Open Access Articles- Top Results for Human sexuality

Human sexuality

This article is about human sexual anatomy, sexuality and perceptions. For information specifically about sexual activities, see Human sexual activity.
"Sexuality" redirects here. For sexual behavior among other animals, see Animal sexuality. For other uses, see Sexuality (disambiguation).

Human sexuality is the capacity to have erotic experiences and responses. A person's sexual orientation may influence their sexual interest and attraction for another person.[1] Sexuality may be experienced and expressed in a variety of ways, including through thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships,[2] which may manifest by way of biological, physical, emotional, or spiritual aspects. The biological and physical aspects of sexuality largely concern the reproductive functions of the sexes (including the human sexual response cycle),[3] and the basic biological drive that exists in all species. Physical, as well as emotional, aspects of sexuality also include the bond that exists between individuals, and is expressed through profound feelings or physical manifestations of emotions of love, trust, and caring. Spiritual aspects of sexuality concern an individual's spiritual connection with others. Sexuality additionally impacts and is impacted by cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life. It can refer to issues of morality, ethics, religion and theology.

Sexual activity is a vital principle of human living that connects the desire, energy and pleasure of the body to a knowledge of human intimacy, for the sake of erotic love, intimate friendship, human mating and procreation. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty.[4] Some researchers assume that sexual orientation or sexual behavior is determined by genetics; some argue that it is molded by the environment; and others argue that both interact to form sexual orientation.[1] This pertains to the nature versus nurture debate, in which one assumes the features of a person innately correspond to their natural inheritance, as in the case of drives and instincts, or in which one assumes the features of a person continue to change throughout their development and nurturing, as in the case of ego ideals and formative identifications. Contrary to popular opinion, genes are studied not on the premise that they stand for a trait but rather on the premise that only a difference in alleles corresponds to a variation in traits among persons.[5] In the case of human sexuality, this means that "ten percent of the population has chromosomal variations that do not fit neatly into the XX-female and XY-male set of categories."[6]

Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling and reproduction

  1. REDIRECT Template:Spaced ndash derived, for instance, from studies of phenomena such as reproduction strategies
    1. REDIRECT Template:Spaced ndash [7] and social learning theory[8] provide further views of sexuality. Socio-cultural aspects of sexuality include historical developments and religious beliefs, including Jewish views on sexual pleasure within the marriage and certain Christian or other religious views on avoidance of sexual pleasures.[3] Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. The study of sexuality also includes human identity within social groups, sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs) and birth control methods.

      Nature-versus-nurture debate

      Main article: Nature versus nurture

      Certain characteristics are believed to be innate in humans; however these characteristics may be modified by the physical and social environment people interact in. [9] Human sexuality is driven by genetics and mental activity. The sexual drive affects the development of personal identity[10] and many social activities.[11] Normative characteristics, as well as social, cultural, educational, and environmental characteristics of an individual also moderate the sexual drive.[10] There are two well-known theorists who formed the opposing positions in the nature versus nurture debate. Sigmund Freud, a firm supporter of the nature argument, believed that sexual drives are instinctive and viewed sexuality as the central source of human personality. John Locke, on the other hand, believed in the nurture argument, using his theory of the mind as being seen as a "tabula rasa," or blank slate, the environment in which one develops drives their sexuality.[12]

      According to the humanistic paradigm: internal activity of the personality becomes priority in the psychosexual development, uses and modulates biological and social determinants in own interests.

      Sigmund Freud

      Freud's theory assumed that behavior was rooted in biology. He proposed that instincts are the principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and held that there are a large number of instincts but that they are reduced into two broad groups; Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers instincts toward aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty.[13] Freud gave sexual drives a centrality in human life, actions, and behaviors that had not been accepted before his proposal. His instinct theory suggested that humans are driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasures, thus supporting the nature debate. Freud successfully redefined the term "sexuality" to make it cover any form of pleasure that can be derived from the human body,[13] raised the notion that the pre-genital zones are primitive areas of preliminary enjoyment preceding sexual intercourse and orgasm.[14] He reasoned that pleasure lowers tension, while displeasure raises it, influencing the sexual drive in humans. His developmentalist perspective was governed by inner forces, especially biological drives and maturation, and his view that humans are biologically inclined to seek sexual gratification demonstrates the nature side of the debate.[12]

      John Locke

      Locke (1632–1704) rejected the assumption that there are innate differences among people, and argued that people are shaped strongly by their social environments, especially by education.[12] He believed that it would be accurate to view a child's mind as a tabula rasa or blank slate; whatever goes into the mind will come from the surrounding environment.[12] As the person develops, they discover their identity. Locke proposed to follow a child from its birth and observe the changes that time makes, saying that one will find that as the mind, through sensory information, becomes furnished with ideas, it becomes more awake and aware. He said that after some time, the child's mind begins to know the objects which are most familiar. As the child's brain develops, he or she begins to know the people and social surroundings of daily life and can then distinguish the known from the unknown. This view supports the nurture side of the debate.[15] Locke believed that there are no natural obstructions that would block the development of children's inherent potential for acting freely and rationally and that everyone is born to become independent beings and benefit from the environment.[citation needed]

      Human sexual behavior is different from the sexual behavior of most other animal species, in that it seems to be affected by several factors. For example, while most non-human species are driven to partake in sexual behavior when reproduction is possible, humans are not sexually active just for the sake of reproduction.[16] The environment, culture, and social setting play major roles in the perception, attitudes, and behaviors of sexuality. Sexual behavior is also affected by the inability to detect sexual stimuli, incorrect labeling, or misattribution. This may in turn impede an individual's sexual performance.[16]

      Evolutionary aspects

      Sex in private distinguishes humans from bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Testis and penis size are related to family structure: monogamy or promiscuity, harem, in human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, respectively (see The Third Chimpanzee and Why is Sex Fun? by Jared Diamond). Involvement of the father in education, concealed ovulation, and menopause in women, are quite unique to our species, at least when compared to other hominins. Concealed (or "hidden") ovulation means that the phase of fertility is not detectable in humans, whereas chimpanzees advertise ovulation by an obvious swelling of the genitals. Women can be partly aware of their ovulation, along the menstrual phases, but men are essentially unable to detect ovulation in women. Most primates have semi-concealed ovulation; thus, one can think that the common ancestor had semi-concealed ovulation, that she transmitted to gorillas, but that later evolved into concealed ovulation in humans and advertised ovulation in chimpanzee (see "Why is Sex Fun?").

