Honours of Winston Churchill
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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill received numerous honours and awards throughout his career as a statesman and author. Perhaps the highest of these was the state funeral held at St Paul's Cathedral after his body had lain in state for three days in Westminster Hall, a signal honour only rarely granted to anybody but a monarch or consort. The funeral also saw one of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world.
Throughout his life, Churchill also accumulated other honours and awards. He was awarded 37 other orders and medals between 1885 and 1964. Of the orders, decorations and medals Churchill received, 20 were awarded by the United Kingdom, three by France, two each by Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg and Spain, and one each by Egypt, Libya, Nepal, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States. Ten were awarded for active service as an Army officer in Cuba, India, Egypt, South Africa, the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium. The greater number of awards were given in recognition of his service as a minister of the British government.
Coat of Arms
Churchill was not a peer, never held a title of nobility, and remained a commoner all his life. As the grandson of 7th Duke of Marlborough, he bore the quartered coat of arms of the Spencer and Churchill families. Paul Courtenay observes that "It would be normal in these circumstances for the paternal arms (Spencer) to take precedence over the maternal (Churchill), but because the Marlborough dukedom was senior to the Sunderland earldom, the procedure was reversed in this case."
The resulting heraldic achievement is: quarterly 1st and 4th, Sable a lion rampant Argent on a canton of the second a cross Gules (Churchill); 2nd and 3rd, quarterly Argent and Gules, in the second and third quarters a fret Or, over all on a bend Sable three escallops of the first (Spencer); in chief, on an escutcheon Argent a cross Gules surmounted by an inescutcheon Azure charged with three fleurs-de-lys Or.
Since he was a Knight of the Garter, his arms were encircled by the belt and motto of the garter. The helms are open, which is the mark of a knight. The motto, that of the Dukes of Marlborough, was Fiel pero desdichado (Spanish for "Faithful but unfortunate").
In 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed Churchill the first honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was physically incapable of attending the White House ceremony, so his son and grandson accepted the award for him.
In 1955, after retiring as Prime Minister, Churchill was offered elevation to the peerage in the rank of duke. By custom, retiring Prime Ministers from the Commons were usually offered earldoms, so the dukedom was a sign of special honour. One title that was considered was Duke of London; that capital has never been used in a peerage title. Churchill had represented three different counties in Parliament and his home, Chartwell, was in a fourth, so the city he had spent the most time in during his 50 years in politics was an appropriate choice.
Although Churchill initially considered the offered dukedom, he eventually declined it; the lifestyle of a duke would have been very expensive, and accepting the title would have caused problems for a possible career in the British House of Commons for his son Randolph. (At the time there was no procedure for disclaiming a title; the procedure was first established by the Peerage Act 1963. Upon inheriting it, Randolph would immediately have lost his place in the House of Commons were he sitting at the time - although he never sat in Parliament after losing his first and only seat as an MP in 1945. Since then, only British royalty have been made dukes. Randolph was to die only three years after his father, so the dukedom would have had little time to affect his career – which had ended in 1945 in any case. Randolph's oldest son Winston did serve as an MP from 1970 until 1997, by which time provision existed for disclaiming a hereditary peerage.
On 4 April 1939, Churchill was made an Honorary Air Commodore of No. 615 (County of Surrey) Squadron ("Churchill's Own") in the Auxiliary Air Force. In March 1943, the Air Council awarded Churchill honorary wings. He retained the appointment until 11 March 1957 when 615 Squadron was disbanded. He did however continue to hold the rank of Honorary Air Commodore.
He was the Colonel in Chief of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars (his old regiment) and after its amalgamation, the first Colonel in Chief of the Queen's Royal Irish Hussars which he held until his death in 1965 and was known[by whom?] as the "Greatest Hussar of all time". He was also Colonel in Chief of the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars.
From 1941 to his death, he was the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, a ceremonial office. In 1941 Canadian Governor General Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone, swore him into the King's Privy Council for Canada. Although this allowed him to use the honorific title The Honourable and the post-nominal letters PC, both of these were trumped by his membership in the Imperial Privy Council which allowed him the use of The Right Honourable. He was also appointed Grand Seigneur of the Hudson's Bay Company in December 1955.
In 1945, he was mentioned by Halvdan Koht among seven candidates that were qualified for the Nobel Prize in Peace. However, he did not explicitly nominate any of them. Actually he nominated Cordell Hull.
