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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Help:IPA for Portuguese and Galician

Help:IPA for Portuguese and Galician

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Portuguese and Galician pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Distinction is noted between the two major standards of Portuguese—that of Portugal and of Brazil. Neither Portuguese variant is preferred over the other at Wikipedia, except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant, such as a place in Brazil or a Portuguese artist. See Portuguese phonology and Galician phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Portuguese and Galician.

Apply national variant differences with discretion: when there are differing dialectal Brazilian Portuguese pronunciations thanks to differing patterns of vowel reduction and voiced consonant lenition (that Brazilians indeed have in unstressed syllables), the one closest to the European Portuguese one should generally be preferred, as this guideline is intended to help native speakers of other languages, since the opposing Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation tends to be the more phonetically written one and those in contact with a given Brazilian dialect would immediately get a clue on where vowel reduction is not used despite being optional.

IPA Consonants
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.b]]
besta; fábula (BP) best
[[voiced bilabial fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.β]]
[[voiced bilabial fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.β]]
[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.b]]
bula (EP, G); placebo[1] between baby and bevy or best
[[voiced labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.v]]
cavalo; livre (P); libre (G)[2] vest or between baby and bevy
[[voiced dental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ð]]
[[voiced dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.d]]
fada; padre; rapadura[1] this or dice
duradouro; seu dente this or dice
[[voiced dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.d]]
dedo dice
[[voiced palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.dʒ]]
cidade; digo[3] dice or engine
[[voiceless labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.f]]
fase; café face
[[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
[[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
gato; guerra get
[[voiced velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɣ]]
goa; magarefe between go and ahold or get
[[voiceless velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.k]]
cores; laca; quente; kelvin scan
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
lua; calor[4] lot
[[alveolar lateral approximant#Velarized alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɫ]]
livro; lipídio; males[5] limp; fault (RP) or world (GA)
[[alveolar lateral approximant#Velarized alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɫ]]
[[labio-velar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.w]]
mal; principal[5][4] toll; tow or lot
[[alveolo-palatal lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʎ]]
velho (P); vello (G)[6] roughly like million
[[bilabial nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.m]]
mesa; comer[4] almighty
[[alveolar nasal#Dental or denti-alveolar#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.n]]
nata; ano[4] not
[[velar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ŋ]]
unha; inglesa; can; álbum (G)[4] sing
[[alveolo-palatal nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɲ]]
manhã (P); mañá (G) roughly like canyon
[[voiceless bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.p]]
peito; topo spouse
[[alveolar trill#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.r]]
ʁ ʁ raro; carro; enrascado[7][8] guttural r (P) or trilled r (G)
[[alveolar flap#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɾ]]
lar; morte; por favor[7][8][9] ladder in American English
or guttural r
[[alveolar flap#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɾ]]
raro; caro; bravo; por acaso[8][9] ladder in American English
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
[[voiced palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʒ]]
[[voiced palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʒ]]
já; gente (P); xa; xente (G) rouge or shop
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
rasgado; portas brancas rouge or zebra
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
casa; existir; portas abertas zebra or sack
[[voiceless dental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.θ]]
zona; azul zebra or thought
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
dez; foz sheep; sketch or bath
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
cimeira; braço (P); brazo (G) sack or thought
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
saco; máximo; isso (P); iso (G) sack
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
escola; mastro; portas fechadas sheep or sketch
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
xarope; baixo shop
[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
chave; achar shop or chop
[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
tchau chop
[[voiceless dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.t]]
tipo; ponte[3] stand or cheese
[[voiceless dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.t]]
tempo; átomo stand
IPA Marginal consonants
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[voiceless glottal fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.h]]
hot dog[10] house
[[voiceless pharyngeal fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ħ]]
ghato; trigho (G)[11] roughly like hook
[[voiceless velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.x]]
kharxa[12] loch
IPA Vowels
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.a]]
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.a]]
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.a]]
taça; lá; às; Camões; alface father
[[near-open central vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɐ]]
Laurêncio; Ajinomoto about or father
[[near-open central vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɐ]]
taça; manhã; carapaça aura; finger (RP) or father
cama; banho; câmera purse (RP) or father
[[open-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛ]]
[[open-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɛ]]
meta, sé set
[[close-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.e]]
incrível set or play
[[close-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.e]]
[[close-mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.e]]
meto; sê; acepção[13] play
[[close back unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɨ]]
semáforo[14] emission or play
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
pente; pequeno; se[14] emission; see or play
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
meandro; e see or play
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
si; dia; país see
[[open-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔ]]
[[open-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɔ]]
formosa; formosos; avó ball (GA) ~ lot (RP)
[[close-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.o]]
hospital ball or sole (GA)
[[close-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.o]]
[[close-mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.o]]
avô; oliveira sole (GA) ~ sword (RP)
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
sortudo loop or sole (GA)
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
boneco; voo; vi-o; frio[15]
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
rua; saúde loop
IPA Nasal vowels
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɐ̃]]
canto; ângulo; âmbar; lã[16] uhn-huh (nasal /ɐ/)
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ẽ]]
cento; sempre; essência[17] nasal /e/
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ĩ]]
cinto; sim; ímpar nasal /i/
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.õ]]
conto; cônscio; bom; cômputo nasal /o/
[[nasal vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ũ]]
fungo; algum; cúmplice nasal /u/
 