      Biological and physiological aspects

      Like other mammals, humans are dioecious, primarily composed of male or female sexes,[17] with small proportions of intersex individuals (around 1%) for whom sexual classification may not be as clear.[18] The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the human reproductive system and human sexual response cycle and the factors that affect these processes. They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses,[19] heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.[20]

      Physical anatomy and reproduction

      Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to some degree with regard to the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and reproduce. Both men and women react to sexual stimuli in somewhat of the same fashion with only minor differences. Women have a monthly reproductive cycle and the male sperm production cycle is more continuous.[3]


      The brain is the structure that translates nerve impulses from the skin into pleasurable sensations. It controls nerves and muscles used during sexual behavior. The brain regulates the release of hormones which are believed to be the physiological origin of sexual desire. The cerebral cortex, which is the outer layer of the brain and allows for thinking and reasoning is believed to be the origin of sexual thoughts and fantasies. Beneath the cortex is the limbic system, which consists of the amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, and septal area. These structures are where emotions and feelings are believed to originate from and are important for sexual behavior.

      The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is the small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes complete elimination of sexual behavior. One of the reasons for the importance of the hypothalamus is its relation to the pituitary gland which lies right beneath it. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones secreted are oxytocin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.[3] Oxytocin is also known as the "Hormone of Love." Oxytocin is released in both men and women during sexual intercourse when an orgasm is achieved. It is believed that oxytocin is involved with maintaining close relationships. The hormone is also released in women when they give birth or are breastfeeding.[21] Both prolactic and oxytocin stimulate milk production in women. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS) is responsible for ovulation in women by triggering egg maturity and in men it stimulates sperm production.[22] Luteinizing hormone (LH) triggers ovulation which is the release of a mature egg.[3]

      Female anatomy and reproductive system

      Women have both external (genitalia) and internal reproductive organs. For the women, their genitalia can be collectively known as the vulva. The vulva includes the mons veneris, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vaginal opening, and urethral opening. Women's genitalia vary in appearance from person to person, differing in size, shape, and color. A woman's feelings towards her genitalia are directly related to her participation and enjoyment of anything sexual.

      External female anatomy
      File:Vulva labeled english.jpg
      External female genitals

      The mons veneris is also known as the "Mound of Venus." This area is the soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the area where the pubic bone comes together.[23] Following puberty, this area grows in size. It is sensitive to stimulation due to many nerve endings gathering in this area.[3]

      The labia (minora and majora) are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum in women. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. Labia majora would also be known as the outer lips. In between the labia majora are the labia minora. These two hairless folds of skin meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch. The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn bright red or wine colored.[3] Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The labia minora are composed of connective tissues that are richly supplied with blood vessels which cause the pinkish appearance.[24] The purpose of the labia minora is to protect the vaginal and urethral opening by covering them in a sexually unstimulated state.[25] Located at the base of the labia minora are the Bartholin's glands which contribute a few drops of an alkaline fluid to the vagina via ducts which helps to counteract acidity of the outer vagina since sperm cannot live in an acidic environment.[3]

      The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone harbors as many (or more in some cases) nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch.[26][27][28] The clitoral glans, which is a small, elongated erectile structure, has only one known function—sexual sensations. The clitoris is also the main source of orgasm in women.[29][30][31][32] The thick secretions that collect in the clitoris are called smegma.[3]

      The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. This opening has many nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch. It is surrounded by the bulbocavernosus muscle which is a ring of sphincter muscles that contract and relax. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal. Within the vaginal opening, there is something called the hymen which is a thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. To rupture the hymen has been historically considered as losing one's virginity, though by modern standards losing one's virginity is considered as the first time someone has sexual intercourse, as the hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening expels urine from the bladder. This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. This opening connects to the bladder with the urethra.[3]

      The last part of the external organs used for sexual pleasure are the breasts. Western culture is one of the few that find breasts to be erotic.[3] The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.[24] Their purpose is to provide milk to a developing infant. They develop during puberty due to an increase in estrogen, and each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 mammary glands, which are milk producing glands. It is the more fatty tissue one has that determines the size of breasts, and heredity plays a huge role in determining size.[3] "A mammary gland is composed of fifteen to twenty irregularly shaped lobes, each of which includes alveolar glands, and a duct (lactiferous duct) that leads to the nipple and opens to the outside. The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles. Other connective tissue, which forms dense strands called "suspensory ligaments," extends inward from the skin of the breast to the pectoral tissue to support the weight of the breast. The breasts are really modified sweat glands, which are made up of fibrous tissues and fat that provide support and contain nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.[24]

      Internal female anatomy
      File:Female reproductive system lateral.png
      The female reproductive system

      The female's internal reproductive organs consist of the vagina, uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The vagina is the sheath-like canal in women that extends from the vulva to the cervix. The vagina receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. This is also known as the birth canal and can expand to 10 centimeters during labor and delivery. The vagina is located behind the bladder but in front of the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication, which allows the penis to be inserted. The vagina has three layered walls, and is a self-cleaning organ with natural important bacterium within it to keep the production of yeast down.[3] The G-spot, named after the Ernst Gräfenberg, who first reported it in 1950, may be located in the front wall of the vagina and may cause orgasms. This area may vary in size and location from woman to woman, or be non-existent in some women, and various researchers dispute its structure, existence or hypothesize that it is an extension of the clitoris.[33][34][35]

      The uterus is also known as the womb; a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg, called a zygote, will implant itself and grow into a fetus.[3] The uterus lies in the pelvic cavity behind the bladder, in front of the bowel, and above the vagina. Normally, it is positioned in a 90-degree angle tilting forward, although in about 20% of women it tilts backwards.[24] The uterus consists of three layers with the innermost layer being the endometrium. The endometrium is where the egg is implanted. During ovulation, this thickens up for implantation, but if implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus.[3]

      The Fallopian tubes are the passageways that an egg travels down to the uterus during ovulation. These extend about four inches from both sides of the uterus. There are finger like projections at the end of the tubes that brush the ovaries and pick up the egg once it is released. The egg then travels for about three to four days down to the uterus.[3] "After sexual intercourse, sperm swim up this funnel from the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain both the egg and the sperm, encouraging fertilization and nourishing the egg until it reaches the uterus. If an egg splits in two after fertilization, identical twins are produced. If separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm, the mother gives birth to non-identical or fraternal twins."[24]

