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History of the New York Yankees

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File:New York Yankees 1913.jpg
The 1913 squad, the first that went by the name "Yankees"

The history of the New York Yankees Major League Baseball (MLB) team began with the founding of the American League (AL) in 1901. The Baltimore Orioles were one of the league's original eight clubs; after two years, the organization was replaced by a New York City-based franchise, which became known as the Yankees in 1913. The team infrequently contended for the AL championship before the acquisition of outfielder Babe Ruth after the 1919 season. Shortly afterwards, the Yankees won their inaugural AL title in 1921, followed by their first World Series championship in 1923. Ruth and first baseman Lou Gehrig were part of New York's Murderers' Row batting lineup, which led the Yankees to a then-AL record 110 wins and a Series championship in 1927. They repeated as World Series winners in 1928, and their next title came under manager Joe McCarthy in 1932.

From 1936 to 1939, the Yankees won the World Series every year, with a team that featured Gehrig and outfielder Joe DiMaggio, who recorded a record hitting streak during New York's 1941 championship season. The Yankees set a major league record by winning five consecutive championships from 1949 to 1953, and appeared in the World Series nine times during the next 11 years. Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, and Whitey Ford were among the players fielded by the Yankees during the era. After the 1964 season, a lack of effective replacements for aging players caused the franchise to decline on the field, while then-owners CBS posted financial losses.

George Steinbrenner bought the club in 1973 and regularly invested in new talent, using free agency to acquire top players. Despite internal disputes in the late 1970s, the team reached the World Series four times between 1976 and 1981 and claimed the championship in 1977 and 1978. New York continued to pursue its strategy of signing free agents into the 1980s, but with less success, and the team's performance declined by the late-1980s. The club's leadership eventually began to rebuild around young players from the team's minor league system, including Derek Jeter and Mariano Rivera. After earning a playoff berth in 1995, the Yankees won four of the next five World Series, and the 1998–2000 teams were the last in MLB to win three straight Series titles.

As the 2000s progressed, the Yankees' rivalry with the Boston Red Sox increased in intensity as the sides met multiple times in the American League Championship Series, trading victories in 2003 and 2004. New York regularly reached the postseason, but were often defeated in the first two rounds. In 2009, the Yankees opened Yankee Stadium after spending most of the previous 86 seasons playing in a ballpark of the same name. That year's squad won the World Series for the 27th time in team history. The furthest the Yankees have gone in the postseason since then is the ALCS, which the 2010 and 2012 teams played in.

Background: 1901–02 Baltimore Orioles

John McGraw was the first manager of the Baltimore Orioles, and had an ownership interest.

At the end of the 1900 baseball season, Western League president Ban Johnson moved to position the circuit as a new major league that would compete with the established National League (NL). The league was reorganized and renamed the American League (AL), and eight cities fielded teams in the 1901 season. In addition to placing three teams in cities with NL clubs, the AL had another three in former NL team locations, including Baltimore; the Orioles were one of four sides shut down by the NL after the 1899 season.[1] The new Orioles' first manager was John McGraw, who had held the same role for the previous Baltimore team in its final season; McGraw also held an ownership stake in the team.[2]

In their first season, the Orioles had a 68–65 win–loss record and finished in fifth place in the AL.[3] During the season, there were numerous disputes between Johnson and McGraw over disciplinary issues, which continued into the following year.[4] Rumors began to spread that Johnson was interested in relocating the team to New York City, in an attempt to heighten the AL's competition with the NL. McGraw left the Orioles and joined the New York Giants as their manager; he gave the Giants' ownership his interest in the Orioles in the process.[5] Several of the team's players—including Roger Bresnahan and Joe McGinnity—joined the Giants after McGraw's departure, and the Giants gained a majority of the Orioles' stock. The league managed to take back control of the team from the Giants; after the Orioles forfeited a game because they lacked enough active players,[6] Johnson ordered that the team be "restocked with players essentially given away by the other teams in order to play out the schedule", according to author Marty Appel.[7] The Orioles had the worst record in the AL, as well as the weakest attendance figures.[8]

The AL and NL signed an agreement after the 1902 season that ended the leagues' battles for players, which had led to increasing salaries. Johnson sought the right to locate an AL team in New York City, which was granted as part of the leagues' peace agreement. His intention was for the team to play in Manhattan, but the idea was opposed by Giants owner John T. Brush and former owner Andrew Freedman, who were connected to the city's Tammany Hall political organization. They blocked several potential stadium locations, before a pair of Tammany Hall politicians, Frank J. Farrell and William Stephen Devery, purchased the New York franchise in the AL.[9] The pair paid $18,000 for the team ($440,000 in 2011 dollars). It is not clear whether Farrell and Devery purchased the remains of the Orioles and moved them to New York, or if they received an expansion franchise.[10][note 1] What is beyond dispute is that this was the last change in the lineup of MLB for half a century.[13]

1903–12: Early years

File:Hilltop Park 1912.jpg
New York plays a game at Hilltop Park in 1912.

The ballpark for the New York team was constructed between 165th and 168th Streets, on Broadway in Manhattan. Formally known as American League Park, it has been nicknamed Hilltop Park due to its high elevation.[14] The team itself did not have a set nickname; it was often called the New York Americans in reference to the AL. Another common nickname for the club was the Highlanders, which referred to the Gordon Highlanders military unit in Britain and Joe Gordon, the team's president.[15] For their roster, New York made numerous additions, including outfielder Willie Keeler and pitcher Jack Chesbro. The team's first manager in New York City was Clark Griffith, who was hired from the Chicago White Sox and played for the club. On April 22, 1903, New York began their season with a 3–1 loss to the Washington Senators; eight days later, the team won its first game in Hilltop Park, defeating the Senators 6–2. New York quickly fell out of contention for the AL pennant, falling to seventh place after playing games away from Hilltop Park for a 24-day period. With a final record of 72–62 after wins in 19 of 29 games played in September, New York posted a fourth-place finish.[16]

Chesbro won 41 games in New York's 1904 season, an AL record.[17][18] New York contended for the AL pennant with the Boston Americans (later nicknamed the Red Sox); Johnson aided New York by helping the team acquire multiple players in trades, including Boston's Patsy Dougherty. Boston and New York faced each other in a season-ending five-game series that decided the pennant winner, and was played from October 7–10. Boston won two of the first three games, which meant that New York needed to win the two contests scheduled on October 10 to win the AL title. With the score of the first game tied 2–2 in the ninth inning, Chesbro threw a wild pitch that allowed a runner on third base to score, giving Boston a 3–2 lead that it held until the end of the game. This victory clinched the AL pennant for Boston.[19]

New York's performance declined in 1905, as the club dealt with ineffective pitching. After losing 18 of 25 games in May, they ended the season sixth in the AL standings.[20] In their 1906 season, New York again contended for the AL championship; a 14-game winning streak in August and September moved them into first place, and with 13 games left to play they held a one-game lead over the White Sox. However, they finished three games behind Chicago in second place. Sportswriter Joe Vila blamed New York's late-season decline on Griffith, writing that the manager overused Chesbro and allowed factions to form among the players. Author Glenn Stout wrote that New York was "not yet a team but a collection of individuals, mercenaries out for themselves."[21]

According to Appel, "What would follow would be a string of mediocre to bad seasons and not a very good attraction for baseball-crazed New York fans."[22] New York recorded a fifth-place finish in the AL in 1907, with a 70–78 record that was 21 games worse than that of the league champion Detroit Tigers.[23] Despite Vila's preseason prediction that the 1908 New York team would win the AL championship, they finished last in the league with a 51–103 record. Griffith resigned as New York's manager due to interference from Farrell over his use of pitchers. He was replaced by Kid Elberfeld, who was fired after the season. George Stallings took over managerial duties for the 1909 campaign, in which New York had a 74–77 record and wound up fifth in the AL.[24]

