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Holston River

For other uses of "Holston", see Holston (disambiguation).
Holston River
File:North Fork Holston River.jpg
The North Fork of the Holston River near Weber City, Virginia.
Origin Bland County, Virginia
Mouth Tennessee River at Knoxville
Basin countries US
Length Script error: No such module "convert". to farthest source - the North Fork[1]
Source elevation Script error: No such module "convert".
Avg. discharge Script error: No such module "convert".
Basin area Script error: No such module "convert".
File:Holstonrivermap.png
The Holston drainage basin, located within the upper Tennessee drainage basin

The Holston River is a major river system of southwestern Virginia and East Tennessee. The three major forks of the Holston (its North, Middle and South Forks) rise in southwestern Virginia and have their confluence near Kingsport, Tennessee. The North Fork flows Script error: No such module "convert". southwest from Sharon Springs in Bland County, Virginia. The Middle Fork flows Script error: No such module "convert". from near the western border of Wythe County, Virginia, joining the South Fork in Washington County southeast of Abingdon. The South Fork rises near Sugar Grove in Smyth County and flows Script error: No such module "convert". southwest to join the North Fork at Kingsport.[2] From there the main stem of the Holston River flows Script error: No such module "convert". roughly southwestward, just north of Bays Mountain, until it reaches its confluence with the French Broad River just east of downtown Knoxville, Tennessee.[1] This confluence is considered to be the start of the Tennessee River.

Power generation

The Holston River valley has been greatly developed for electrical power generation, both with hydroelectric dams and coal-fired steam plants. In the upper reaches, some of these plants are controlled by private interests; in the downstream portion, they are owned by the United States Government's Tennessee Valley Authority.

Area

Among the dams and associated reservoirs on the South Fork Holston River are Boone Dam and Boone Reservoir, named for the explorer Daniel Boone; Fort Patrick Henry Dam and Fort Patrick Henry Reservoir, named for the Revolutionary War hero; and South Holston Dam and South Holston Reservoir. Cherokee Dam on the Holston River forms Cherokee Reservoir, named for the historic Native Americans who occupied the areas along the Holston River at the time of European-American settlement. The United States settlers and army fought with the Cherokee over land and eventually removed most of them to territory west of the Mississippi River, under the 1830 Indian Removal Act.

Name

The river was named after Stephen Holstein, a European-American settler who built a cabin in 1746 on the upper reaches of the river.[3] Holston Mountain was named after the Holston River.

Geographic definition

The Holston River is now defined as ending at the French Broad River, where the confluence forms the Tennessee River at its mile post 652 in Knoxville. Before 1933, the terminus of the Holston River was defined as the location Script error: No such module "convert". downstream of Knoxville at Lenoir City, where the Little Tennessee River enters the river. That point, the confluence of the Holston and Little Tennessee rivers, was considered to be the beginning of the Tennessee River, Script error: No such module "convert". upstream from the Ohio River at Paducah, Kentucky.

History

According to Tennessee Valley Authority historians, when the TVA was created in 1933, Congress mandated that the TVA headquarters be located on the banks of the Tennessee River. Since the TVA headquarters were already designated to be located in downtown Knoxville, as part of area development on what was then the Holston River, to fulfill the Congressional mandate, the official start of the Tennessee River was moved upstream from Lenoir City to the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers.

All three forks in Virginia, South Holston Lake, and the Holston River in Tennessee below the South Holston Dam offer relatively easy-to-reach recreation opportunities. The North Fork in Virginia is known as an excellent smallmouth bass river (due to mercury contamination, fish caught in the North Fork of the Holston below Saltville, Virginia must not be consumed).[4] Both the South Fork in Virginia and the first Script error: No such module "convert". of the Holston in Tennessee below South Holston Dam are quality brown trout and rainbow trout fisheries. The Holston River is wide and open enough to allow extensive fly fishing. South Holston Lake offers a variety of fishing opportunity as well, as it contains smallmouth bass, common carp, walleye, pike, sunfish, crappie and a few trout.

List of crossings

Holston River

The following is a list of major Road crossings on the Holston River:

Bridge Name Crossing/Road Location Notes
Boyds Bridge Boyds Bridge Pike/Strawberry Plains Pike Knoxville, Tennessee First Road crossing on the Holston
Holston River Bridge Interstate 40 Knoxville
J.W. Will Taylor Memorial Bridge Script error: No such module "Jct". (Asheville Highway) Knoxville
Mascot Bridge Mascot Road Mascot/Strawberry Plains, Tennessee Concrete Arch Bridge
John K. Shields Bridge 20px SR-92 Near Jefferson City, Tennessee
Olen R. Marshall Bridge Script error: No such module "Jct". Morristown/Bean Station, Tennessee The Olen R. Marshall Bridge is the only two bridges that cross the Cherokee Lake
Melinda Ferry Bridge Script error: No such module "Jct". near Rogersville, Tennessee
Hugh B. Day Bridge Script error: No such module "Jct". near Rogersville and Persia, Tennessee
William L. Jenkins Bridge Script error: No such module "Jct". location near Rogersville
Longs Bend Bridge (Current Bridge) Longs Bend Pike Surgoinsville, Tennessee Historic Longs Bend Bridge is being replace and is set to demolished
Goshen Valley Road Church Hill, Tennessee Bridge does not have a name; Final crossing on the main Hoston River

South Fork Holston River

North Fork Holston River

Middle Fork Holston River

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "The National Map". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved Feb 16, 2011. 
  2. "Holston River - South Fork". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 
  3. Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. 
  4. "Holston River - North Fork". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 

External links

Coordinates: 35°57′33″N 83°51′1″W / 35.95917°N 83.85028°W / 35.95917; -83.85028{{#coordinates:35|57|33|N|83|51|1|W| |primary |name= }}