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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Help:IPA for Polish

Help:IPA for Polish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Polish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

All voiced obstruents /b, d, ɡ, v, z, ʐ, ʑ, dʐ, dʑ/ are devoiced (so /d/ becomes [t], etc.) at the ends of words and in clusters ending in any unvoiced obstruents /p, t, k, f, s, x, ʂ, ɕ, tʂ, tɕ/. The voiceless obstruents are voiced (/x/ becoming [ɣ], etc.) in clusters ending in any voiced obstruent except /v, ʐ/, which are themselves devoiced in this case.

See Polish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Polish.

Consonants
IPA Polish Example English approximation
[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.b]]
b bardzo bike
[[voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɕ]]
ś, s(i)[1] Jaś she
[[voiced dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.d]]
d dawno door
[[voiced dental sibilant affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.dz]]
[2]
dz dzban beds
[[voiced alveolo-palatal affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.dʑ]]
[2]
dź, dz(i)[1] dziadek jeep[3]
[[voiced retroflex affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.dʐ]]
[2]
akarta jug[3]
[[voiceless labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.f]]
f foka feist
[[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
g grać girl
ɡʲ g(i)[1] Gienek argue
[[voiced velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɣ]]
ch, h niechby roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
[[palatal approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.j]]
j, i[1] jak yes
[[voiceless velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.k]]
k krowa scam
k(i)[1] kierowca skew
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
l lampa lion
[[bilabial nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.m]]
m[4] morze mile
[[alveolar nasal#Dental or denti-alveolar#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.n]]
n[4] nad Nile
[[alveolo-palatal nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɲ]]
ń, n(i)[4][1] nie canyon
[[velar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ŋ]]
[5]
n[4] bank bank
[[voiceless bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.p]]
p policja spike
[[alveolar trill#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.r]]
r różowy trilled r
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless dental sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
s smak sign
[[voiceless retroflex sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʂ]]
sz szybko shore[3]
[[voiceless dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.t]]
t tak stow
[[voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tɕ]]
[2]
ć, c(i)[1] cierpki cheer[3]
[[voiceless dental sibilant affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ts]]
[2]
c całkiem cats
[[voiceless retroflex affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʂ]]
[2]
cz czy child[3]
[[voiced labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.v]]
w wartość vile
[[labio-velar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.w]]
[6]
ł ładny way
[[voiceless velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.x]]
ch, h chleb (Scottish) loch
h(i)[1] hiacynt huge
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Dentalized laminal alveolar#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
z zebra zebra
[[voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʑ]]
ź, z(i)[1] ziarno vision, azure[3]
[[voiced retroflex sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʐ]]
ż, rz rzadko
Vowels
IPA Polish Example English approximation
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.a]]
a tam father (shorter)
[[open-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛ]]
e em bed
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛ̃]]
ę[4] kęs length
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
i[1] piwo eat (shorter)
[[close-mid central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɨ]]
y my roses
[[open-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔ]]
o rok rock
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔ̃]]
ą[4] wąs wrong
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
u, ó duży boot (shorter)
Other symbols used for Polish
IPA Explanation
[[stress (linguistics)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˈ]]
Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
Usually the penultimate syllable of a word.
[[secondary stress#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˌ]]
Secondary stress (placed before the stressed syllable).
[[syllabification#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect..]]
Syllable break.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The letter ‹i›, when followed by a vowel, either represents a pronunciation like a ‹j› or a "soft" pronunciation of the preceding consonant (so pies is pronounced as if it were spelt ‹pjes›).
    It has the same effect as an acute accent on alveolar consonants (‹s›, ‹z›, ‹c›, ‹dz›, ‹n›). So się, cios and niania are pronounced as if they were spelt ‹śę›, ‹ćos›, ‹ńańa›. A following ‹i› also softens consonants when it is itself pronounced as a vowel, so for example zima, ci and dzisiaj are pronounced as if spelled ‹źima›, ‹ći›, ‹dźiśaj›.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Affricates such as /ts/ and /dʐ/) are correctly written with tie-bars: /t͡s/, /d͡ʐ/. The tie-bars are omitted in the above chart, as they do not display correctly in all browsers. Nonetheless, Polish does contrast affricates with stop + fricative clusters, like czysta [ˈt͡ʂɨsta] "clean" versus trzysta [ˈtʂɨsta] "three hundred".
  3. ^ a b c d e f Polish makes contrasts between retroflex and alveolo-palatal consonants, both of which sound like the English postalveolars /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/. The retroflex sounds are pronounced "hard", with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge and the blade of the tongue somewhat lowered, whereas the alveolo-palatal sounds are "soft", realized with the middle of the tongue raised, adding a bit of a ‹y› or ‹ee› sound to them.
  4. ^ a b c d e f The letters ‹ą› and ‹ę› represent the nasal vowels /ɔ̃, ɛ̃/, except when followed by a stop or affricate, where they represent oral vowels /ɔ, ɛ/ followed by a nasal consonant homorganic with the following stop or affricate (e.g. kąt [ˈkɔnt], gęba [ˈɡɛmba], ręka [ˈrɛŋka], piszący [piˈʂɔnt͡sɨ], pieniądze [pjɛˈɲɔnd͡zɛ], pięć [ˈpjɛɲt͡ɕ], jęczy [ˈjɛnt͡ʂɨ]).
  5. ^ Allophone of /n/ before a velar /ɡ, k, x/.
  6. ^ The traditional pronunciation [ɫ] is still found in a minority of speakers.

Further reading

External links