New York had a second-place finish in 1910, but did not seriously contend for the pennant. Stallings and first baseman Hal Chase, the team captain, clashed towards the end of the season; Stallings believed that Chase was guilty of "lying down" on defensive plays, but faced opposition from Johnson, who wanted him to resign as manager. Stallings left the position, and Chase managed in New York's last 14 regular season games.[25] The following season, New York had a record of 76–76 and a sixth-place finish in the AL standings.[26] Early in the season, New York allowed the Giants to play in Hilltop Park after the Giants' stadium, the Polo Grounds, burned down; the arrangement lasted until June 28, when the rebuilt Polo Grounds opened.[27] Chase resigned as manager before New York's 1912 season; Harry Wolverton accepted the position.[28] That year, New York had a last-place finish in the league, with a record of 50–102; their winning percentage of .329 was the lowest-ever for the club.[29]

In their early years, New York dealt with multiple issues that hindered their play on the field. After their first couple of seasons in New York City, the club infrequently invested in new players. The ownership group of Farrell and Devery spent their money on personal pursuits such as gambling, leaving them with little to put into the team. The team's leading player, Chase, consorted frequently with gamblers and has been called "the most crooked player to ever play the game" by author Jim Reisler due to reports that he took part in game fixing.[30] New York also had difficulty drawing fans to Hilltop Park.[31] Appel wrote of the stadium that "maybe the best thing you could say about the ballpark was that it never burned down."[32] By the end of the 1912 season, New York was searching for a site to build a new stadium on.[33]

1913–64: Dynasty years

1913–20: New ownership and acquisition of Babe Ruth

File:Babe Ruth2.jpg
Babe Ruth in 1920, the first year he joined the Yankees

New York started played their home games at the Polo Grounds in 1913.[34] Before their 1913 season, the team gained an official nickname for the first time—the Yankees. Either "Yankees" or "Yanks" had been used frequently since 1904 in publications such as the New York Evening Journal, since "Highlanders" was somewhat difficult to fit in headlines.[35] With a new manager, Frank Chance, the Yankees had a 57–94 record and were one game ahead of last place.[36] Chance did not last as manager through the 1914 season; shortstop Roger Peckinpaugh became a player-manager for the Yankees' last 20 games, and the club finished sixth in the AL.[37] After the season, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery sold the team to brewery magnate Jacob Ruppert and former United States Army engineer Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston.[38] The Yankees had rarely been profitable over the previous 10 years, and reportedly carried debts of $20,000.[39] The sale was completed on January 11, 1915, as the pair paid a combined $460,000 for the Yankees. Ruppert called the team "an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige."[40] The new ownership group intended to spend heavily to improve the club's talent level and made a major purchase in 1915, buying pitcher Bob Shawkey from the Philadelphia Athletics. Regardless, the Yankees' 69 wins were only enough for fifth in the league standings.[41] That season, the Yankees began wearing white uniforms with pinstripes and an interlocking "NY" logo during games at the Polo Grounds, which remains their "home" uniforms. The team had gone through many uniforms in its seasons in New York, and in 1913 had introduced the present-day gray uniforms worn during "road" games.[42]

Before their 1916 season, the Yankees acquired third baseman Frank Baker from the Athletics. Nicknamed "Home Run" Baker, the four-time AL home run leader did not play in 1915 due to a disagreement with the Athletics over his contract.[43] The Yankees improved to 80 wins and contended for the AL pennant for most of the season, before suffering a run of injuries to key players, including Baker.[44] In the Yankees' 1917 season, New York finished sixth in the AL; Bill Donovan, the club's manager since 1915, was fired in the offseason.[45] Ruppert replaced him with Miller Huggins, completing the hire while Huston was overseas fighting in World War I.[46] The 1918 campaign was cut short by the war. The Yankees contended for first place into the summer of 1918 along with the Red Sox and Cleveland Indians, but lost numerous players to military service. At the end of the season, New York was fourth in the AL at 60–63.[47] After the season, the Yankees acquired three players—including outfielder Duffy Lewis and pitcher Ernie Shore—in a trade with the Red Sox, the winners of the 1918 World Series. In 1919, the club made another trade with Boston, acquiring pitcher Carl Mays for two players and $40,000. The deal led to a dispute between the teams and Ban Johnson, who attempted to block the transaction.[48] Johnson suspended Mays, who had pulled himself from his last game as a Red Sox player, but the suspension was overturned by the New York Supreme Court. The issue led to the formation of factions in the AL. Johnson had the support of five of the eight teams, who were collectively referred to in the media as "the Loyal Five". The Yankees joined the Red Sox and White Sox in opposing the group; they were nicknamed "the Insurrectos".[49] Mays pitched to a 9–3 record as a Yankee, and the team improved to 80–59 for the season; the mark was good for third in the AL.[50]

That season was the first in which the Yankees played games at the Polo Grounds on Sundays; until 1919, blue laws had banned Sunday games in the state of New York. The Yankees' attendance more than doubled in 1919, rising to about 619,000 as people who worked during the rest of the week were able to attend games.[51] The Giants soon moved to force the Yankees out of the Polo Grounds, in an effort to secure more Sunday home games.[52] On December 26, 1919, the Yankees made an agreement with the Red Sox to purchase outfielder Babe Ruth for $25,000 cash and $75,000 of notes. The deal, which was announced on January 5, 1920, was called "the most famous transaction in sports" by Stout.[53] After tying for the MLB home run lead in 1918 with the Philadelphia Athletics' Tilly Walker (with 11), Ruth broke the single-season record with 29 in 1919.[54] At the same time, he sought a new contract that would double his $10,000 yearly salary.[55] After the trade, the Red Sox did not win another championship until 2004; an alleged jinx against the team, which was known as the Curse of the Bambino (after a nickname for Ruth), was first brought up when they lost the 1986 World Series and became widely discussed after Dan Shaughnessy authored a book with the title.[56]

As a Yankee, Ruth hit 659 home runs and scored 1,959 runs; both marks are team records as of 2013. He is second in club history with 1,978 runs batted in and accumulated 2,518 hits as a Yankee, third on the team's all-time list.[57] The addition of Ruth helped the Yankees increase their attendance to 1,289,422 for the 1920 season; it was the first time that any MLB team drew more than one million fans in a year.[58] New York was the AL attendance leader for 13 of Ruth's 15 seasons with the team; the Yankees became solidly profitable as well, making over $370,000 in 1920 and remaining in the black for the rest of the decade.[59] On the field, he hit 54 home runs for a new record; his total was higher than that of all other MLB teams but the Philadelphia Phillies. New York had 95 wins, the most in team history to that point; despite this, the team fell three wins short of the AL championship and finished in third.[60] After the season, the Yankees hired general manager Ed Barrow from the Red Sox. Barrow made numerous trades with his former club, including one immediately after his departure that brought catcher Wally Schang and pitcher Waite Hoyt to New York.[61]

1921–28: First World Series win and Murderers' Row

File:Gehrig cropped.jpg
Lou Gehrig was a member of the Yankees' Murderers' Row team in 1927

Ruth surpassed his own record again in 1921 by hitting 59 home runs. He also led MLB in on-base percentage with a .512 mark for the season.[62] The Yankees won the AL pennant for the first time, winning 98 games in the regular season; the total gave them the league championship by a 4 1/2-game margin over the Cleveland Indians. In the best-of-nine 1921 World Series, they faced the Giants and won the first two games, but their opponents claimed the Series title when they won four of the next five games. Ruth suffered an arm infection, which limited his playing time in the later part of the Series.[63] Barrow made another trade with the Red Sox in the offseason, acquiring shortstop Everett Scott. The Yankees repeated as AL champions in the 1922 season with 94 wins. The St. Louis Browns were the closest pursuers, finishing one game behind New York. In the World Series, the Yankees again faced the Giants in an all-New York matchup; the Series changed to a best-of-seven format that year. The Giants defeated the Yankees in five games, including one that ended in a tie when it was suspended due to darkness.[64]