      The ovaries are the female gonads, and they are developed from the same embryonic tissue as the male gonads (testicles). These are suspended by ligaments and are the source where the egg or ova are stored and developed before ovulation. The ovaries are also responsible for producing female hormones: progesterone and estrogen. Within the ovaries, each egg is surrounded by other cells and contained within a capsule called a primary follicle. At puberty, one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis. Once matured these are now called Graafian follicles.[3] "The female, unlike the male, does not manufacture the sex cells. A girl baby is born with about 60,000 of these cells." Only about 400 eggs in a women's lifetime will mature.[24]

      A female's ovulation is based on a monthly cycle with the fourteenth day being the most fertile. Days five through thirteen are known as the Preovulatory stages. During this stage, the pituitary gland in the brain secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Then a negative feedback loop is enacted when estrogen is secreted to inhibit the release of FSH. This estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surge triggers ovulation. Day fourteen, ovulation, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary. Once the follicle ruptures, the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity where the fallopian tubes pick up the ovum with the fimbria. The cervical mucus changes to aid in the movement of sperm. Days fifteen to twenty-eight, the Post-ovulatory stage, the Graafian follicle that once held the ovum is now called the corpus luteum, and it now secretes estrogen. Progesterone increases inhibiting LH release. The endometrium thickens to get ready for implantation, and the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. If the egg does not become fertilized and does not implant menstruation begins. Days one to four, menstruation, estrogen and progesterone decreases and the endometrium starts thinning. Now the endometrium is sloughed off for the next three to six days. Once menstruation ends the cycle begins again with an FSH surge from the pituitary gland.[3]

      Male anatomy and reproductive system

      Men also have both internal and external (genitalia) structures that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Men produce their sperm on a cycle, but unlike the female's ovulation cycle, the male sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.[3]

      External male anatomy
      File:Penis with Labels.jpg
      External male genitals on an uncircumcised male.

      The male genitalia are the penis (which has both internal and external structures) and the scrotum (holds the testicles). The penis's purpose is for sexual intercourse and is a passageway for sperm and urine. An average sized unstimulated penis is about 3.75 inches in length and 1.2 inches in diameter. When erect on average, men are most between 4.5 to 6 inches in length and 1.5 inches in diameter; 4.5 inches in circumference. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaft, glans, and the root.[3]

      The shaft of the penis consists of three cylinder-shaped bodies of spongy tissue filled with tiny blood vessels, which run the length of the organ. Two of these bodies lie side by side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa. The third is a tube which lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis (glans) called the corpus spongiosum.[36] The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft so that sperm and urine have a way out the body. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura, and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body also known as the bulb. The root is also surrounded by two muscles: bulbocavernosus muscle and ischiocavernosus muscle which aid in urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that usually covers the glans, and in many cultures, is removed at birth in a controversial procedure called circumcision.[3] Circumcision is one of the oldest forms of body modification known to exist. The second external structure is the scrotum. Here the testicles are held away from the body so that sperm can be produced in an environment several degrees lower than normal body temperature. Sweat glands are also located in this region to aid in temperature control.

      Internal male anatomy
      File:Male anatomy.png
      The male reproductive system

      Males also have internal reproductive structures as well, and these consist of the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland.[3]

      The testicles are the male gonads. This is where sperm and male hormones (androgens) are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules that altogether measure over a quarter of a mile. Cells called the Leydig cells or interstitial cells of Leydig are between the tubules and produce hormones. The hormones that are produced are called androgens, and they consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure which contains blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.[3]

      The next internal structure is the four part duct system that transports sperm. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The seminiferous tubules are the testicles converging to form coiled tubes that are felt at the top and back of each testicle. Each tubule uncoiled is about twenty feet long. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferens.[3] The vas deferens is also known as "ductus deferens," and is a muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The vas deferens also passes upward along the side of the testicles to become part of the spermatic cord.[36] The expanded end is the ampulla which stores sperm before ejaculation. The third part of the duct system are the ejaculatory ducts which are one inch long paired tubes that pass through the prostate gland. This is where semen is produced.[3] The prostate gland is a solid, chestnut-shaped organ that surrounds the first part of the urethra (tube which carries the urine and semen and the fourth part of the duct system[3]) in the male.[36]

      The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles help produce seminal fluid that gets mixed with sperm to create semen.[3] The prostate gland lies under the bladder, in front of the rectum. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone which produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone which produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen.[36] The seminal vesicles secrete fructose for sperm activation and mobilization, prostaglandins to cause uterine contractions which aids in movement through the structure, and bases which help neutralize the acidity of the vagina because sperm cannot survive in an acidic environment. The last internal structure is the Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, which are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. These structures

      Sexual response cycle

      The sexual response cycle is a model that describes the physiological responses that take place in men and women during sexual activity. This model was created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle consists of four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. The excitement phase is the phase in which one attains the intrinsic motivation to pursue sex. The plateau phase sets the stage for orgasm. Orgasm may be more biological for men and more psychological for women. Orgasm is the release of tension, and the resolution period is the unaroused state before the cycle begins again.[3]

      The male sexual response cycle starts out in the excitement phase where two centers in the spine are responsible for an erection. Vasoconstriction begins in the penis, the heart rate increases, scrotum thickens, spermatic cord shortens, and the testicles become engorged in blood. The second phase, plateau, the penis increases in diameter, the testicles become even more engorged, and the Cowper's glands secrete preseminal fluid. The third stage, orgasm, during which rhythmic contractions occur every 0.8 seconds[verification needed], consists of two phases in men. The first phase of orgasm is the emission phase in which contractions of the vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles encourage ejaculation which is the second phase of orgasm. This phase of orgasm is called the expulsion phase and this phase cannot be reached without an orgasm. Finally, the resolution phase is when the male is now in an unaroused state which consists of a refractory period (rest period) before the cycle can begin. This rest period may increase with a man's age.[3]

      The female sexual response begins with the excitement phase which can last from several minutes to several hours. Characteristics of this phase include increased heart and respiratory rate and an elevation of blood pressure. Flushed skin or blotches of redness may occur on the chest and back; breasts increase slightly in size and nipples may become hardened and erect. The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the woman's clitoris and labia minora and the woman's vagina begins to swell. The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening grows tighter and her uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating liquid. The second phase, called the plateau phase, is characterized primarily by the intensification of all of the changes begun during the excitement phase. The plateau phase extends to the brink of orgasm, which initiates the resolution stage, the reversal of all of the changes begun during the excitement phase. During the orgasm stage the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rates reach maximum peaks. The pelvic muscle near the vagina, the anal sphincter and the uterus contract. While muscle contractions in the vaginal area create a high level of pleasure, all orgasms are centered in the clitoris, whether they result from direct manual stimulation applied to the clitoris or indirect pressure resulting from the thrusting of penis during sexual intercourse.[3][37][38][39]

