Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Help:IPA for Spanish

Help:IPA for Spanish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-es}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters.

In general, Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions. Deviations from this may occur in words with /θ/, /ʎ/ and /x/:

  • For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ll can be transcribed with [ʝ]
  • For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with z and with soft c (i.e. where c occurs before i or e) can be transcribed with [s]
  • In South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries, the phoneme /x/ (j, soft g) is often realized as [h]

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
[[voiced bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.b]]
[1]
bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol best
[[bilabial approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.β]]
bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva between baby and bevy
[[voiced dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.d]]
[1]
dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
[[dental approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ð]]
diva; arder; admirar this
[[voiceless labiodental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.f]]
fase; café face
[[voiced velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɡ]]
[1]
gato; lengua; guerra got
[[voiced velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɣ]]
trigo; amargo; sigue; signo like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
[[voiced palatal fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʝ]]
[1][2]
ayuno; poyo; maracuyá you
[[voiced palatal affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɟʝ]]
[1][2]
cónyuge; abyecto job
[[voiceless velar stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.k]]
caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
[[alveolar lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.l]]
lino; alhaja; principal lean
[[palatal lateral approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʎ]]
[2]
llave; pollo million
[[bilabial nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.m]]
[3]
madre; comer; campo; anfibio mother
[[alveolar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.n]]
[3]
nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need
[[palatal nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɲ]]
[3]
ñandú; cañón; enyesar canyon
[[velar nasal#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ŋ]]
[3]
cinco; venga; conquista sing
[[voiceless bilabial stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.p]]
pozo; topo spouse
[[alveolar trill#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.r]]
[4]
rumbo; carro; honra; amor; amor eterno trilled r
[[alveolar flap#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ɾ]]
[4]
caro; bravo; amor eterno ladder (American English)
[[voiceless alveolar fricative#Voiceless alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.s]]
[5]
saco; espita; xenón sack
[[voiceless dental fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.θ]]
</big>[5]
cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
[[voiceless dental stop#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.t]]
tamiz; átomo stand
[[voiceless palato-alveolar affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tʃ]]
chubasco; acechar choose
[[voiceless velar fricative#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.x]]
[6]
jamón; eje; reloj; general; México[7] Scottish loch
[[voiced alveolar fricative#Voiced alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.z]]
[8]
isla; mismo; deshuesar prison
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
[[voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ʃ]]
[9]
abacaxi; Shakira; show shack
[[voiceless alveolar lateral affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.tɬ]]
tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl no English equivalent (from Nāhuatl)
[[Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ts]]
Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
[[open central unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.a]]
azahar father
[[mid front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.e]]
vehemente set
[[close front unrounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.i]]
dimitir; mío; y see
[[mid back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.o]]
boscoso sole
[[close back rounded vowel#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.u]]
cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[10]
IPA Examples English approximation
[[palatal approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.j]]
aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
[[labio-velar approximant#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.w]]
[11]
cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
[[stress (linguistics)#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.ˈ]]
ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], similar to English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Many Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, this neutralized nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Northern and central Spain still distinguish between s (/s/) and soft c or z (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft c, z and even s as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. /x/ is generally pronounced [h], as in the English word ham, in South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries.
  7. The letter x only represents /x/ in certain proper names like Ximena and some place names in current or former Mexico (Oaxaca, Texas).
  8. /s/ is pronounced as [z] before voiced consonants.
  9. /ʃ/ is only used in loanwords and certain proper nouns. In many dialects, it is replaced by [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  10. The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  11. Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].

References

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259 

External links