By 1923, the teams no longer shared the Polo Grounds, as the Giants had attempted to evict the Yankees in 1920. Although the attempt was unsuccessful, it pushed the Yankees into seeking their own stadium. In 1921, the team bought a plot of land in the Bronx, and the construction crew finished the new ballpark before the start of play in 1923.[65] Yankee Stadium, a triple-deck facility, was originally designed to hold more than 55,000 spectators; it was later able to hold over 70,000.[66] Writer Peter Carino called the stadium "a larger and more impressive facility than anything yet built to house a baseball team."[67] At Yankee Stadium's inaugural game on April 18, 1923, Ruth hit the first home run in the stadium, which had been called "the House That Ruth Built" by sportswriter Fred Lieb because of the player's impact on attendance. Ruth shared the MLB lead with Cy Williams by hitting 41 home runs for the 1923 season, and had a career-best .393 batting average; his performance earned him the AL Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award.[68][69] The Yankees finished first in the AL for the third consecutive year, and faced the Giants again in the 1923 World Series. Giants outfielder Casey Stengel hit game-winning home runs in two of the first three games of the World Series, but Ruth's three Series home runs helped the Yankees win in six games for their first MLB title.[70] Off the field, Ruppert purchased Huston's share of the Yankees for $1,250,000, assuming full ownership of the club.[71]

The Yankees did not return to the World Series in either of the following two seasons. In 1924, the team finished second in the AL, two games behind the Washington Senators. A steep decline in the Yankees' performance took place in 1925, as Ruth missed the first 40 games of the season with an illness and several key players showed signs of age. New York fell to seventh in the league with a 69–85 record.[72] First basemen Lou Gehrig debuted that season, earning a starting position and beginning a consecutive games played streak that spanned almost 15 years.[73] The Yankees made more talent upgrades before their 1926 season, which included the signing of infielder Tony Lazzeri, who spent over a decade with the club. New York's performance surpassed preseason expectations, and a 16-game winning streak in May gave the team a substantial lead in the AL standings. With a three-game final margin over the Cleveland Indians, the Yankees won the pennant and a spot in the 1926 World Series against the St. Louis Cardinals.[74] After the Yankees took a 3–2 series lead, the Cardinals won the final two games in Yankee Stadium to claim the Series title. Ruth hit three home runs in the fourth game of the series, but made the final out of the Series on a failed stolen base attempt.[75]

The Yankees' lineup in the 1927 season, which featured Ruth, Gehrig, Lazzeri, Bob Meusel, Mark Koenig, and Earle Combs, was known as Murderers' Row for its proficiency. The team led the AL standings throughout the year and claimed another pennant.[76] It has been cited as among the greatest teams in baseball history.[77] New York took first place in early May, and by the end of June had posted a 49–20 record, giving them a large lead in the AL standings; by mid-September, they had wrapped up the pennant.[78] The 1927 Yankees had a 110–44 record in the regular season, and broke the AL record for wins in a year.[79] Ruth's total of 60 home runs set a single-season home run record that stood for 34 years.[54] Gehrig added 47 home runs and his 175 RBI topped the AL; he won the first of his two AL MVP Awards.[80] The Yankees completed the season by sweeping the Pittsburgh Pirates in the 1927 World Series.[81] To begin the 1928 season, the Yankees went on a 34–8 run and took a sizable lead in the league standings. The Athletics gave the team competition for the pennant towards the end of the season, but New York won the AL title again and faced the Cardinals in the 1928 World Series, sweeping them in four games. Coming off a 54-home run regular season, Ruth had three home runs and a .625 batting average in the Series, while Gehrig batted .545 with four home runs.[82] With the Yankees' run of three straight league pennants and two World Series titles came criticism from fans of other teams, who were concerned about a possible lack of competition for New York. Calls to "Break up the Yankees!" were made, and critics hoped that the team would sell Gehrig to separate him from Ruth; ownership declined to do so.[83]

1929–35: Hiring of Joe McCarthy and Ruth's called shot

The Yankees failed to win a fourth straight AL championship in 1929, and suffered the death of their manager, Huggins, on September 25. After Art Fletcher managed for the rest of the year, Bob Shawkey took the position for the 1930 season, in which the Yankees had a third-place league finish.[84] The Yankees fired Fletcher and hired Joe McCarthy; in his first season as manager, the team won 94 games but finished second behind the Athletics in the AL.[85] The players fielded by McCarthy included catcher Bill Dickey, who had first competed for the Yankees in 1928, and pitchers Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez.[86] Ruffing, who had a 39–96 record with the Red Sox before being traded to New York, ended up 231–124 in his Yankee career.[87]

In 1932, McCarthy's Yankees returned to the top of the AL. New York won 107 games, beating out the Athletics for the pennant.[88] The Yankees met the Chicago Cubs in the 1932 World Series and swept them four games to none. Gehrig had three home runs, eight RBI, and a .529 batting average for the Series, while Ruth contributed a pair of home runs in the third game, which took place at Chicago's Wrigley Field. The second of Ruth's home runs was his "called shot"; after pointing towards the center field stands, according to some post-game press reports, Ruth homered to break a 4–4 tie in the fifth inning. Author Eric Enders called the home run "the most talked-about hit in baseball history", although multiple Cubs players later denied the pointing and accounts of the incident vary greatly.[89]

The Yankees began cutting their roster's total salary in 1933, as their finances were strained by the Great Depression. Regardless, the makeup of the team was minimally impacted in comparison to the Athletics, who were forced to sell key players to lower their expenses.[90] From 1933 to 1935, the Yankees posted three consecutive second-place finishes in the AL. In the first two years, they ended up seven games behind the league leader, and in 1935 finished within three games of the AL lead.[91] Ruth's batting production declined from previous seasons in 1933 and 1934, his final years with the team. The Yankees released Ruth from his contract before the 1935 season, and Gehrig took a leadership role for the club; he was named New York's captain.[92] New York was beginning to see results from an initiative to buy minor league teams in an effort to reduce the cost of obtaining players; after buying their first minor league club in 1929, the Yankees had a 15-team system by 1937. Players with experience from the minor league teams began joining the Yankees in the mid-1930s, and into the early 1960s this remained the team's primary player acquisition method.[93]

1936–47: Four consecutive World Series titles and pre-Stengel era

File:DiMaggio cropped.jpg
Joe DiMaggio recorded base hits in an MLB record 56 straight games in 1941.