      Sexual dysfunction and sexual problems

      Main article: Sexual dysfunction

      Men and women have many sexual problems which frequently arise because of other problems within a relationship or simply because of individual differences. These differences consist of differences in expectations, assumptions, desire, preferred behaviors, and relationship conflicts. Although these differences create sexual problems in both men and women, problems among men and women are different. The World Health Organization's International Classifications of Diseases defines sexual problems as "the various ways in which an individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he or she would wish." Sexual disorders, according to the DSM-IV-TR, are disturbances in sexual desire and psycho-physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress, and interpersonal difficulty. There are four major categories of sexual problems: desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders.[3]

      Psychological aspects

      Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses. Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality.[40] Psychological studies of sexuality focus on psychological influences that affect sexual behavior and experiences.[20] Early psychological analyses were carried out by Sigmund Freud, who believed in a psychoanalytic approach. He also conjectured the concepts of erogenous zones, psychosexual development, and the Oedipus complex, among others.[41]

      Behavior theorists such as John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner examine the actions and consequences and their ramifications. These theorists would, for example, study a child who is punished for sexual exploration and see if they grow up to associate negative feelings with sex in general.[42] Social-learning theorists use similar concepts, but focus on cognitive activity and modeling.

      Gender identity is a person's own sense of identification as female, male, both, neither, or somewhere in between. The social construction of gender has been discussed by a wide variety of scholars, Judith Butler notable among them. Recent contributions consider the influence of feminist theory and courtship research.[43][44]

      Sexual behavior and intimate relationships are strongly influenced by a person's sexual orientation.[45] Sexual orientation refers to your degree of emotional and physical attraction to members of the opposite sex, same sex, or both sexes.[45] Heterosexual people are attracted to the members of the opposite sex. Homosexual people are attracted to people of the same sex. Those who are bisexual are attracted to both men and women.

      Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been ignored or tolerated by the Christian church.[46] During the 12th century however, hostility toward homosexuality began to spread throughout religious and secular institutions. By the end of the 19th century, homosexuality was viewed as a pathology.[46] Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud adopted more accepting stances. Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made significant contributions to society.[46] Freud believed all human beings as capable of becoming either heterosexual or homosexual; neither orientation was assumed to be innate.[47] Freud claimed that a person's orientation depended on how the Oedipus complex was resolved. He believed that male homosexuality resulted when a young boy had an authoritarian, rejecting mother and turned to his father for love and affection and later to men in general. He believed female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identified with her father and became fixated at that stage.[47]

      Freud and Ellis thought homosexuality resulted from reversed gender roles. This view is reinforced today by the media's portraying male homosexuals as effeminate and female homosexuals as masculine.[47] Whether a person conforms or does not conform to gender stereotypes does not always predict sexual orientation. Society believes that if a man is masculine he is heterosexual, and if a man is feminine he must be homosexual. There is no strong evidence that a homosexual or bisexual orientation must be associated with atypical gender roles. Today, homosexuality is no longer considered to be a pathology. In addition, many factors have been linked to homosexuality including: genetic factors, anatomical factors, birth order, and hormones in the prenatal environment.[47]

      Other than the need of extending one's family tree, there are many other reasons people have sex. According to one study conducted on college students (Meston & Buss, 2007), the four main reasons for sexual activities are: physical attraction, as a means to an end, to increase emotional connection, and to alleviate insecurity.[48]

      Sexuality and age

      Child sexuality

      Main article: Child sexuality

      In the past, children were often assumed not to have sexuality until later development. Sigmund Freud was one of the first researchers to take child sexuality seriously. His ideas, such as psychosexual development and the Oedipus conflict, have been highly debated but regardless, acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was a huge milestone.[49] Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, actions, and behavior, arguing that sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth. He explains this in his theory of infantile sexuality, and claims that sexual energy (libido) is the single most important motivating force in adult life. Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to one's sexual and emotional development. From the initial days of life, the mother's connection to the infant has an effect on the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment.[50] Freud described two currents of emotional life in all of us: an affectionate current, including our bonds with the important people in our lives, and a sensual current, including our wish to gratify sexual impulses. During adolescence, a young person tries to integrate these two emotional currents. This is a difficult task and the risks are many. There are numerous inner conflicts and failures of development that may keep a person repeating immature sexual patterns; this is evident in much that we see on the news. The real challenge is to bring about a convergence of the two currents: the affectionate and the sensual. The sexual over excitement often characteristic of adolescent experimentation is not adaptive in a grown adult.

      Alfred Kinsey also examined child sexuality in his Kinsey Reports. Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions. For example, they wonder where babies come from, they notice the differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play (often mistaken for masturbation). Child sex play includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends (playing doctor).[49] Sex play with others usually decreases as children go through their elementary school years, yet they may still possess romantic interest in their peers. Curiosity levels remain high during these years, but it is not until adolescence that the main surge in sexual interest occurs.[49]

      Sexuality in late adulthood

      Adult sexuality originates in childhood. However, like many other human capacities, sexuality is not fixed, but matures and develops. A common stereotype suggests that people tend to lose interest in and ability to engage in sexual acts once they reach late adulthood. This stereotype is reinforced by Western pop culture, which often ridicules older adults who try to engage in sexual activities. Men are shown suffering heart attacks from over-excitement, and women are depicted as grateful if anyone shows an interest in them. The term "dirty old man" is applied to older men who show an interest in sex beyond a level the speaker considered appropriate . The language for older women, by contrast, is sexless, and older women are portrayed as sexually unattractive and undesirable. Sexuality, however, is similar to most other aspects of aging. Age does not necessarily change the need or desire to be sexually expressive or active. If a couple has been in a long-term relationship, the frequency of sexual activity may decrease, but not necessarily their satisfaction with each other. Many couples find that the type of sexual expression may change, and that with age and the term of relationship there is increased intimacy and love. If sex and sexual intimacy are important aspects in one's life during young and middle adulthood, they will continue to be factors in older adulthood.

