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House of Hanover

"Hanoverians" redirects here. For the college whose alumni are known as such, see Hanover College. For other uses, see Hanover House.
House of Hanover
200px
Country Kingdom of Great Britain, Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Parent house
Titles
  • Empress of India
  • King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
  • King of Great Britain
  • King of France
  • King of Ireland
  • King of Hanover
  • Elector of Brunswick-Lueneburg
  • Arch-Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
  • Duke of Brunswick
  • etc., etc., etc.
    Founded 1635 - George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    Current head Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover
    Dissolution

    United Kingdom:
    1901 - Death of Queen Victoria ends the British branch in the agnatic line; semi-Salic law ends personal union of Hanover with the United Kingdom in 1837, upon death of her uncle William IV.

    Hanover:
    1866 - George V of Hanover lost the territory to Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War

    Brunswick:
    1918 - Ernest Augustus of Brunswick forced to abdicate after German defeat in World War I
    Ethnicity German

    The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians /ˌhænɵˈvɪəriənz/; German: Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Braunschweig-Lüneburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901. They are sometimes referred to as the House of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Hanover line.

    The House of Hanover is a younger branch of the House of Welf, which in turn is the senior branch of the House of Este.

    Queen Victoria was the granddaughter of George III and was an ancestor of most major European royal houses. She arranged marriages for her children and grandchildren across the continent, tying Europe together; this earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover; her son King Edward VII belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father, Albert, Prince Consort. Under semi-Salic law, Victoria could not inherit the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchies unless the entire male line became extinct; those possessions passed to the next eligible male heir, her uncle Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, the Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale—the fifth son of George III.

    The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover.

    History

    Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

    George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover.[citation needed] When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by:

    • Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641-1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648-1665). He reliquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg.
    • George William, 2nd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1648-1665) and Prince of Lüneburg (1665-1705). He reliquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg on the death of his brother, Christian Louis.
    • John Frederick, 3rd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1665-1679).
    • George Louis, son of Duke Ernest Augustus and Sophia, became Elector and Prince of Calenberg in 1698 and Prince of Lüneburg when his uncle George William died in 1705. He inherited his mother's claim to the throne of Great Britain when she died in 1714.

    Monarchs of Great Britain and the United Kingdom and Electors and Kings of Hanover

    George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714.[1]:13 The dynasty provided six British monarchs:

    Of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland:

    Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

    George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of Hanover (cf. personal union). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover.

    In 1837, however, the personal union of the thrones of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland.[1]:13,14 In 1901, when Queen Victoria died, her son and heir Edward VII became the first British Monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.[1]:14

    Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union

    British Royalty
    House of Hanover
    George I
    George II
    Sophia, Queen in Prussia
    George II
    Frederick, Prince of Wales
    Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
    Princess Amelia
    Princess Caroline
    Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
    Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel
    Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
    Grandchildren
    Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick
    George III
    Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
    Princess Elizabeth of Wales
    Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
    Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn
    Princess Louisa of Wales
    Prince Frederick of Wales
    Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
    Great-grandchildren
    Princess Sophia of Gloucester
    Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
    George III
    George IV
    Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
    William IV
    Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg
    Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
    Princess Augusta Sophia
    Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
    Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
    Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
    Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
    Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
    Princess Sophia
    Prince Octavius
    Prince Alfred
    Princess Amelia
    Grandchildren
    Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
    Princess Charlotte of Clarence
    Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
    Victoria
    George V of Hanover
    Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
    Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
    Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
    Great-grandchildren
    Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
    Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen
    Princess Marie of Hanover
    Great-great-grandchildren
    Marie Louise, Princess Maximilan of Baden
    Prince George William of Hanover
    Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
    Princess Olga of Hanover
    Prince Christian of Hanover
    Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick
    Great-great-great-grandchildren
    Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover and Hereditary Prince of Brunswick
    Prince George William of Hanover
    Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes
    George IV
    William IV
    Victoria

    After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty:

    The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Prussia. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick.

    Duchy of Brunswick

    In 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the Duchy of Brunswick, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent.

    The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his youngest son Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain".

    Claimants

    The later heads of the House of Hanover have been:

    see Line of succession to the Hanoverian Throne

    The family has been resident in Austria since 1866; it has held courtesy titles since 1919.[citation needed]

    List of members

    See List of members of the House of Hanover.

    Patrilineal descent

    Patrilineal descent, descent from father to son, is the principle behind membership in some royal houses, particularly those outside Britain. Notwithstanding that paternity was not definitively provable until 1970, some royal houses pretended this could be done, primarily through using marital presumptions, i.e. that the children of a King's wife were his biological children. Under this Agnatic Succession the house of monarchs of the House of Hanover was the House of Lucca (or Obertenghi, or Este, or Welf). In contrast, in Britain, cognatic descent (or descent through both parents, and definitively through particular females, regardless of the husband's position, such as Sophia of Hanover by the constitutional Act of Settlement 1701) has been in place since at least the War of the Roses.

    This is the descent of the primary male heir. For the complete expanded family tree, see List of members of the House of Hanover.

    1. Oberto I, 912–975
    2. Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017
    3. Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029
    4. Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d.
    5. Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101
    6. Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126
    7. Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139
    8. Henry the Lion, 1129–1195
    9. William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213
    10. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252
    11. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279
    12. Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318
    13. Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369
    14. Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373
    15. Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434
    16. Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478
    17. Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471
    18. Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532
    19. Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546
    20. William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592
    21. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641
    22. Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698
    23. George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727
    24. George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760
    25. Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751
    26. George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820
    27. Ernest Augustus I of Hanover, 1771–1851
    28. George V of Hanover, 1819–1878
    29. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923
    30. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953
    31. Ernest Augustus IV, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987
    32. Ernst August V, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954
    33. Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983

    Notes

    1. ^ a b c Picknett, Lynn; Prince, Clive; Prior, Stephen; Brydon, Robert (2002), War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, Mainstream Publishing, ISBN 1-84018-631-3 .
    2. ^ In 1801, the British and Irish kingdoms merged, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

    Further reading

    • Fraser, Flora. Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III. Knopf, 2005.
    • Plumb, J. H. The First Four Georges. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974.
    • Redman, Alvin. The House of Hanover. Coward-McCann, 1960.
    • Van der Kiste, John. George III’s Children. Sutton Publishing, 1992.

    Historiography

    • Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714-1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939 (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181-205
    • Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966 (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography

    See also

    External links

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    House of Hanover
    Cadet branch of the House of Welf
    New title
    Duchy created from the
    stem duchy of Saxony
    Ruling house of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
    1235–1692
    Duchy raised to Electorate
    by Emperor Leopold I for aid
    given in the Nine Years' War 
    New title
    Duchy raised to Electorate
    Ruling house of the Electorate of Hanover
    1692–1803
    Electorate abolished
     Occupied by France in the Napoleonic Wars 
    Preceded by
    House of Stuart
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain
    1714–1800
    Kingdoms merged by
    Acts of Union 1800
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Ireland
    1714–1800
    New title
    Union of Great Britain and Ireland
    Ruling house of the United Kingdom
    of Great Britain and Ireland

    1801–1901
    Succeeded by
    House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
    New title
    Electorate raised to Kingdom
    at the Congress of Vienna
    Ruling house of the Kingdom of Hanover
    1814–1866
    Kingdom abolished
     Annexed by Prussia in the
    Austro-Prussian War