The Yankees' 1936 season marked the first for Joe DiMaggio in New York. The young center fielder from San Francisco was signed in 1934 from the Pacific Coast League's San Francisco Seals, and made his debut with the Yankees after spending 1935 with the Seals. DiMaggio had a .323 batting average, 29 home runs, and 125 RBI in his rookie season. Gehrig won the AL MVP Award for his season, in which he hit a career-high 49 home runs, with a .354 batting average and 152 RBI. Behind these performances, the Yankees had a 102-win season and won the AL pennant, before defeating the Giants in the 1936 World Series, four games to two.[94] The Yankees repeated as World Series champions in the 1937 season; after another 102-win regular season and AL championship, the club defeated the Giants 4–1 in the Series.[95] The 1938 Yankees had 48 victories in 61 games during one summer stretch, and won the team's third straight AL championship despite a drop in batting performance by Gehrig. The Cubs met the Yankees in the 1938 World Series, but were swept in four games by New York. Ruppert died early in 1939; before his death, he sold Barrow his shares of team stock, and Barrow took over as the Yankees' president.[96]

The 1939 Yankees lost the services of Gehrig early in the season; after starting the year poorly, he benched himself to end his consecutive games played streak at 2,130 and was later diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which forced him to retire.[97] Despite the loss of Gehrig, New York fielded a team that posted 106 victories in 1939, 17 more than the second-place team in the AL. DiMaggio was named MVP of the league; he led the AL in batting average (.381) and was second in RBI (126). Ruffing led the Yankees' pitchers with 20 wins. In the 1939 World Series, the Yankees swept the Cincinnati Reds in four games for the club's fourth consecutive Series championship.[98] In response to the Yankees' recent performances, after the 1939 season the AL temporarily barred most transactions between the last pennant winner and other league teams in an attempt to prevent New York from improving their roster.[99] The Yankees' run of championships ended in 1940; the team had 18 more losses than in the previous season. In a three-way AL pennant race that also featured the Indians and Detroit Tigers, the Yankees ended up two games behind the Tigers for first place.[100]

DiMaggio recorded base hits in 56 consecutive games for the Yankees during the 1941 season, breaking the MLB record of 44 games that had been set by Keeler in 1897. His hitting streak lasted from May 15 to July 17, when he failed to record a hit during a game against the Indians at Cleveland Stadium.[101] After winning the AL pennant, the Yankees met the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 World Series, prevailing in five games. In Game 4, the Yankees trailed 4–3 in the ninth inning and were one out from losing before a four-run rally that prevented the Dodgers from evening the Series at two games each; New York clinched the championship with a Game 5 win.[102] The attack on Pearl Harbor occurred during the offseason, and many baseball players went off to serve the U.S. military in World War II. Most of the Yankees' roster remained with the team in 1942, and the club repeated as AL champions despite Gomez's retirement. In the 1942 World Series, though, the Cardinals ended the Yankees' run of victories in eight Series in a row that they appeared in.[103] DiMaggio and numerous other Yankees entered the military before the 1943 season, but the club won the AL championship for the 14th time and 7th since 1936. The Cardinals met the Yankees in a World Series rematch, and New York won four games to one.[104]

After 1943, more of the team's players were drafted into the U.S. military, and the Yankees ended 1944 in third place in the AL, one position higher than they did the following season.[105] A group consisting of Larry MacPhail, Dan Topping, and Del Webb bought the Yankees, their stadium, and the franchise's minor league teams for $2,800,000 in 1945.[106] Under the new ownership, Yankee Stadium underwent extensive renovations that included the installation of lights. With the war over and the return of players from overseas, the Yankees set an MLB attendance record by attracting 2,265,512 fans to games at Yankee Stadium. McCarthy resigned as manager early in the 1946 season. The Yankees employed two other managers during the year, and ended 1946 in third place in the AL.[107] Bucky Harris was brought in to be the manager starting in the following season, and the 1947 Yankees won the AL pennant and defeated the Dodgers in a seven-game World Series.[108] After the end of the Series, MacPhail sold his share of Yankees ownership to Topping and Webb for $2 million.[109]

1948–56: Stengel hire and five straight World Series wins

File:Mickey Mantle 1953.jpg
Mickey Mantle won the AL Triple Crown in 1956, five seasons after first joining the Yankees.

Despite contending late into the season, the 1948 Yankees finished in third place in the AL. Harris was released and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel to manage.[110] At the time, Stengel had "a reputation as a bit of a clown", according to author Marty Appel, and had been unsuccessful in two previous MLB managing stints.[111] As the Yankees' manager, he displayed an ability to optimize matchups by using a platoon system at certain positions. Stengel was named AL Manager of the Year in his first season, in which the Yankees were affected by numerous injuries.[112] The 1949 Yankees and Red Sox battled for the AL pennant; before a season-ending two-game series at Yankee Stadium, New York trailed Boston by one game in the standings and needed to win both games to claim the pennant.[113] By scores of 5–4 and 5–3, the Yankees won the two games and the AL championship.[114] Again the Yankees were matched up against the Dodgers in the World Series, and they prevailed in five games.[115] The Yankees faced another competitive pennant race in 1950, as the Tigers joined New York and Boston at the top of the AL. Late in the season, the Yankees and Tigers shared first place with the Red Sox two games behind both teams in the standings. New York defeated Boston in a head-to-head series, while Detroit lost three games in a row to Cleveland; this allowed the Yankees to gain first place in the AL by themselves, and they went on to win the pennant.[116] In the 1950 World Series, the Yankees won four straight games against the Philadelphia Phillies; the second game was decided by a tie-breaking DiMaggio home run in the tenth inning.[117] Following the season, Yankee Phil Rizzuto was named AL MVP after recording 200 base hits during the regular season.[118]

DiMaggio played his final MLB season in 1951, while highly touted outfielder Mickey Mantle made his debut for New York. Pitcher Allie Reynolds threw two no-hitters during 1951, as the Yankees claimed the AL pennant for the third straight year. They also won the 1951 World Series against the Giants, by a margin of four games to two.[119] The Yankees had an opportunity to match the four straight World Series championships won by the team from 1936 to 1939, after their 1952 team earned the AL pennant. In another matchup with the Dodgers, New York fell behind three games to two, but victories in games six and seven gave the Yankees the title.[120] The team returned to the World Series in 1953 for a rematch with the Dodgers. With a Billy Martin base hit that decided the sixth and final game of the Series, the Yankees claimed another four games to two victory and a fifth title in a row.[121] As of 2014, the 1949–1953 Yankees are the only MLB teams to win five straight World Series; no team since has won more than three consecutive championships.[122]

The team won 103 games in 1954, more than in any of the previous regular seasons with Stengel as manager, but the Indians took the pennant with an AL-record 111 wins.[123] One year later, the 1955 Yankees beat out the Indians for the AL championship, and faced the Dodgers in the World Series.[124] After the teams split the first six games of the Series, the Yankees lost the seventh and final game 2–0, giving the Dodgers their first Series win against New York in six attempts.[125] That year also saw the debut of Elston Howard, the first African American player in Yankees history. His arrival came nine years after MLB's color line had been broken, as the Yankees' management had sought to avoid integrating the club's roster.[126] In 1956, Mantle won the MVP award for a season in which he led the AL and MLB in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130), becoming the second Yankee (after Gehrig in 1934) to win a Triple Crown for leading the AL in all three statistics.[127] The 1956 Yankees won the franchise's seventh AL championship since Stengel became their manager and advanced to a World Series rematch with the Dodgers. In Game 5 of the Series, after the teams had each won two games, Yankees pitcher Don Larsen threw a perfect game, not allowing a single Dodgers batter to reach base. The Yankees went on to win the Series in seven games.[128]

1957–64: Continued success

By 1957, the Yankees had claimed all but 6 of the 21 AL pennants awarded since 1936. The team's minor league system had been reduced to 10 teams from a peak of 22, and its scouting system was acclaimed by Sports Illustrated's Roy Terrell as "the best in all baseball."[129] Instead of signing a large number of players for their organization, the Yankees concentrated on acquiring a modest number of highly skilled players, according to head scout Paul Krichell. The club recruited players by selling them on the "fame, fortune and fat shares of a World Series pot" that came with making New York's roster.[129]

The 1957 Yankees reached that year's World Series, but lost in seven games to the Milwaukee Braves.[130] Following the Series, the Giants and Dodgers left New York City for California, leaving the Yankees as New York's only team. Despite their status as the sole New York City-based franchise, the Yankees' 1958 attendance decreased from previous seasons as the team could not draw fans of the relocated clubs.[131] In the 1958 World Series, the Yankees had an opportunity to avenge their defeat against the Braves the previous year, but fell behind by losing three of the first four games. However, they won the final three games of the Series to claim another championship.[132] The Yankees were unable to defend their AL and World Series championships in 1959, as they ended up with a 79–75 record, third place in the AL standings. The team's batting and pitching statistics were both off 1958's totals, and top starting pitcher Bob Turley's win total fell from 21 to 8.[133]