IPA Semivowels[18][19]
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[palatal approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.j]]
pais; saia; cães; corações you or boy
[[labio-velar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.w]]
quando; guarda; frequente; quão wine or cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
23x15px
G
23x15px
EP
23x15px
BP
Examples English approximation
[[stress (linguistics)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˈ]]
livre [ˈlivɾɨ] ~ [ˈlivɾi] lexical stress
[[secondary stress#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˌ]]
contramão [ˌkõtɾɐˈmɐ̃w] secondary stress
[[syllabification#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect..]]
dia [ˈdi.ɐ] ~ [ˈdʒi.ɐ] syllable break

Notes

  1. ^ a b In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
    This page is a soft redirect.b]]
    , [[voiced dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
    This page is a soft redirect.d]]
    , [[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
    This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
    ]
    , not dissimilar from English b, d, g (Mateus & d'Andrade 2000:11). Most often, it only happens in southern and insular Portugal and in Brazil in some unstressed syllables, generally in relaxed speech, but this is by no means universal.
  2. ^ In Galician and some rural northern accents of European Portuguese, /v/ has merged with the [b ~ β] set.
  3. ^ a b In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are palatalized and affricated to post-alveolar (generally alveolo-palatal, but not thus represented here) [[[voiced palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
    This page is a soft redirect.dʒ]]
    , [[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
    This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
    ]
    before high front vowels /i, ĩ/.
  4. ^ a b c d e In Galician, nasal and lateral consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. In word-final position, only /ŋ/ and /l/ occur.
  5. ^ a b In most Brazilian dialects, and in standard Brazilian speech, /l/ is strongly velarized or pharyngealized before /i, ĩ/. In European Portuguese, syllable-final /l/ is usually velarized [ɫ] much like with 'sold' for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w] before consonants and at the end of words. In traditional Galician, syllable-final /l/ was also velarized; but nowadays it has been widely replaced by a clear l [l] in most dialects.
  6. ^ In some Galician dialects /ʎ/ has merged with [j]. Minor yeísmo-like merger is also present in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
  7. ^ a b The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil; as [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], etc., in Portugal; and as [r] in Galicia. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  8. ^ a b c The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /ʁ/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ‹l›, ‹n›, and ‹s› and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  9. ^ a b The realization of syllable-final ‹r› varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap [ɾ] in European Portuguese, Galician and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as a coronal approximant ([ɹ] or [ɻ]) in various other Brazilian dialects, and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ‹r› may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (note word final ‹r› is pronounced —though as a tap [ɾ]— only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]).
  10. ^ Present in loanwords from English. In some Brazilian dialects, it is also the phonetic realization of /ʁ/.
  11. ^ In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is spirantized to [ħ] or [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
  12. ^ In Galician, /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).
  13. ^ In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  14. ^ a b In European Portuguese the IPA symbol /ɨ/ denotes a near-close near-back unrounded vowel.
  15. ^ Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  16. ^ In Portuguese, word final /ɐ̃/ may diphthongize to [ɐ̃w] (note this realization occurs exclusively in verbal forms spelled with final -am: namoram, falam, ruiram).
  17. ^ In Portuguese, word final /ẽ/ diphthongizes to [ẽj] (e.g. sem, também, nuvens). In many European Portuguese dialects (especially central and southern varieties) it has become [ɐ̃j]: sem [ˈsɐ̃j]
  18. ^ The semivowels [w] and [j], allophones of vowels /u/ and /i/, can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃j] and [ɐ̃w], and nasal triphthongs such as [wɐ̃w] and [wõj].
  19. ^ Sometimes, Portuguese will present "geminated" semivowels, more accurately each pair being separated to one's own syllable, with the first phone occurring as coda and the second occurring as onset. Examples of such pronunciations are saia and leio for [j.j] and doe or pessoa for [w.w]. They should be transcribed as such.

External links