      Sociocultural aspects

      Human sexuality can also be understood as part of the social life of humans, governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo. This focus narrows the view to groups within a society.[20] The socio-cultural context of society places major influences on and form social norms, including the effects of politics and the mass media. In the past people fought for their civil rights, and such movements helped to bring about massive changes in social norms – examples include the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism.[51][52]

      The link between constructed sexual meanings and racial ideologies has been studied in the past. It is found sexual meanings are constructed to maintain racial-ethnic-national boundaries, by denigration of "others," and regulation of sexual behavior within the group. "Both adherence to and deviation from such approved behaviors, define and reinforce racial, ethnic, and nationalist regimes."[53][54]

      The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries (such as Australia and much of Europe) "age-appropriate" sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.[55] Sex education covers a range of topics, including the physical, mental, and social aspects of sexual behavior. Where one is geographically placed also plays a role in when society feels it is appropriate for a child to learn about sexuality. According to TIME magazine and CNN, 74% of teenagers in the United States reported that their major source of sexual information were their peers and the media compared to only 10% naming their parents or a sex education course;[3] therefore society makes a huge impact on people's views when it comes to the acceptable and unacceptable behaviors and attitudes towards sexuality. Society's views on sexuality have many influences from the past and the present. Even religion and philosophy make an impact.

      Religious sexual morality

      Most world religions have sought to address the moral issues that arise from people's sexuality in society and in human interactions. Each major religion has developed moral codes covering issues of sexuality, morality, ethics etc., which have sought to guide people's sexual activities and practices. The influence of religion on sexuality is especially apparent in the long debated issue of gay marriage versus civil union.

      When it comes to Judaism it is said that sex is sacred between man and women, within marriage, and should be enjoyed. Celibacy is sinful.[3] Traditionally, Christianity has viewed human sexuality as primarily though not exclusively aimed at reproduction and as tainted by concupiscence after the Fall. Saint Paul spoke of the flesh as at war with the spirit and struggled to control it, though he saw the body itself as holy and a temple of the Holy Spirit (I Cor 6:19). He stated that a celibate lifestyle was preferable for serving God undistracted, which was later cited as a reason for priests having to give up sex and marriage. Saint Augustine believed that sex was only justified in marriage with a view toward procreation, and that when aimed exclusively at pleasure it was tainted by sin. Saint Augustine speaks of the three goods of marriage, the good of fidelity (fidei), of offspring (prolis), and of the sacramental bond (sacramenti). The Catholic Church teaches that sexuality is "noble and worthy"[56] but that it must be used in accordance with natural law. For this reason, all sexual activity must occur in the context of a marriage between a man and a woman and must not be divorced from the possibility of conception. All forms of sex not open to conception are considered intrinsically disordered and sinful, such as any sex with contraceptives, autosexual activity (e.g. masturbation), and homosexual acts.

      Within the Islamic faith, sexual desire is considered to be a natural urge that should not be suppressed, although, the concept of free sex is not accepted; therefore these urges should be fulfilled responsibly. Marriage is considered to be a good deed and it does not hinder spiritual wayfaring. The term used for marriage within the Quran is nikah which literally means sexual intercourse. Although, Islam was sexually restrained, the Islamic faith emphasized sexual pleasure within marriage. It is acceptable for a man to have more than one wife, but he must take care of that wife physically, mentally, emotionally, financially, and spiritually.[57]

      The views on sexuality in Hinduism emphasizes that sex is only appropriate between husband and wife in which satisfying sexual urges through sexual pleasure is an important duty of marriage. Any sex before marriage is considered to interfere with their intellectual development, especially between birth and the age of 25 which is said to be brahmacharya; therefore, this should be avoided. Kama (sensual pleasures) is one of the four purusharthas or aims of life (dharma, artha, kama, and moksha).[58] One of the sacred texts which happen to be popular within Western culture, the Kama Sutra, was created by the Hindus as manual for love making in marriage. This text emphasizes pleasure being the aim of intercourse and even goes in depth about homosexual desires which are believed to be the same as heterosexual desires.

      Buddhism emphasizes the "Middle Way," which is never reaching the extremes. According to this religion, moderation in everything is key to enlightenment or nirvana; therefore, human sexuality should fall in the middle on a continuum from extreme Puritanism to extreme permissiveness. Buddhist also emphasize kama which is a sign that their basis of belief uses Hinduism as their foundation. But all in all, Buddhism does not have an specific rules to break that has horrible consequences as other religions do because Buddhists do not believe in sin, there is only the skilled and unskilled, and the feeling of pleasure is neither.

      Sexuality in history

      File:20141231 155719-Sex in ancient art.jpg
      İnandık Vase from 17th century BC. depicts a sacred marriage ceremony, Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara- Turkey[59]
      Min: the ancient Egyptian god of fertility

      Sexuality has always been a vital part of the human existence and in societies from the long hunting and gathering phases of history to the rise of agriculture, the long centuries of the agricultural period of history,[60] as well as during modern times (44). For all civilizations throughout time, there have been a few common, special characteristics of how sexuality was managed through sexual standards, representations, and behavior.[60] Art and artifacts from past eras help portray human's perceptions of sexuality throughout time.

      Before the rise of agriculture there were groups of hunter/gatherers (H/G) or nomads inhabiting the world. Within these groups, some implications of male dominance existed, but there were also ample signs that women were active participants in sexuality with bargaining power of their own. These H/G groups had less restrictive sexual standards that emphasized sexual pleasure and enjoyment, but with definite rules and constraints. Some underlying continuities or key regulatory standards contended with the tension between recognition of pleasure, interest, and the need, for the sake of social order and economic survival. H/G groups also place high value on certain types of sexual symbolism. Two common tensions of H/G societies are expressed in their art which emphasizes male sexuality and prowess with equally common tendencies to blur gender lines in sexual matters. Some examples of these male dominated portrayals is the Egyptian creation myth when the sun god Atum masturbates in the water creating the Nile River, or in the Sumerian myth of the Gods' semen filling the Tigris.[60]

      Once agricultural societies emerged, the sexuality framework shifted in many ways that persist for many millennia in much of Asia, Africa, Europe, and parts of the Americas. One common characteristic that became new to these societies was the collective supervision of sexual behavior due to the population increases and more concentrated communities due to urbanization. It was a normal event for a child to witness parents having sex because many parents shared the same sleeping quarters with other relatives. Also, due to landownership, determining a child's paternity became important, and society became patriarchal in family life. These changes in sexual ideology were used to try to control female sexuality and to differentiate standards by gender. With these ideologies, sexual possessiveness and increases in jealousy emerged. With the domestication of animals, new opportunities for bestiality (sex with animals) flourished. Mostly males performed these types of sexual acts and many societies acquired firm rules against it. These acts also explain the many depictions of the half-man, half-animal mythical creatures, and the sports of gods and goddesses with animals.[60] While still holding onto earlier precedents of earlier civilizations, each classical civilization established a somewhat distinctive approach to gender, artistic expression of sexual beauty, and to particular behaviors such as homosexuality. Some of these distinctions are portrayed in sex manuals which were also common among these civilizations. These civilizations consist of China, Greece/Rome, Persia, and India, and each has their own history in the sexual world.[60]