Beginning in 1955, when Arnold Johnson (a friend of Topping and Yankees general manager George Weiss) became the owner of the Kansas City Athletics, the team had made many transactions with the Yankees. From 1956 to 1960, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. The trades served to strengthen the Yankees' roster, and brought criticism from rival clubs.[134] Before their 1960 season, the Yankees made one such trade with the Athletics in which they acquired outfielder Roger Maris.[135] In his first Yankees season, Maris led the league in slugging percentage, RBIs, and extra base hits, finished second with 39 home runs, and won a Gold Glove and the American League MVP award.[136] The 1960 Yankees won the AL pennant for the team's 10th league title under Stengel, and outscored the Pirates 55–27 in the seven World Series games. However, the team lost four of them, falling short of a Series championship after Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning home run in the final game, ending a contest that Appel called "one of the most memorable in baseball history." The season turned out to be Stengel's last as Yankees manager, and Ralph Houk was chosen to lead the club starting in 1961.[137]

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Roger Maris broke the MLB single-season home run record in 1961, his second year as a Yankee.

That season saw both Mantle and Maris chase Ruth's single-season home run record of 60, and the pair attracted strong press attention as the year progressed. Ultimately, an infection forced Mantle to leave the lineup and bow out of the race in mid-September with 54 home runs. Maris would continue the race, though, and on October 1, the final day of the season, he homered against Red Sox pitcher Tracy Stallard into the right field stands of Yankee Stadium, breaking the record with 61. However, Commissioner Ford Frick decreed that two separate records be kept, as Ruth's record-setting season was 154 games, 8 fewer than in 1961.[138] It would be 30 years before MLB did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record.[139]

The Yankees won the pennant with 109 regular season wins, at the time the club's second-highest single-season total, and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series; it was the 19th Series title in franchise history. The team also hit 240 home runs to break the MLB single-season record. Maris won another AL MVP Award, while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young Award as the best pitcher in MLB, having posted a 25–4 record in 1961. The team gained a reputation as one of the strongest the Yankees had fielded, along with the 1927 and 1939 Yankees.[140] New York returned to the World Series in 1962, facing the San Francisco Giants. After exchanging victories in the first six games of the Series, the Yankees won the decisive seventh game 1–0 to clinch the title.[141]

The Yankees again reached the World Series in their 1963 campaign, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Houk left the manager's position to become the team's general manager and Berra, who had just retired from playing, was named the new manager.[142] After dealing with player injuries and internal dissention, the Yankees came back from their third-place standing late in the 1964 season and won the AL pennant by one game over the White Sox.[143] It was their fifth straight World Series appearance and fourteenth in the past sixteen years.[122] The team faced the St. Louis Cardinals in a series that included a walk-off home run by Mantle to end the third game. Despite Mantle's game-winning hit, the Yankees were defeated by the Cardinals in seven games, and Berra was fired.[144]

1965–72: New ownership and decline

In 1964, CBS announced that it was purchasing 80 percent of the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. The television network bought the remaining 20 percent, originally retained by Topping and Webb, in the next two years. Topping left as team president after the sale; CBS executive Mike Burke replaced him.[145] From 1962 to the sale, Topping and Webb had sharply curtailed the Yankees' investment in their minor league system, to show greater profits. As a result, the team lacked capable replacements for their aging players.[146] Other factors affected the club's fortunes as well. The team had been slow in signing further African American players after Howard, and eventually fell behind other clubs in integrating their roster.[147] While all American League clubs dragged their feet in integrating their rosters, the rapid decline of the Yankees' white stars left them on the same footing as the rest of the league.[148] In addition, 1965's introduction of the MLB draft, which allowed the clubs with the worst records to have the first selections, meant that the Yankees could not freely choose which young American amateur players to sign.[149]

The Yankees finished with a record of 77–85 in 1965, and their sixth-place finish in the AL standings was their lowest since 1925. It was also only their second finish in the second division since 1918. Johnny Keane, who was hired to succeed Berra as manager, was fired after the Yankees lost 16 of 20 games to start their 1966 season; Houk named himself his replacement. A last-place finish—their first since 1912—followed at season's end, and New York ended up one position higher the following season. Ford, Howard, Mantle, and Maris all retired or were traded to other clubs between 1966 and 1969.[150] Attendance at Yankee Stadium, which had been trending downward since the late 1940s, fell to between 1 to 1.3 million fans per season from 1965 to 1971, and dropped below 1 million in 1972.[151] One 1966 game had a crowd of 413 fans; television announcer Red Barber was fired by the Yankees after discussing the low attendance during his telecast.[152]

After fifth-place finishes in 1968 and 1969 (the latter in the newly created American League East division), the 1970 Yankees improved to second in the AL East with a 93–69 record,[153] finishing behind the Baltimore Orioles.[154] Catcher Thurman Munson played his first full season for the Yankees that year and won AL Rookie of the Year honors.[155] New York had 11 more losses during their 1971 season than they had in 1970,[156] but in 1972 they contended for the AL East title and a playoff berth. Late in the season, the Yankees were in a four-way tie for the most wins in the division, but a late-season slump caused the team to fall to fourth by the end of their campaign with a record of 79–76.[157]

1973–2008: Steinbrenner era

1973–76: Sale of team and first pennant since 1964

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George Steinbrenner bought the Yankees from CBS in 1973.

Less than a decade into its ownership of the Yankees, CBS moved to sell the team in 1972. In eight years, the team posted an $11 million loss under CBS;[158] in all but two years it lost money for the company.[159] Along with the decrease in attendance, the Yankees' television revenues had fallen by more than 80 percent from their highest total, and in 1973 were more than $1 million below what the Mets earned from their broadcasting agreement.[160] A group of investors, led by Cleveland-based shipbuilder George Steinbrenner, purchased the club from CBS on January 3, 1973 for $10 million.[161] Despite an initial promise that he would "stick to building ships" and remain in the background, Steinbrenner proved to be a hands-on owner, clashing with Burke and forcing him out of his leadership position.[162] Steinbrenner quickly instituted a dress code for the team and barred players from growing beards.[163] Describing the level of control displayed by the lead owner, investor John McMullen stated, "There is nothing in life quite so limited as being a limited partner of George Steinbrenner."[164]

The 1973 Yankees held the AL East lead entering August, but faded and ended the year fourth in the division.[165] The 1973 season was the Yankees' last in Yankee Stadium before a renovation that forced them out of the building.[166] The team had become concerned about the drop in attendance and the poor conditions of the stadium's surroundings. For a time, New Jersey sought to attract sports teams to the proposed Meadowlands Sports Complex, and New York City acted to prevent the Yankees from moving. The city paid $24 million to buy Yankee Stadium and the adjacent land, and in 1972 agreed to renovations.[167] Work on the stadium finished in 1976, and the Yankees were required to play for two seasons at the Mets' home field, Shea Stadium.[168] During the first of those seasons, the team nearly won the AL East, finishing behind the Orioles in a race that was decided in the final games. The Yankees were helped by an early-season trade that brought first baseman Chris Chambliss to the team, and improved to 89 wins from 1973's 80 victories.[168]

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The newly remodeled Yankee Stadium, pictured in 2007, opened in time for the 1976 season.

