History of FIFA
FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) is the international governing body of association football. It is one of the world's oldest and largest NGOs, being founded on 21 May 1904. It has since expanded to include 209 member associations.
- 1 Beginnings
- 2 Inter-war years
- 3 Post-war expansion
- 4 1950s and 1960s
- 5 Havelange's presidency
- 6 The new millennium
- 7 List of Presidents of FIFA
- 8 List of General Secretaries of FIFA
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 References
The first official match between representatives of two nations was between England and Scotland in 1872 at Hamilton Crescent, Partick, Glasgow , finishing in a 0–0 draw. The following year at The Oval, England enjoyed a 4–2 victory over the travelling Scots. This was followed by the creation of the world's second national football association, the Scottish Football Association in 1873. Previously the Football Association had been the world's only governing body, though codified football was being played only in the United Kingdom at this stage.
With the number of inter-nation matches increasing as football spread, the need for a global governing body emerged. Initially, it was intended to reflect the formative role of the British in football's history[clarification needed], but the football associations of the Home Nations unanimously rejected such a body. This was led by rejection from Football Association president Lord Kinnaird. Thus the nations of continental Europe decided to go it alone and 'FIFA' was born in Paris, uniting the Football governing bodies of France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.
The initial statutes of FIFA stated that:
- Only the represented National Associations would be recognised.
- Clubs and players could only play for two National Associations at a time.
- All Associations would recognise the suspension of a player in any Association.
- Matches were to be played according to the "Laws of the Game of the Football Association Ltd".
- Each National Association was to pay an annual fee of 50 French Francs.
- Only FIFA could organise International Matches.
These statutes came into effect on 1 September, by which time Germany had also joined by Telegram. The first FIFA Congress was held on 23 May – Robert Guérin was elected President, Victor E. Schneider of Switzerland and Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann of the Netherlands were made Vice Presidents, and Louis Muhlinghaus of Belgium was appointed Secretary and Treasurer with the help of Ludvig Sylow of Denmark.
Early attempts at the organization of a tournament began, but without the British countries this failed. England, however, joined on 14 April 1905, thanks to great efforts by Baron Edouard de Laveleye who was made the first honorary member of FIFA. In 1906, Daniel Burley Woolfall took over as president, making strides to uniformity in the globe's laws.
FIFA continued to expand in federations and influence, being able to monopolize international matches. However, its organizational skills were still not refined, and it was the Football Association which organized the football tournaments at the 1908 and 1912 Olympic Games, both won by Great Britain.
International football was rare during World War One and FIFA nearly collapsed after Woolfall's death in 1918; It was Hirschmann, almost acting alone, who kept FIFA alive, and in 1919 convened an assembly in Brussels. However, the British Associations were not very interested in re-establishing ties with former enemies, and effectively boycotted FIFA until the end of World War II. In 1920, Jules Rimet of France was elected Chairman, becoming President in 1921.
These successes prompted FIFA, at the Amsterdam congress of 28 May 1928, to consider staging its own World Championship. At the following Congress in Barcelona plans were finalised – it would be held in Uruguay, which was celebrating its 100th anniversary of independence the following year. Unfortunately, Europe was in the midst of an economic crisis, and teams would have to do without their key players for two months – several nations pulled out. Without them, the first World Cup opened in Montevideo on 18 July 1930 – with only four European teams.
Following the disappointment of not hosting the first tournament, Italy was chosen as the venue for the 1934 World Cup. Following the previous tournament, all matches were played in one country, meaning some teams made the long trip home after just one qualifying round. The final, won by the Italians, was the first to be broadcast live on radio. Italy defended this title in the last World Cup before World War II, in France.
In 1946 the four British nations returned. On 10 May 1947 a 'Match of the Century' between Great Britain and 'Rest of Europe XI' was played at Hampden Park in Glasgow before 135,000 spectators – Britain won 6–1. The proceeds from the match, coming to £35 000, were given to FIFA, to help re-launch it after World War Two. This was followed by FIFA's first post-war World Cup in 1950, held in Brazil. FIFA, meanwhile, continued to expand so that by the time of its fiftieth anniversary it had 84 members.
1950s and 1960s
In 1950, Jules Rimet was replaced by Rodolphe William Seeldrayers of Belgium; he died the next year and was succeeded by Englishman, Arthur Drewry. He again had a short presidency and was replaced upon his death in 1961 by Sir Stanley Rous, a former referee. During Rous' presidency, the game continued to spread, with the World Cup appearing on television for the first time. Rous was a traditionalist, promoting the amateurism of the national game and a romantic view of "Corinthian" values. He helped make the World Cup one of the big international sports events, behind perhaps only the Olympic Games in worldwide prestige. His tenure was also marked with controversy, as he supported the South African apartheid regime, and worked to allow the country to participate in the World Cup, despite having been banned from CAF. This caused tensions between Rous and a number of FIFA confederations.
Rous was replaced in 1974 by the Brazilian, João Havelange. He was elected on a manifesto of dynamism and political grounds transforming the rather staid organisation into a dynamic enterprise brimming with new ideas. FIFA became a much more commercial institution at this time. He increased the number of teams in the World Cup to 24 for the 1982 World Cup and then to 32 at the 1998 World Cup. He also brought Israel into the international game (affiliated to UEFA) and saw FIFA spread across the globe, with small nations such as Guam, Lesotho and Montserrat joining. This was aligned with his policy on using football to aid the development of developing countries[clarification needed].