In 1953, he was awarded two major honours: he was invested as a Knight of the Garter (becoming Sir Winston Churchill, KG) and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".
In 1956, Churchill received the Karlspreis (known in English as the Charlemagne Award), an award by the German city of Aachen to those who most contribute to the European idea, and European peace.
When Churchill was 88 he was asked by the Duke of Edinburgh how he would like to be remembered. He replied with a scholarship like the Rhodes scholarship but for the wider masses. After his death, the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust was established in the United Kingdom and Australia. A Churchill Trust Memorial Day was held in Australia, raising A$4.3 million. Since that time the Churchill Trust in Australia has supported over 3,000 scholarship recipients in a diverse variety of fields, where merit, either on the basis of past experience, or potential, and the propensity to contribute to the community have been the only criteria.
One of four specially made sets of false teeth, designed to retain Churchill's distinctive style of speech, which Churchill wore throughout his life, is now kept in the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
On 10 March 2001, the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Winston S. Churchill (DDG-81) was commissioned into the United States Navy. The launch and christening of the ship two years earlier was co-sponsored by Churchill's daughter, Lady Soames.
In addition a Danish car ferry was named 'Winston Churchill' and The Corporation of Trinity House named one of their lighthouse tenders similarly. A sail Training ship was named 'Sir Winston Churchill'
In September 1947, the Southern Railway named a Battle of Britain class steam locomotive No. 21C151 after him. Churchill was offered the opportunity to perform the naming ceremony, but he declined. The locomotive was later used to pull his funeral train, and is now preserved in the National Railway Museum, York.
Pol Roger's prestige cuvée Champagne, Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill, is named after him. The first vintage, 1975, was launched in 1984 at Blenheim Palace. The name was accepted by his heirs as Churchill was a faithful customer of Pol Roger. Following Churchill's death in 1965, Pol Roger added a black border to the label on bottles shipped to the UK as a sign of mourning. This was not lifted until 1990.
Churchill has been included in numerous polls, mostly connected with greatness. Time named him its Man of the Year for 1940, and "Man of the Half-Century" in 1949. A BBC survey, of January 2000, saw Churchill voted the greatest British prime minister of the 20th century. In 2002, BBC TV viewers and web site users voted him the greatest Briton of all time in a ten-part series called Great Britons, a poll attracting almost two million votes.
Buildings, highways and statues
Many statues have been created in likeness and in honour of Churchill. Numerous buildings and squares have also been named in his honour. The most prominent example of a statue of Churchill is the official statue commissioned by the government and created by Ivor Roberts-Jones which now stands in Parliament Square. It was unveiled by Churchill's widow, Lady Churchill, on 1 November 1973, and was Grade II listed in 2008. Another Roberts-Jones statue of Churchill displaying the V sign is prominently placed in New Orleans (1977). In addition several other statues have also been made, including a bronze head of Churchill by Jacob Epstein (1946), several statues by David McFall at Woodford (1959), William McVey outside the British embassy in Washington D.C. (1966), Franta Belsky at Fulton, Missouri (1969), at least three from Oscar Nemon: one on the front lawn of the Halifax Public Library branch on Spring Garden Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia (1980); one in the House of Commons (1969); a bust of his head along with that of Franklin Roosevelt commemorating the Quebec Conference, 1943 next to Port St. Louis in Quebec City (1998); and one in Nathan Phillips Square outside of Toronto City Hall, Ontario (1977), and Jean Cardot beside the Petit Palais in Paris (1998). A statue of Churchill and Roosevelt, sculpted by Lawrence Holofcener is located in New Bond Street, London.
After Churchill was declared the greatest Briton of all time in the BBC poll and television series Great Britons (see above), a statue was erected in his honour and now stands at the BBC television studios. Churchill is also memorialised by many statues and a public square in New York, in recognition of his life, and also because his mother was from New York. His maternal family is also memorialised in streets, parks, and neighbourhoods throughout the city.
The national and Commonwealth memorial to Churchill is Churchill College, Cambridge, which was founded in 1958 and opened in 1960. It is also home to the Churchill Archives Centre, which holds the papers of Sir Winston Churchill and over 570 collections of personal papers and archives documenting the history of the Churchill era and after.Many schools have been named after him:
Ten schools in Canada are named in his honour: one each in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Hamilton, Kingston, St. Catharines, Lethbridge, Calgary, Toronto (Scarborough) and Ottawa. Churchill Auditorium at the Technion is named after him.