After the 1974 season, star pitcher Catfish Hunter was declared a free agent because of a skipped insurance payment.[169] The Yankees signed him to a $3.75 million, four-year contract. It was the beginning of a long-term franchise philosophy of using free agency to acquire talent; Stout writes that they "were the first team to comprehend what free agency meant", in terms of increasing attention paid to the club and revenue.[170] Hunter had 23 wins during the Yankees' 1975 season, but the team did not contend for the playoffs after July.[170] New York fired their manager, Bill Virdon, in August and hired former Yankees player Billy Martin as his replacement.[171] With Martin as the helm, the Yankees returned to the postseason in their first season in the remodeled Yankee Stadium, winning the 1976 AL East title by a 10 1/2-game margin over the Orioles. Munson was named AL MVP, with a .302 batting average and a total of 105 RBIs that was second-best in the AL. In the 1976 American League Championship Series (ALCS), the Yankees and Kansas City Royals played to a decisive fifth game, which was won by New York on a walk-off home run by Chambliss that clinched the pennant. The Yankees did not win a game in the 1976 World Series, despite a .529 Series batting average by Munson, as they were swept by the Cincinnati Reds.[172]

1977–81: "The Bronx Zoo"

Free agency was introduced more fully starting in the 1976 offseason, and outfielder Reggie Jackson, who had spent one season with the Orioles after being traded by the Athletics, was the most significant player who was available to sign.[173] Steinbrenner signed Jackson to a five-year, $2.96 million contract, giving the Yankees an important player, but one who had difficulty fitting in with the rest of the team. Martin had opposed Jackson's signing, while many players were angered by comments Jackson made that were critical of Munson. Jackson and Martin nearly came to blows in the Yankees' dugout during one game against the Red Sox, in which Martin removed Jackson for a perceived lack of hustle in the field. The incident sparked reports in the press of disputes between Martin and Steinbrenner, and further conflict between Martin and Jackson. The Yankees of the late-1970s were later nicknamed "The Bronx Zoo", after a book of the same name by pitcher Sparky Lyle, in response to an environment that generated widespread media and fan interest.[174] Even with the turbulence, the 1977 Yankees won the AL East and advanced to the playoffs, in which they defeated the Royals in the 1977 ALCS. Trailing 3–2 entering the ninth inning of the decisive fifth game, the Yankees scored three runs to gain a berth in the World Series.[175] Against the Dodgers, the Yankees prevailed in six games for their first Series championship since 1962. Jackson hit a record five home runs in the Series, including three in Game 6 on consecutive pitches faced and against three different Dodgers pitchers;[176] the feat led to him gaining the nickname "Mr. October".[177]

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The Yankees' 1977 and 1978 World Series trophies on display in Yankee Stadium.

Before their 1978 season, the Yankees added relief pitcher Goose Gossage, in spite of the presence of reigning Cy Young Award winner Lyle. By the middle of July, the team was 14 games behind the Red Sox in the AL East and infighting had begun again. Following comments to reporters criticizing both Jackson and Steinbrenner, Martin resigned and Bob Lemon was hired as his replacement. New York closed the gap that Boston had opened on them, and by the start of a four-game series on September 7, the Red Sox' lead was down to four games.[178] Over the course of the series, which is nicknamed "The Boston Massacre", the Yankees outscored the Red Sox 42–9, winning each game.[179] The teams finished the regular season in a tie for the AL East championship, which was broken in a tie-breaker game on October 2.[180] Facing a 2–0 deficit in the seventh inning, the Yankees took the lead on a three-run home run by shortstop Bucky Dent, and eventually won 5–4.[181] After beating the Kansas City Royals for the third consecutive year in the ALCS, the Yankees faced the Dodgers again in the 1978 World Series. They lost the first two games on the road, but then returned to Yankee Stadium and won three consecutive games before clinching a Series championship in Game 6 in Los Angeles.[182] Pitcher Ron Guidry was the Cy Young Award winner in 1978, having posted 25 wins against 3 losses and a 1.74 ERA, and 248 strikeouts. Eighteen of his strikeouts came in his June 17 appearance against the California Angels, which broke the franchise record.[183]

On August 2, 1979, Munson was killed in a plane crash. Martin, who had returned as manager after Steinbrenner fired Lemon in June, said that with his death, "The whole bottom fell out of the team."[184] The 1979 Yankees ended their season fourth in the division with an 89–71 record.[185] Steinbrenner fired Martin after the season and replaced him with Dick Howser, who led the Yankees to 103 wins and the AL East title in 1980. Jackson led the AL with 41 home runs and posted a .300 batting average for the Yankees, who ended three wins ahead of the Orioles. Their stay in the postseason was brief, as the Royals beat them in three straight games to win the ALCS.[186] Before their 1981 campaign, the Yankees signed Dave Winfield to a 10-year contract worth $23 million, a record at the time. The season was shortened by a strike, and the Yankees qualified for the playoffs by virtue of leading the AL East when the work stoppage began. They defeat the Milwaukee Brewers in a divisional playoff round in five games. and won the AL pennant with three straight wins over the Athletics in the ALCS. The Yankees won the first two games of the 1981 World Series against Los Angeles, but the Dodgers won the next four games and the championship.[187]

1982–95: Struggles and return to postseason

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Don Mattingly was the MVP of the AL in 1985, but did not compete in the MLB playoffs until a decade later.

Following the team's loss to the Dodgers in the 1981 World Series, the Yankees had their longest absence from the World Series since their initial appearance in 1921. They did not return to the Series until 1996, a 15-year drought.[188] As the 1980s progressed, the Yankees regularly spent heavily on free agents who were aging and declining in performance.[189] The atmosphere of turmoil around the club turned off some players, who either ignored the Yankees' contract offers or took advantage of them to gain more money from other teams.[190] To acquire other veterans, Steinbrenner traded young players; sportswriter Buster Olney called this "a practice that ultimately inflicted serious damage on the organization, leaving the team without the needed influx of young and cheap talent."[191] Under Steinbrenner, the Yankees also changed managers frequently. There were 21 managerial changes in his first two decades of ownership; Martin served five separate stints as New York's manager.[192]

One of Steinbrenner's firings came 14 games into the Yankees' 1982 season, when Lemon was sacked.[192] Two other managers—Gene Michael and Clyde King—were hired during the season, in which the Yankees finished 79–83 in their first year after Jackson had become a free agent and signed elsewhere.[133] Martin returned as manager for the 1983 season, and the Yankees were second in the AL East by a margin of seven games. Steinbrenner replaced Martin with Yogi Berra after the season.[193] New York lost 29 of their first 49 games in 1984, but ended 87–75, good for fourth in the division standings. Henry Fetter wrote of the team, which had numerous aging players, "The 1984 Yanks had assembled an all-star lineup—but it was that of 1979."[189] In what became a trend in future seasons, the Yankees lacked effective pitching, undoing the efforts of a top-tier offense that included players such as Winfield and first baseman Don Mattingly, a rare hitter to come from the Yankees' minor league system during the era. Mattingly led the AL in batting average in 1984—beating out Winfield for the league lead.[194]

The Yankees' 1985 season began with a batting lineup improved by an offseason trade for Rickey Henderson, who went on to break numerous records as his career progressed.[195] Mattingly was AL MVP in 1985, with 145 RBI and a personal-best 35 home runs, while Guidry won 22 games on the pitching side. New York had 97 wins, which placed them two victories away from a possible playoff berth.[196] The 1986 side's win total fell to 92, but they were second place in their division. Mattingly hit an MLB record six grand slam home runs in 1987, but dealt with back pain that limited his effectiveness in his remaining years. The Yankees fell to fourth that season,[197] beginning a six-year streak in which the team did not place third or better in the AL East.[198] New York began their 1988 schedule with 20 wins in 29 games, but were unable to reach the postseason that year or in 1989, when they ended the season outside the division's top four teams.[199] The Yankees had the most wins of any MLB team during the 1980s,[198] but missed the playoffs eight times during the decade and did not win a World Series.[200] Despite a fall in attendance that started after 1988, the team's finances were not significantly harmed, as they had a 12-year television rights contract with the Madison Square Garden network that gave them a record $500 million and flexibility to increase their payroll if desired.[201]