      During the 18th and 19th centuries, during the beginning of the industrial revolution, many changes in sexual standards have occurred. New dramatic artificial birth control devices are introduced such as the condom and diaphragm. Doctors started claiming a new role in sexual matters urging that their advice was crucial to sexual morality and health. A significant new pornographic industry blossomed, and Japan adopted its first ever laws against homosexuality. On the other hand, in western societies, the definition of homosexuality is constantly changing, and western influence on others is increasing in strength. New contacts created serious issues around sexuality and sexual traditions. There were also major shifts in sexual behavior. During this period, the ages at which puberty starts to decrease, so a new focus on adolescence as a time of sexual confusion and danger emerges. Finally, there was a new focus on the purpose of marriage being for love rather than just economics and reproduction.[60]

      With regard to other modern advances, Alfred Kinsey initiated the modern era of sex research. He collected data by giving questionnaires to his students at Indiana University, but then switched to personal interviews interested in male and female sexual behaviors. Kinsey and his colleagues sampled a total of 5,300 men and 5,940 women. His findings found that most people masturbate, that many engaged in oral sex, women are capable of having multiple orgasms, and that many men had had some type of homosexual experience in their lifetime. Many believe that he was the major influence in changing 20th century attitudes about sex, and Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction at Indiana University continues to be a major center for the study of human sexuality.[3] Before William Masters, a physician, and Virginia Johnson, a behavioral scientist, the study of anatomy and physiological studies of sex was still limited to experiments with lab animals. Masters and Johnson started to directly observe and record the physical responses in humans that are engaged in sexual activity under laboratory settings. They covered 10,000 episodes of sexual acts consisting of 312 men and 382 women. This led to methods of treating clinical problems and abnormalities. Masters and Johnson opened the very first sex therapy clinic in 1965. In 1970, they described their therapeutic techniques in their book Human Sexual Inadequacy.[3] Sexuality of today is not only influenced by human ancestry or religions, but by the media.

      Reproductive and sexual rights

      Further information: Reproductive health and Reproductive rights

      Reproductive and sexual rights encompass the concept of applying human rights to issues related to reproduction and sexuality.[61] This concept is a modern one, and remains controversial, especially outside the West, since it deals, directly and indirectly, with issues such as contraception, LGBT rights, abortion, sex education, freedom to choose a partner, freedom to decide whether to be sexually active or not, right to bodily integrity, freedom to decide whether or not, and when, to have children.[62][63][64] According to the Swedish government,"sexual rights include the right of all people to decide over their own bodies and sexuality" and "reproductive rights comprise the right of individuals to decide on the number of children they have and the intervals at which they are born."[65] Such rights are not accepted in all cultures, with practices such criminalization of consensual sexual activities (such as those related to homosexual acts and sexual acts outside marriage), acceptance of forced marriage and child marriage, failure to criminalize all non-consensual sexual encounters (such as marital rape), female genital mutilation, or restricted availability of contraception, being common around the world.[66][67]

      Sexual behavior

      General activities and health

      Main article: Human sexual activity

      Human sexual behavior, driven by the desire for pleasure, encompasses the search for a partner or partners, interactions between individuals, whether physical or emotional intimacy, or sexual contact that may lead to foreplay, masturbation and ultimately orgasm.

      Human sexual activity, human mating strategies, human sexual practice, or human sexual behavior, is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts from time to time, and for a wide variety of reasons. Sexual activity normally results in sexual arousal and physiological changes in the aroused person, some of which are pronounced while others are more subtle. Sexual activity also includes conduct and activities which are intended to arouse the sexual interest of another, such as strategies to find or attract partners (mating and display behavior), and personal interactions between individuals, such as flirting and foreplay.

      Human sexual activity has sociological, cognitive, emotional, behavioral and biological aspects, including personal bonding and shared emotions during sexual activity and physiological processes such as the reproductive system, the sex drive and sexual intercourse and sexual behavior in all its forms.

      In humans, sexual intercourse and sexual activity in general have been reported as producing health benefits as varied as improved sense of smell,[68] stress and blood pressure reduction,[69][70] increased immunity,[71] and decreased risk of prostate cancer.[72][73][74] Sexual intimacy, as well as orgasms, increases levels of the hormone oxytocin, also known as "the love hormone", which helps people bond and build trust.[75][76][77] A long-term study of 3,500 people between 30 and 101 by clinical neuropsychologist David Weeks, MD, head of old age psychology at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital in Scotland, found that "sex helps you look between four and seven years younger", according to impartial ratings of the subjects' photos. Exclusive causation, however, is unclear, and the benefits may be indirectly related to sex and directly related to significant reductions in stress, greater contentment, and better sleep that sex promotes.[78][79][80]

      In contrast to its benefits, sexual intercourse can also be a disease vector.[81] There are 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) every year in the U.S.,[82] and worldwide there are over 340 million STDs a year.[83] More than half of all STDs occur in adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years.[84] At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a sexually transmitted disease.[82][85] In the U.S., about 30% of 15–17-year old adolescents have had sexual intercourse, but only about 80% of 15–19-year old adolescents report using condoms for their first sexual intercourse.[86] More than 75% of young women age 18–25 years felt they were at low risk of acquiring an STD in one study.[87]

      Birth control

      Main article: Birth control

      The birth control pill was introduced in 1960 however, until recently condoms and other birth control options that did not require a visit to the doctor were kept behind the counter in drugstores. This inhibited many people from purchasing them. Today, there are numerous contraceptive devices for males as well as females that are sold openly.

      Sexual attraction

      Sexual attraction is an important aspect of the sexuality of the person being observed, as well as of the person observing. Each person determines the qualities that they find attractive, which vary from person to person. A person's sexual orientation has a significant influence on which qualities they will find attractive. The qualities that people can find sexually attractive may depend on the physical quality, including both looks and movements of a person but can also be influenced by voice or smell as well as by individual preferences resulting from a variety of genetic, psychological, and cultural factors.