The city of Edmonton, Canada has a stop on the Edmonton LRT system and a public square named in his honour. Churchill Square, is the main square in that city and was renovated in 2004 for the city's 100th anniversary of incorporation. There are several other squares named after him, including one in Brighton and one in Newfoundland. The south end of Churchill Avenue in Ottawa was the site of the Churchill Arms Motor Hotel, which many residents of Ottawa remember for its three storey exterior painting of the silhouette of Winston Churchill. Churchill Avenue itself renamed from Main Street after the Second World War. In St. Albert, Alberta Sir Winston Churchill Ave runs east to west through the city. Winston Churchill Boulevard in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada is also named in his honour.
Many smaller, less significant streets and public buildings, particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand have been named in honour of Churchill.
List of honours
- 80px Order of the Garter (Knight Companion) (1953)
- 80px Order of Merit (1946)
- 80px Order of the Companions of Honour (1922)
- 80px The India Medal with clasp, Punjab Frontier 1897–8 (1898)
- 80px The Queen's Sudan Medal, 1896–8 (1899)
- 80px The Queen's South Africa Medal, 1899–1902, with six clasps (1901)
- 80px 1914-15 Star (1919)
- 80px British War Medal 1914–1918 (1919)
- 80px Victory Medal (United Kingdom) 1914–1919 (1920)
- 80px 1939-1945 Star
- 80px Africa Star (1945)
- 80px Italy Star (1945)
- 80px France and Germany Star (1945)
- 80px War Medal 1939–1945
- 80px King George V Coronation Medal (1911)
- 80px King George V Silver Jubilee Medal (1935)
- 80px King George VI Coronation Medal (1937)
- 80px Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (1953)
- 80px Territorial Decoration (1924)
- 80px Cross First Class of the Order of Military Merit, Red Ribbon (War Service) (Spain, 1895)
- 80px Cross of Liberty for Military Leadership, Grade I (Estonia, 1925)
- 80px Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (Belgium) with Palm (Belgium, 1945)
- 80px Knight Grand Cross, Order of the Netherlands Lion (Netherlands, 1946)
- 80px Grand Cross, Order of the Oak Crown (Luxembourg, 1946)
- 80px Grand Cross with Collar, Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav (Norway, 1948)
- 80px Knight of the Order of the Elephant (Denmark, 1950)
- 80px Companion of the Ordre de la Libération (France, 1958)
- 80px Most Refulgent Order of the Star of Nepal, First Class (Nepal, 1961)
- 80px Grand Sash of the High Order of Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (Libya, 1962)
- 80px Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army) (United States, 1919)
- 80px Croix de Guerre with Palm (Belgium, 1945)
- 80px Military Medal 1940-45 (Luxembourg, 1946)
- 80px Medaille Militaire (France, 1947)
- 80px Croix de Guerre with Palm (France, 1947)
- 80px Cuban Campaign Medal, 1895-98 (Spain, 1914)
- 80px Khedive's Sudan Medal (clasp: Khartoum) (Egypt, 1899)
- 80px King Christian X's Liberty Medal (Denmark, 1947)
(Although some references report Churchill was awarded the French Legion of Honour, it is not listed among his honours at the Churchill Centre. However, it is significant that Churchill received the Medaille Militaire, which is only awarded (for high leadership) to holders of the Legion's Grand Cross).
- Rector of the University of Aberdeen (1914–18)
- Rector of Edinburgh University (1929–32)
- Chancellor of the University of Bristol (1929–1965)
- Honorary doctorates from British universities including University of Aberdeen, University of Liverpool, University of London, Queens University, Belfast
- Honorary doctorates in Law from Rochester and Harvard universities in the United States, and McGill University in Canada
- Honorary doctorate in philosophy from the University of Copenhagen
- Honorary doctorate (LL.D) from Leiden University in The Netherlands (10 May 1946) 
- Honorary doctorate (LL.D) from the University of Miami in Florida (26 February 1946) 
Political, honorary, literary, military, and science
- Fellow of the Royal Society (1941)
- Privy Councillor (1907)
- Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1914–1915
- Honorary Air Commodore of No. 615 Squadron RAF (1939)
- Colonel in Chief of 4th Queen's Own Hussars 1941 (later Queen's Royal Irish Hussars) (1957)
- Colonel in Chief of Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars
- Lieutenant-Colonel-6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
- Major-2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards
- Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports (1941)
- Queen's Privy Council for Canada (29 December 1941) 
- Nobel Prize in Literature (1953)
- Grand Seigneur of the Hudson's Bay Company (1955).