The new millennium
The next president, Sepp Blatter, maintained this policy; he promised the 2010 World Cup to Africa, for example. He now oversees a federation that is a massive corporate body and whose actions have global economic and political impact. He has continued the modernisation of the game, taking FIFA past its centenary in 2004.
In 2006, after the game between Switzerland and South Korea, South Korean access to FIFA website has been blocked. The rumor spread in Korea that if they send 500 million protest notes to the FIFA administration the Switzerland's victory might be canceled. Because of this, overwhelming access from Korean users (which was detected by IP address) caused problems and FIFA eventually denied Korean access.
FIFA altitude ban
FIFA attempted to address the issue of extreme altitude in May 2007, ruling that no future international matches could be played at an altitude over 2500 m (8200 ft).
The FIFA altitude ban would most notably have affected the national teams of Andean countries. Under this proposal, Bolivia would no longer be able to play international matches in La Paz (3600 m), Ecuador would be unable to play in Quito (2800 m), and Colombia could no longer play in Bogotá (2640 m).
However, FIFA soon backed away from the proposal after international condemnation , and under political pressure from the CONMEBOL countries, first extending the maximum altitude to 2800 m (9190 ft) in June 2007, which made Bogotá and Quito viable international venues once again, and then waiving the restriction for La Paz in July 2007.
Controversy over the 2022 World Cup selection and allegations of corruption
In May 2011, after Qatar was selected to host the 2022 World Cup, allegations of bribery on the part of two members of the FIFA Executive Committee were tabled by Lord Triesman of the English FA. These allegations were based on information from a whistleblower involved with the Qatari bid. FIFA has since opened an internal inquiry into the matter, and a revote on the 2022 World Cup remains a possibility if the allegations are proven. FIFA president Sepp Blatter has admitted that there is a ground swell of popular support to re-hold the 2022 vote won by Qatar.
In testimony to a UK parliamentary inquiry board in May 2011, David Triesman, Baron Triesman alleged that Trinidad and Tobago's Jack Warner demanded $4 million for an education center in his country and Paraguay's Nicolás Léoz asked for an honorary knighthood in exchange for their votes. Also, two Sunday Times reporters testified that they had been told that Jacques Anouma of the Ivory Coast and Issa Hayatou of Cameroon were each paid $1.5 million to support Qatar's bid for the tournament. All four have denied the allegations. Mohammed bin Hammam, who played a key role in securing the games for Qatar, withdrew as a candidate for president of FIFA in May 2011 after being accused of bribing 25 FIFA officials to vote for his candidacy. Soon after, FIFA suspended bin Hammam and Jack Warner as the ethics investigation continued. After his suspension, Warner stated that FIFA had awarded him 1998 World Cup rights in Trinidad and Tobago after he had helped Blatter win his campaign to become FIFA president and given preferential treatment for future World Cup rights after supporting Blatter's 2002 reelection.
The corruption allegations against Bin Hammam and Jack Warner were leveled by CONCACAF general secretary Chuck Blazer. In response, CONCACAF president Lisle Austin attempted to fire Blazer, but the move was blocked by the CONCACAF executive committee.
List of Presidents of FIFA
FIFA has been served by eight Presidents since its foundation in 1904:
|Robert Guérin||23x15px France||1904–1906|
|Daniel Burley Woolfall||23x15px England||1906–1918|
|Jules Rimet||23x15px France||1921–1954|
|Rodolphe Seeldrayers||23x15px Belgium||1954–1955|
|Arthur Drewry||23x15px England||1955–1961|
|Sir Stanley Rous||23x15px England||1961–1974|
|Dr João Havelange||23x15px Brazil||1974–1998|
|Sepp Blatter||23x16px Switzerland||1998–present|
List of General Secretaries of FIFA
FIFA has been served by nine General Secretaries since its foundation in 1904:
|Louis Muhlinghaus||23x15px Belgium||1904–1906|
|Cornelis August Wilhelm Hirschman||23x15px Netherlands||1906–1931|
|Dr. Ivo Schricker||23x15px Germany||1932–1951|
|Kurt Gassmann||23x16px Switzerland||1951–1960|
|Dr. Helmut Käser||23x16px Switzerland||1961–1981|
|Sepp Blatter||23x16px Switzerland||1981–1998|
|Michel Zen-Ruffinen||23x16px Switzerland||1998–2002|
|Urs Linsi||23x16px Switzerland||2002–2007|
|Jérôme Valcke||23x15px France||2007–present|
- "FIFA blocks angry e-mails from South Koreans" (Sports Illustrated, 25 June 2006). "FIFA 사이트, 항의폭주 한국접속 차단한 듯" (JoongAng Ilbo, 25 July 2006)
- "Focus on 57th FIFA Congress". FIFA. 27 May 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- "Blatter will waive La Paz altitude ban". Sports Illustrated. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.[dead link]
- Sports Illustrated, "Sorry Soccer", 23 May 2011, p. 16.
- Associated Press, "Bin Hammam leaves race after allegations", Japan Times, 30 May 2011, p. 16.
- Associated Press, "FIFA clears Blatter, suspends Asia chief", Japan Times, 31 May 2011, p. 16.
- Associated Press, "Former official claims FIFA traded television rights for support", Japan Times, 31 December 2011, p. 16.
- Associated Press, "CONCACAF stymies attempt to fire Blazer", Japan Times, 2 June 2011, p. 18.
- "FIFA Presidents".
- "FIFA General Secretaries over the years" (PDF).