      Creating a relationship

      People both consciously and subconsciously seek to attract others with whom they can form deeper relationships. This may be for companionship, for procreation, for an intimate relationship, besides other possible purposes. This involves interactive processes whereby people find and attract potential partners, and maintain a relationship. These processes, which involve attracting one or more partners, and maintaining sexual interest, can include:

      • Flirting can be used to attract the sexual attention of another in order to encourage romance or sexual relations, and can involve body language, conversation, joking or brief physical contact.[88]
      • Seduction is the process whereby one person deliberately entices another to engage in some sort of human sexual behavior.[89] The medium of communication of sexual interest can be verbal or visual.
      • Dating is the process of arranging meetings or outings with a potential partner to investigate or enhance their suitability for an intimate partnership.
      • The prospect of physical intimacy is, at times, the most effective means of sexual attraction. This can be by way of an expression of feelings such as close friendship or love, including holding hands, hugging, kissing, or caressing.

      Legal issues

      There are many laws and social customs which prohibit, or in some way have an impact on sexual activities. These laws and customs vary from country to country, and have varied over time. They cover, for example, a prohibition to non-consensual sex, to sex outside of marriage, to sexual activity in public, besides many others. Many of these restrictions are non-controversial, but some have been the subject of public debate.

      Most societies consider it a serious crime to force someone to engage in sexual acts or to engage in sexual activity with someone who does not consent. This is called sexual assault, and if sexual penetration occurs it is called rape, the most serious kind of sexual assault. The details of this distinction may vary among different legal jurisdictions. Also, what constitutes effective consent in sexual matters varies from culture to culture and is frequently debated. Laws regulating the minimum age at which a person can consent to have sex (age of consent) are frequently the subject of debate, as is adolescent sexual behavior in general.