- Karlspreis (1956)
- 1st World Citizenship Award from Civitan International (1964)
- Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels
- Member of Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers
- Order of the White Lion 1st class, civilian (2014) 
- Royal Society of St George (Vice President)
- Society of the Cincinnati (1952)
- Sons of the American Revolution
Freedom of the City
- British Empire
- 23x15px 1942: Edinburgh
- 23x15px 1943: London
- 23x15px 1946: Blackpool
- 23x15px 1946: Aberdeen
- 23x15px 1947: Manchester 
- 23x15px 1948: Cardiff
- 23x15px 1948: Perth
- 23x15px 1950: Bath
- 23x15px 1951: Sheffield  
- 23x15px 1953: Stirling
- Template:Country data Jamaica 1953: Kingston
- 23x15px 1950: Portsmouth
- 23x15px 1957: Douglas
- 23x15px 1958: Leeds
- Picknett, et al., p. 252.
- Gould, Peter (2005-04-08). "Europe | Holding history's largest funeral". BBC News. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- The Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sir Winston Churchill – The Churchill Centre
- Paul Courtenay, The Armorial Bearings of Sir Winston Churchill The Armorial Bearings of Sir Winston Churchill (accessed 20 July 2013).
- Robson, Thomas, The British Herald, or Cabinet of Armorial Bearings of the Nobility & Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland, Volume I, Turner & Marwood, Sunderland, 1830, p. 401 (CHU-CLA).
- Plumpton, John (Summer 1988). "A Son of America Though a Subject of Britain". Finest Hour (60).
- Ramsden, John (2002). Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and His Legend Since 1945. Columbia University Press. pp. 113, 597. ISBN 9780231131063.
- Statesmanship – The Churchill Centre
- The Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sir Winston Churchill by Douglas Russell
- "Questions Answered: Winston Churchill in uniform and Ralph or Rafe". The Times. 13 September 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- The London Gazette: . 28 May 1957. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
- "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace, 1901–1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-05-14.[dead link]
- Lundy, Darryl. "Biography Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill". The Peerage.[unreliable source?] – website thePeerage.com
- "Literature 1953". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Winston Churchill hero file". AU: More or Less. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen – Detail". DE: Karlspreis. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Chartered Institute of Building". Wikipedia. Wiki Media. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. pp. 96–97.
- "Colonels web site". Kycolonels.org. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Kentucky: Secretary of State – Kentucky Colonels". Sos.ky.gov. 2006-10-26. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/museums/exhibitions/churchill/[dead link]
- "Home – USS W.S. Churchill". Churchill.navy.mil. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "1965 Churchill Crown". 24carat.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Winston Churchill £5 Crown from the British Royal Mint". CoinUpdate.com. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- Pol Roger UK: Sir Winston Churchill, accessed 2010-07-12
- Chris Shillito. "The Churchill Tank". Armourinfocus.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "GREAT BRITAIN: Man of the Year". Time. 1941-01-06. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
- "Winston Churchill, Man of the Year". Time. 1950-01-02. Retrieved 2010-12-26.
- BBC – Great Britons.
- Sherna Noah (1 January 2004). "Churchill statue 'had the look of Mussolini'". The Independent. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "Sir Winston Churchill". Greater London Authority. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Winston Churchill statue in New Orleans
- "Churchill College : Churchill Archives Centre". Chu.cam.ac.uk. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- "Sale threatens future of Churchill Arms". Ottawa Citizen. 1 April 1986. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Norway Rd (1970-01-01). "Churchill NOrway – Google Maps". Maps.google.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Luxembourg's WW2 Medals". Users.skynet.be. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- Cuban Campaign Medal, 1895–98
- Khedive's Sudan Medal 1896 -1908
- University of Bristol, Press Release, 12 March 2004, includes list of former Chancellors
- "Zeman bestows Czech While Lion Order on Winton, Churchill".