Winfield's tenure with the team ended when he was traded in May 1990. The team lost 95 games during the season to finish at the bottom of the AL East, and their .414 winning percentage was the franchise's worst since 1913.[202] The Yankees' front office saw a dramatic change that year, which Glenn Stout cites as a turning point for the club.[203] Winfield had become a target of Steinbrenner in previous years. At one 1985 game, he criticized Winfield by calling him "Mr. May".[203] Steinbrenner also disliked Winfield's salary and was critical of a charitable foundation run by him.[203] A gambler was paid by Steinbrenner "for damaging information" about Winfield, an incident that resulted in an indefinite suspension from then-Commissioner of Baseball Fay Vincent in 1990. Under new general manager Gene Michael, the club allowed their minor league talent more time to improve their skills and a greater chance to make the MLB roster.[204] Michael focused on on-base percentage in deciding which hitters to acquire, and placed emphasis on left-handed batters due to dimensions at Yankee Stadium that were favorable to them.[205] The players who developed their talents in the minor and major leagues during the Yankees' rebuilding period included outfielder Bernie Williams, a future AL batting average leader,[206] and a group—Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, and Mariano Rivera—that became the centerpiece of future teams. It was later nicknamed the "Core Four".[207]

After a 71-win 1991 season, the Yankees replaced their incumbent manager, Stump Merrill, with Buck Showalter, who increased the playing time given to young prospects. While the 1992 Yankees were 20 games behind the AL East winner, offseason acquisitions—third baseman Wade Boggs, pitcher Jimmy Key, and outfielder Paul O'Neill—helped the 1993 team to an 88–74 record and New York's highest divisional finish (second) in seven seasons. By 1994, the Yankees progressed to the point where they led the AL with a 70–43 record going into the final months of the regular season.[208] Their campaign was cut short by a players' strike, which resulted in the cancellation of the playoffs and 1994 World Series. The Village Voice's Bob Eckstein called the strike one of the worst moments in New York City sports history.[209] Many media members believed that the Yankees may have reached the World Series if not for the strike.[210] A year later, the team reached the playoffs by winning the first AL wild card berth, giving Mattingly his first career postseason appearance, but were eliminated in a five-game Division Series (ALDS) against the Seattle Mariners.[211]

1996–2001: Championship run

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Joe Torre on the right, standing with Yankee catcher Yogi Berra.

Mattingly did not return to the Yankees for their 1996 season, and the club replaced Showalter with Joe Torre.[212] The managerial change met with a mixed reception by the press, as Torre had a previous managing record of 894–1,003 and no World Series experience. Torre was called "Clueless Joe" in one publication.[213] As his Yankees career progressed, though, he received praise for his handling of players; Olney remarked that he was able to "defuse powder-keg issues and serve as a buffer between Steinbrenner and the players."[214] Jeter won the AL Rookie of the Year Award in his first full season with the Yankees, while Pettite was second in AL Cy Young Award voting with 21 wins and Rivera posted an 8–3 record and 2.09 ERA as the club won a division title.[215] New York reached the 1996 World Series, where they lost the first two games to the Atlanta Braves by a combined score of 16–1. But the Yankees won three straight contests in Atlanta, including a Game 4 in which they scored eight straight runs to rally from a 6–0 deficit. With a 3–2 win in Game 6, the team won the Series.[216] For 1997, the Yankees signed starting pitcher David Wells and allowed closer John Wetteland to leave in free agency, enabling Rivera to inherit the role. The 1997 Yankees earned a wild card playoff berth, but lost three games to two against the Cleveland Indians in the ALDS.[217]

In preparation for their 1998 season, New York replaced general manager Bob Watson with Brian Cashman. The club made many player acquisitions, gaining the services of third baseman Scott Brosius, second baseman Chuck Knoblauch, and starting pitcher Orlando Hernández. The Yankees won 28 of their first 37 games—a stretch that concluded with a perfect game pitched by Wells—and by August were 76–27.[218] The 1998 Yankees are considered by some writers to be among the greatest teams in baseball history,[219][220][221] having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular-season wins against 48 losses. After playoff series wins over the Texas Rangers and Indians, New York defeated the San Diego Padres in four consecutive World Series games for their 24th Series title.[222]

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U.S. President George W. Bush tosses out the ceremonial first pitch before Game 3 of the 2001 World Series.

After the 1998 season, Wells was traded to the Toronto Blue Jays for Roger Clemens, who had just completed two consecutive Cy Young Award-winning seasons. In a regular season that included another perfect game by a Yankees pitcher, this one by David Cone, New York led the AL East with 98 wins and beat the Rangers in the ALDS. This led to an ALCS against the Red Sox, the Yankees' chief rivals. New York won the first two games en route to a 4–1 series win, and went on to sweep the Braves in the 1999 World Series. The postseason results gave the 1998–99 Yankees a 22–3 playoff record, and the team held a 12-game winning streak in World Series competition dating back to 1996.[223] The 2000 Yankees had an 87–74 regular season record and the lowest win total among playoff qualifiers.[224] In spite of their record, the Yankees defeated the Athletics in the ALDS and the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS. New York's pennant placed them in the 2000 World Series against the cross-town Mets, the first Subway Series between New York City teams in 44 years.[225] With a four games to one victory in the Subway Series, the Yankees gained their third successive title.[226] As of 2014, the 2000 Yankees are the most recent MLB team to repeat as World Series champions and the Yankees of 1998–2000 are the last team to win three consecutive World Series.[122]

Free agent pitcher Mike Mussina signed with New York before their 2001 season began, and the club pulled away from the Red Sox as the year progressed to claim another divisional championship. Clemens won 20 games in the regular season as the Yankees advanced to the ALDS against the Athletics in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, which had affected New York City and delayed the end of the MLB schedule. After falling behind 2–0 in the series, the Yankees won three straght contests to advance to the ALCS. Their opponents were the Seattle Mariners, who had won 116 games, tied for the most ever by an MLB team in a single year. The Yankees won the opening two games in Seattle and ended the series in five overall games, for the team's fourth straight AL pennant.[227] The Arizona Diamondbacks gained a two-game lead in the 2001 World Series before the Yankees won three consecutive ballgames; New York home runs with two outs in the ninth inning of Games 4 and 5 led to extra inning wins in both games, with Game 4 ended by a Jeter home run.[228] The Yankees' championship streak was finished by Arizona, though, as the Diamondbacks won the Series in seven games with a late rally in the final inning of Game 7.[229]

2002–08: Final years in old Yankee Stadium

After the 2001 season, several players from the late-1990s and early-2000s Yankees teams departed. O'Neill and Brosius retired, and Tino Martinez and Knoblauch left in free agency. The Yankees brought in Jason Giambi, who they signed to a $120 million contract for seven seasons. Wells returned to the club as well, and posted a 19–7 record in the Yankees' 2002 campaign. New York won their fifth AL East title in a row, but the Anaheim Angels defeated them in the ALDS.[230] The Yankees' major acquisition in the offseason was leading Japanese hitter Hideki Matsui of the Yomiuri Giants.[231] Another signing, that of Cuban pitcher José Contreras, led to complaints from Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino, who dubbed his team's rivals "the Evil Empire".[232] Tensions between the rivals increased in the coming seasons, and numerous writers called the rivalry one of the most intense and well known in North American professional sports.[233][234][235] By 2003, the team's overall payroll had reached almost $153 million, a total that exceeded those of 11 other teams by at least $100 million each.[236] Criticism of the Yankees' spending such as Lucchino's was frequently raised; during a 15-year stretch from 1999 to 2013, they led MLB annually in salaries paid to players.[237]

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Alex Rodriguez was named the 2005 and 2007 American League MVP.