      See also


      1. ^ a b "Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality". American Psychological Association. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
      2. ^
      3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Human Sexuality Today by Bruce M. King (2013; ISBN 978-0-13-604245-7)
      4. ^ Carlson, Neil R. and C. Donald Heth. "Psychology: the Science of Behaviour." 4th Edition. Toronto: Pearson Canada Inc., 2007. 684.
      5. ^ "10 Scientific Ideas That Scientists Wish You Would Stop Misusing". Retrieved July 26, 2014. 
      6. ^ Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York City: Routledge, 1990. 107,
      7. ^ Sexual Strategies Theory: An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Mating by David M. Buss and David P. Schmitt
      8. ^;col1
      9. ^ Csongradi, C. (n.d.). A new look at an old debate. access excellence. retrieved 12 November 2011, from
      10. ^ a b Boccadoro L., Carulli S., (2008) Il posto dell'amore negato. (The place of the denied love. Sexuality and secret psychopathologies – Abstract). Tecnoprint Editrice, Ancona. ISBN 978-88-95554-03-7
      11. ^ Deleuze and Guattari (1972) Anti-Oedipus pp. 322, 114–5
      12. ^ a b c d Crain, W. C. (1980). Theories of development: concepts and applications (fifth edition ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
      13. ^ a b "Freud, Sigmund [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      14. ^ "What is "human sexuality?" - Homework Help". Retrieved 2014-08-05. 
      15. ^ "nature versus vs. nurture debate or controversy - human psychology blank slate". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      16. ^ a b "Human Sexuality". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      17. ^ Leonard, Janet (18 Jun 2010). The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals. Oxford University Press. p. 552. ISBN 978-0-19-532555-3. 
      18. ^ Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2000). Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-07713-7. 
      19. ^ Ellen Ross, Rayna Rapp Sex and Society: A Research Note from Social History and Anthropology Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. 1981), pp. 51–72
      20. ^ a b c Rathus, Spencer A., Jeffrey S. Nevid, and Lois Fichner-Rathus. 2007. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity. Allyn & Bacon.
      21. ^ "Oxytocin". 2010-07-12. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      22. ^ Hyde, Delamater, Byers. Understanding Human Sexuality 5th Canadian ed. pp. 100, 102–104. ISBN 9780070329720. 
      23. ^ Hyde, DeLamater, Byers. Understanding Human Sexuality 5th Canadian ed. p. 78. ISBN 9780070329720. 
      24. ^ a b c d e f "Female Reproductive System - Anatomy Pictures and Information". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      25. ^ Human Reproductive Biology by Mark M. Jones (2012), p. 63.
      26. ^ Francoeur, Robert T. (2000). The Complete Dictionary of Sexology. The Continuum Publishing Company. p. 180. ISBN 0-8264-0672-6. 
      27. ^ Carroll, Janell L. (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-495-60274-3. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
      28. ^ "I'm a woman who cannot feel pleasurable sensations during intercourse". Go Ask Alice!. 8 October 2004 (Last Updated/Reviewed on 17 October 2008). Archived from the original on January 7, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
      29. ^ "'I Want a Better Orgasm!'". WebMD. Archived from the original on 2009-01-13. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
      30. ^ Joseph A. Flaherty, John Marcell Davis, Philip G. Janicak (1993, Digitized Oct 29, 2010). Psychiatry: Diagnosis & therapy. A Lange clinical manual. Appleton & Lange (Original from Northwestern University). p. 217. ISBN 0-8385-1267-4. The amount of time of sexual arousal needed to reach orgasm is variable — and usually much longer — in women than in men; thus, only 20-30% of women attain a coital climax. b. Many women (70-80%) require manual clitoral stimulation...  Check date values in: |date= (help)
      31. ^ Mah, Kenneth; Binik, Yitzchak M (7 January 2001). "The nature of human orgasm: a critical review of major trends". Clinical Psychology Review 21 (6): 823–856. PMID 11497209. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00069-6. Women rated clitoral stimulation as at least somewhat more important than vaginal stimulation in achieving orgasm; only about 20% indicated that they did not require additional clitoral stimulation during intercourse. 
      32. ^ Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Rogers, Rebecca G. (June 2008). "Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction". Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 35 (2): 169–183. PMID 18486835. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2008.03.006. Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation ... About 20% have coital climaxes... 
      33. ^ Hines T (August 2001). "The G-Spot: A modern gynecologic myth". Am J Obstet Gynecol 185 (2): 359–62. PMID 11518892. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.115995. 
      34. ^ Richard Balon, Robert Taylor Segraves (2009). Clinical Manual of Sexual Disorders. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 258. ISBN 1585629057. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
      35. ^ Kilchevsky A, Vardi Y, Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I. (January 2012). "Is the Female G-Spot Truly a Distinct Anatomic Entity?". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2011 (3): 719–26. PMID 22240236. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02623.x. G-Spot Does Not Exist, 'Without A Doubt,' Say Researchers - Lay summary<span />The Huffington Post<span /> (19 January 2012). 
      36. ^ a b c d "Male Reproductive System - Explore Anatomy with Detailed Pictures". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      37. ^ Intimacy, Sinclair (25 April 2005). "Discovery Health "Sexual Response"". Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
      38. ^ "Female Sexual Response Cycle". Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
      39. ^ Koedt, Anne (1970). "The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm". Chicago Women's Liberation Union. Retrieved 2010-11-18. 
      40. ^ John Russon (2009). Bearing Witness to Epiphany: Persons, Things, and the Nature of Erotic Life. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-2504-7. 
      41. ^ What is Psychosexual Development? Psychology from Retrieved 12 October 2009.
      42. ^ B. F. Skinner and behaviorism. From essortment. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
      43. ^ Buss, D.M. (2002) Human mating strategies. Samdunfsokonemen, 4: 48–58.
      44. ^ Farrell, W. (1988) Why Men Are The Way They Are, New York: Berkley Books
      45. ^ a b Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2007). Introduction to psychology: gateways to mind and behavior (11th ed.). Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth.
      46. ^ a b c "Homosexuality and Mental Health". Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      47. ^ a b c d King, B. (2009). Human Sexuality Today (Sixth ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
      48. ^ Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. Wegner (2011). Psychology. Worth Publishers. p. 336. 
      49. ^ a b c Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (4thed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
      50. ^ Bretherton, Inge. "The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth." Developmental psychology 28.5 (1992): 759.
      51. ^ Escoffier, Jeffrey. (Editor): Sexual Revolution. Running Press, 2003. ISBN 1-56025-525-0. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
      52. ^ Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 – The New York Times, 5 February 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
      53. ^ Joane Nagel (August 2000). "Ethnicity and Sexuality". Annual Review of Sociology 26: 107–133. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.107.
      54. ^ Joane Nagel (2001). "Racial, Ethnic, and National Boundaries: Sexual Intersections and Symbolic Interactions". Symbolic Interaction 24 (2): 123–139. doi:10.1525/si.2001.24.2.123.
      55. ^ Think Sex from Retrieved 11 October 2009.
      56. ^ Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today, no. 49: AAS 58 (1966), 1070
      57. ^ Peter N. Stearns "Major Patterns of Change and Continuity: World History in Brief"
      58. ^ "GCSE Bitesize: Hindu views". BBC. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
      59. ^ Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture, p. 175, at Google Books
      60. ^ a b c d e f Stearns, Peter N. Sexuality in World History, ISBN 9780415777773.
      61. ^ "WHO | Gender and human rights". 2002-01-31. Retrieved 2014-08-05. 
      62. ^ Stark, Barbara (2011). "The Women's Convention, Reproductive Rights, and the Reproduction of Gender" (PDF). DUKE JOURNAL OF GENDER LAW & POLICY (Duke University School of Law) 18 (261): 261–304. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
      63. ^ "Towards a broader concept of reproductive rights. - - Medicine". Retrieved 2014-08-05. 
      64. ^ sANDFORT, Theo G. M.; Ehrhardt,, Anke A. (June 2004). "Sexual Health: A Useful Public Health Paradigm or a Moral Imperative?" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior (Springer Science and Business Media B.V.) 33 (3): 181–187. PMID 15129037. doi:10.1023/b:aseb.0000026618.16408.e0. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
      65. ^ "Sweden's international policy on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights" (PDF). Sweden Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2006. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
      66. ^ "Sexual and reproductive rights under threat worldwide | Amnesty International". Retrieved 2014-08-05. 
      67. ^ "My Body, My Rights!". Amnesty International. 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
      68. ^ Wood, H. Sex Cells Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 88 (February 2003) | doi:10.1038/nrn1044
      69. ^ Doheny, K. (2008) "10 Surprising Health Benefits of Sex," WebMD (reviewed by Chang, L., M.D.)
      70. ^ Light, K.C. et al., "More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women." Biological Psychology, April 2005; vol 69: pp 5–21.
      71. ^ Charnetski CJ, Brennan FX. Sexual frequency and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). Psychological Reports 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):839-44. Data on length of relationship and sexual satisfaction were not related to the group differences.
      72. ^ Michael F. Leitzmann; Edward Giovannucci. Frequency of Ejaculation and Risk of Prostate Cancer—Reply. JAMA. (2004);292:329.
      73. ^ Leitzmann MF, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Ejaculation Frequency and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer. JAMA. (2004);291(13):1578–1586.
      74. ^ Giles GG, Severi G, English DR, McCredie MR, Borland R, Boyle P, Hopper JL. Sexual factors and prostate cancer. BJU Int. (2003);92(3):211-6.PMID 12887469
      75. ^ Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS 3rd. Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life. Prog Neurobiol. (2009);88(2):127-51. PMID 19482229
      76. ^ Riley AJ. Oxytocin and coitus. Sexual and Relationship Therapy (1988);3:29–36
      77. ^ Carter CS. Oxytocin and sexual behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (1992);16(2):131–144
      78. ^ Blum, Jeffrey. "Can Good Sex Keep You Young?". WebMD. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
      79. ^ Weeks, David (1999). Secrets of the Superyoung. Berkley. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-425-17258-2. 
      80. ^ Northrup, Christiane (2010). Women's Bodies, Women's Wisdom: Creating Physical and Emotional Health and Healing. Bantam. p. 960. ISBN 978-0-553-80793-6. 
      81. ^ "Common Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
      82. ^ a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2008. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; November 2009.Fact Sheet
      83. ^ World Health Organization Fact Sheet on Sexually Transmitted Diseases. [1] Accessed 27 May 2010
      84. ^ Weinstock H, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health (2004);36(1):6–10.
      85. ^ Sex Infections Found in Quarter of Teenage Girls. The New York Times. 12 March 2008.
      86. ^ CDC. Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10–24 Years —United States, 2002–2007. MMWR 20009; 58 (No. SS-6):1–59 [2]
      87. ^ Yarnall KS, McBride CM, Lyna P, Fish LJ, Civic D, Grothaus L, Scholes D. Factors associated with condom use among at-risk women students and nonstudents seen in managed care. Prev Med. (2003);37(2):163-70.PMID 12855216
      88. ^ SIRC Guide to Flirting. What Social Science can tell you about flirting and how to do it. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
      89. ^ Greene, Robert (2003). The Art of Seduction. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-200119-8. 

      Further reading

      Niall Richardson, Clarissa Smith and Angela Werndly (2013) Studying Sexualities: Theories, Representations, Cultures (London: Palgrave MacMillan)

      External links