The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The dialect that has been used here as a model is Standard Eastern Norwegian (Oslo area). See Norwegian phonology for more details about pronunciation.
| Stress and tone
| Tone 1 / acute accent:|
• Low tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
| Tone 2 / grave accent:|
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]
- ^ a b c d e In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
- ^ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
- ^ a b c d Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
- ^ a b c d Vowels spelt u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.
- Mangold, Max (1990). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (3rd ed.). Dudenverlag. ISBN 3-411-20916-X.