash

Notes

^1 The alveolo-palatal stop c and nasal ɲ are allophones of the sequences /tj/ and /nj/. Some speakers pronounce [c] the same as [tʃ].
^2 Generally, the southern varieties preserve the /f//v/, /x//ɣ/ and /s//z/ contrasts.[1][2] Southern /x/, /ɣ/ may be also somewhat more front, i.e. post-palatal.[2] In the north, these are far less stable: most speakers merge /x/ and /ɣ/ into a post-velar [x̠] or uvular [χ];[1][2] most Netherlandic Standard Dutch speakers lack a consistent /f//v/ contrast.[2] In some accents, e.g. Amsterdam, /s/ and /z/ are also not distinguished.[2] /ʒ/ often joins this neutralization by merging with /ʃ/. In some accents, /ɦ/ is also devoiced to [h]. See also Hard and soft G in Dutch.
^3 Dutch devoices all obstruents at the ends of words (e.g. a final /d/ becomes [t]). This is partly reflected in the spelling: the voiced ‹z› in plural huizen ('houses') becomes huis ('house') in singular, and duiven ('doves') becomes duif ('dove'). The other cases are always written with the voiced consonant, even though a devoiced one is actually pronounced: the voiced ‹d› in plural baarden [ˈbaːrdə(n)] ('beards') is retained in the singular spelling baard ('beard'), but pronounced as [baːrt]; and plural ribben [ˈrɪbə(n)] ('ribs') has singular rib, pronounced as [rɪp]. Because of assimilation, often the initial consonant of the next word is also devoiced, e.g. het vee ('the cattle') is [ɦət ˈfeː]
^4 The final ‹n› of the plural ending -en is usually not pronounced, except in the North East (Low Saxon) and the South West (East and West Flemish) where the ending becomes a syllabic [n̩] sound.
^5 The realization of the /r/ phoneme varies considerably from dialect to dialect. In "standard" Dutch, /r/ is realized as the alveolar trill r or as a uvular trill ʀ. In some dialects, it is realized as an alveolar flap ɾ or even as an alveolar approximant ɹ.
^6 The realization of the /ʋ/ phoneme varies considerably from the Northern to the Southern and Belgium dialects of the Dutch language. In the north of the Netherlands, it is a labiodental approximant ʋ. In the south of the Netherlands and in Belgium, it is pronounced as a bilabial approximant β̞ (as it also is in the Hasselt and Maastricht dialects), and Standard Belgian Dutch uses the labiovelar approximant w.
^7 The glottal stop ʔ is not a separate phoneme in Dutch, but is inserted before vowel-initial syllables within words and often also at the beginning of a word.
^8 /ɡ/ is not a native phoneme of Dutch and only occurs in loanwords, like goal or when /k/ is voiced, like in zakdoek [ˈzɑɡduk].
^9 /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ are not native phonemes of Dutch, and usually occur in borrowed words, like show and bagage ('baggage'). Even then, they are usually realized as [sʲ] and [zʲ], respectively. However, /s/ + /j/ sequences in Dutch are often realized as [sʲ], like in the word huisje ('little house'). In dialects that merge /s/ and /z/, [zʲ] is often realized as [sʲ].
^10 When the penultimate syllable is open, stress may fall on any of the last three syllables. When the penultimate syllable is closed, stress falls on either of the last two syllables. While stress is phonemic, minimal pairs are rare. For example vóórkomen /ˈvoːrkoːmə(n)/ "to occur" and voorkómen /voːrˈkoːmə(n)/ "to prevent". In composite words, secondary stress is often present. Marking the stress in written Dutch is optional, never obligatory, but sometimes recommended.
^11 The "checked" vowels /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ɔ/, and /ʏ/ occur only in closed syllables, while their "free" counterparts //, //, /i/, //, and /y/ can occur in open syllables (as can the other vowels). These two sets also go by the names dull/sharp, dim/clear, lax/tense, closed/open, or short/long. One of each pair is pronounced slightly longer by many speakers, so the terms long and short traditionally used to explain the use of doubled consonants and vowels in the orthographic system. Differences in vowel length tend to be bigger in southern dialects; in extreme cases, when lax vowels become as tense as the tense vowels, the vowel length is the only difference between them.
^12 For most speakers of Netherlandic Standard Dutch, the long close-mid vowels //, /øː/ and // are realised as slightly closing diphthongs , [øʏ] and , unless they precede /r/ within the same syllable.[3][4] The closing diphthongs also appear in certain Belgian dialects, e.g. the one of Bruges, but not in Belgian Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology#Monophthongs for more details.
^13 The exact quality of diphthongs varies; Netherlandic Standard Dutch has somewhat more open (in case of /ʌu/ and often /œy/ also unrounded) first elements: [æi], [ɐy], [ɑu].[5][6] In Belgian Standard Dutch, they begin in the open-mid region, and the last diphthong has a rounded first element: [ɛi], [œy], [ɔu].[7][8] In Belgium, the onset of /œy/ can also be unrounded to [ɐy].[9] Some non-standard dialects (e.g. many southern dialects) realise these diphthongs as either narrow diphthongs or (as in The Hague dialect) long monophthongs.[9] See Dutch phonology § Diphthongs for more details.
^14 Found in loanwords.
^15 In Belgium, /ɔː/ tends to be pronounced the same as /oː/.
^16 /æ/ is pronounced the same as /ɛ/ by many speakers.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gussenhoven (1999:74)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Collins & Mees (2003:48)
  3. Gussenhoven (1999:76)
  4. Collins & Mees (2003:133–134)
  5. Collins & Mees (2003:135)
  6. Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009:70). Authors state that "in most northern areas, /œy/ is pronounced [ʌ̈y̯]."
  7. Collins & Mees (2003:135–136)
  8. Verhoeven (2005:245)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Collins & Mees (2003:136)

Bibliography

  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1999), "Dutch", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 74–77, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Rietveld, A.C.M.; Van Heuven, V.J. (2009), Algemene Fonetiek, Uitgeverij Coutinho 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 

External links

http://www.woorden.org/