Following the Yankees' 2003 season, in which Jeter became their first captain since Mattingly, the team faced the Red Sox in the ALCS. The series came down to a seventh game, and the Yankees fell behind before three eighth-inning runs forced a 5–5 tie and extra innings. Aaron Boone, a third baseman acquired by New York in a mid-season trade, hit a walk-off home run in the eleventh inning to give New York the pennant. The Yankees were then defeated by the Florida Marlins in the World Series, four games to two.[238] The Yankees added power hitting to their lineup in the offseason, signing free agent Gary Sheffield and trading for shortstop Alex Rodriguez, who became a third baseman with New York. Three of the starting pitchers from the previous season—Clemens, Pettitte, and Wells—left the team before the season. Despite the losses, the 2004 Yankees managed to top the AL East with 101 wins and defeat the Twins three games to one in the ALDS.[239] The victory set up an ALCS rematch with the Red Sox in which the Yankees took a 3–0 series lead before losing four consecutive games. New York became the first team in MLB history to lose a best-of-seven series after winning the first three games.[240]

The 2005 season featured an AL MVP performance by Rodriguez, who hit a league-leading 48 home runs with 130 RBIs and a .321 batting average. New second baseman Robinson Cano was the AL Rookie of the Year runner-up, and starting pitchers Randy Johnson and Chien-Ming Wang joined the club. The Yankees beat out the Red Sox for the division title because they won 10 of their 19 contests against Boston; both teams had 95–67 records.[241] The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason.[242] The 2006 Yankees had a similar result, as they won the AL East for the ninth straight year but were eliminated in the ALDS by the Detroit Tigers three games to one.[242]

For 2007, Clemens and Pettitte returned to the Yankees' starting rotation, having each spent three seasons pitching for the Houston Astros. Rodriguez again won the AL MVP award, as his 54 home runs and 156 RBIs topped the AL; in addition, he scored 143 runs, the highest single-season number by a player since 1985. After starting the year 21–29, the Yankees rallied to win the AL's wild card berth; it was the first time in 10 seasons that they did not win the AL East. New York's season ended in the first round of the playoffs; the Indians won the opening two games of the ALDS and finished the series in four games. Manager Torre did not re-sign after the season, and Joe Girardi took his place.[243] Rodriguez, who used an opt-out clause in his contract to become a free agent, stayed with the Yankees by signing for $275 million over 10 seasons, an MLB record.[244]

The 2008 season was the Yankees' last in which they played at the original Yankee Stadium. It was also the first in which Hal and Hank Steinbrenner ran the team as general partners; while George Steinbrenner was still the principal owner on paper, he yielded operational responsibilities during the 2007 offseason. Yankee Stadium was the site of the 2008 All-Star Game, but for the first time in 14 years did not host playoff action. New York ended the year third in the AL East and failed to qualify for the postseason. On September 21, the Yankees hosted their final game at the old Yankee Stadium, a 7–3 win over the Orioles.[245]

2009–present: New stadium and 27th championship

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Derek Jeter salutes the Yankee Stadium crowd after breaking Lou Gehrig's franchise hits record.

For the Yankees' first season in the new Yankee Stadium, the team committed over $400 million in future salaries to three free agents: pitchers CC Sabathia and A. J. Burnett, and first baseman Mark Teixeira. On April 16, 2009, the Yankees played their first regular season game at the new ballpark, losing 10–2 to the Indians before 48,271 fans.[246] New York won 90 of their final 134 games, and broke the team's single-season record by hitting 244 home runs.[247] Another club record was broken by Jeter, who passed Gehrig as the Yankees' all-time hits leader on September 11.[248] New York posted 103 wins in 2009 and beat out the Red Sox for the division title by eight games. In the AL playoffs, they defeated the Twins in the ALDS and the Angels in the ALCS, advancing to the 2009 World Series. There they faced the Philadelphia Phillies, who had won the Series in 2008.[249] Behind a six-RBI effort by Matsui in the Series-clinching sixth game, the Yankees defeated the Phillies to win the franchise's 27th Series championship.[250]

George Steinbrenner died in July 2010. The Tampa Bay Rays ended the regular schedule one game ahead of the Yankees in the AL East standings, but New York won the league's wild card berth. After a three-game sweep of the Twins in the ALDS, the Yankees' title defense was ended by the Texas Rangers, who won the team's matchup in the ALCS.[251] In 2011, multiple Yankees players set individual marks. Jeter joined the 3,000 hit club on July 9; he was the first player to do so while playing for the club. Later in the season, Rivera posted the 602nd save of his career, breaking the all-time record that had been held by Trevor Hoffman. The Yankees won the AL East, but lost in the ALDS to the Tigers.[252] In May 2012, Rivera suffered a season-ending injury to his right knee while catching fly balls before a game against the Royals.[253] Even without their longtime closer, the 2012 Yankees gained a 10-game lead in their division by mid-July, only to see the Orioles draw even in the standings by early September. The Yankees won the division title on the last day of the regular season, by a final margin of two games.[254] In the ALDS, the Yankees defeated the Orioles in five games to advance to the ALCS against the Tigers. New York fell short of another World Series appearance, losing to Detroit in a four-game sweep.[255]

During Game 1 of the 2012 ALCS, Jeter's right ankle was broken while he was attempted to field a ball defensively.[256] He was one of many Yankees to miss playing time during the club's 2013 campaign; Rodriguez, Teixeira, and Curtis Granderson were also among the 20 players who were placed on the disabled list at least once. The team was in position for an opportunity to win a wild card playoff spot, but faded late in the season.[257] The Yankees were officially eliminated from playoff contention on September 25; it was the second time since 1995 that New York did not qualify for postseason play.[258] In the offseason, Cano departed New York for the Mariners in free agency, but the Yankees signed starting pitcher Masahiro Tanaka, who was coming off a 24–0 year with Japan's Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles, to a seven-year contract.[259] The 2014 Yankees, the last team with Jeter in its lineup, fell four games short of a postseason berth with an 84–78 record. Despite signing several new batters prior to the season, the team scored fewer runs than all but two other AL clubs.[260]

As of 2014, the Yankees' 27 World Series championships are 16 more than the number won by the St. Louis Cardinals, who have the second-most titles among MLB teams.[261] New York's championship total is the highest of any franchise in a major North American league; the National Hockey League's Montreal Canadiens are second behind the Yankees with 24 Stanley Cup wins.[262] The 40 AL titles won by the Yankees places them 17 in front of the Cardinals for the most pennants won by an MLB team. The Giants and Dodgers are the only other clubs with at least 20 pennants.[261] The Baseball Hall of Fame has inducted over 40 players and managers who were members of the Yankees.[263]

In Glenn Stout's Yankees history book, the author wrote:

More often than not, they have shown just how the game of baseball is supposed to be played. Ruth, Gehrig, DiMaggio, Mantle, Mattingly, Jeter, and dozens of other players impossible to forget have worn their uniform. Yankee Stadium has been their stage. The very definition of a dynasty, they have created the collective memories that make friends of strangers, given their city a face, and displayed its heart and soul.[264]


  1. ^ The Yankees do not count the Orioles years as part of their history. Baseball-Reference included the 1901 and 1902 Orioles in its statistics for the Yankees until 2014, when it decided to separate the two years from the subsequent New York-based seasons. Official MLB historian John Thorn supported the change, citing the new ownership, high roster turnover, and AL takeover of the Orioles.[11] Appel wrote that "many historians feel the Yankees and the Orioles were the same franchise", and called the background of the modern club "a question of historical debate"; he opined that "There seems little to really connect the two teams other than one replacing the other."[12]


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