Open Access Articles- Top Results for Iloilo


This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Iloilo (disambiguation).
Province of Iloilo
Template:Infobox settlement/columns
Map of the Philippines with Iloilo highlighted

Coordinates: 11°00′N 122°40′E / 11.000°N 122.667°E / 11.000; 122.667Coordinates: 11°00′N 122°40′E / 11.000°N 122.667°E / 11.000; 122.667{{#coordinates:11|00|N|122|40|E|type:city(1805576)_region:PH|| |primary |name=

Country [[{{#property:P17}}]]
Region [[{{#property:P131}}]] (Region VI)
Founded 1566
Capital Iloilo City
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Arthur Defensor, Sr. (Liberal)
 • Vice Governor Raul Tupas (Liberal)
 • Total 5,079.17 km2 (1,961.08 sq mi)
Area rank 23rd out of 81
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 1,805,576
 • Rank 11th out of 81
 • Density 360/km2 (920/sq mi)
 • Density rank 14th out of 81
  Excluding Iloilo City
 • Independent cities 1
 • Component cities 1
 • Municipalities 42
 • Barangays 1,721
including independent cities: 1,901
 • Districts 1st to 5th districts of Iloilo
including independent cities: Lone district of Iloilo City
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 5000 to 5043
Dialing code {{#property:P473}}
ISO 3166 code {{#property:P300}}
Spoken languages Hiligaynon, Kinaray-a, Capiznon, Ati, Tagalog, English
Website {{#property:P856}}

Iloilo is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. Iloilo occupies the southeast portion of Panay Island and is bordered by province of Antique to the west and province of Capiz and the Jintotolo Channel to the north. Just off Iloilo's southeast coast is the island province Guimaras, once part of Iloilo but now an independent province. Across the Panay Gulf and Guimaras Strait is Negros Occidental. Iloilo's capital is Iloilo City though the city itself is independent and not governed by the provincial government of Iloilo.

According to the 2010 national census, the population of province excluding Iloilo City is 1,805,576. If Iloilo City is included, the population is 2,230,195.[2]


At the time of the Spanish conquest, writing was a new import and the use of organic medium such as leaf and bamboo, and no pre-Hispanic written accounts of Iloilo exist today. Oral history, in the form of recited epics, has survived to a small degree, with a few recordings made from the last known surviving binukots. But from these oral history and from writings from other sources, one can still glean Iloilo's prehispanic past.

The controversial origins of the people of Iloilo is said[by whom?] to be from the state of Pannai, a country occupying Sumatra. Pannai was a militant nation allied under the Sri-Vijaya Mandala that defended the conflict-ridden Strait of Malacca. The small kingdom repulsed any unlicensed Chinese, Indian or Arab navies that often warred in or pirated the straights of Malacca and for a small country, they were adept at taking down armadas larger than itself. They were successful in policing and defending the straights of Malacca for the Mandala of Sri-Vijaya until the Chola invasion of Srivijaya occurred, wherein a surprise attack from behind, originating from the occupied capital, rendered the militant-state of Pannai vulnerable from an unprotected assault from the back flank. The Chola invaders eventually destroyed the state of Pannai and its surviving soldiers, royals and scholars were said to have been secreted-out eastwards. In their 450 years of occupying Sumatra, they refused to be enslaved to Islam, Taoism or Hinduism but after the state's dissolution, the people who stayed behind in Pannai, themselves, have a legend wherein the high-borne scholars, soldiers and nobles of Pannai, "fled to other islands." [3]

At this juncture, Iloilo came into prominence, when the local settlement called Irong-Irong and was founded by Datu Paiburong [who presumably fled the fallen Sri Vijaya Mandala] after he and his fellows within the new Mandala of Confederation of Madja-as, bought the island of Panay (Which they presumably named after the state of Pannai or the shortening of the Ati word, Ananipay) from the Negrito Chieftain, Marikudo. The Confederation of Madya-as eventually grew a powerful and strong naval presence that it rivaled the nearby states of the Rajahnate of Cebu, The Kingdom of Tondo and the Sultanate of Sulu when it came to wealth and prestige.

Left to right: Images from the Boxer Codex illustrating an ancient kadatuan or tumao of the Visayans of Panay wearing the distinctive colors of their social status: [1] a noble couple and [2] a royal couple. The wealth and prestige of these Visayans from Panay are clearly demonstrated vis-a-vis their loin-cloth wearing Cebuano neighbors which the Spaniards called "Pintados" or "Tattooed Ones"

By 1512, this state had grown so powerful militarily and economically, their naval power regularly threatened Chinese Imperial shipping. So much so, that the Chuan-chou gazeeter specifically reported that the Pisheya (Bisaya) [Another term for people from Iloilo] consistently made devastating raids against the Empire's commerce [4]

Nevertheless Spain eventually succeeded on conquering of the island of Panay when Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi moved his headquarters from the island of Cebu and creating the first Spanish settlement in the island in Ogtong in 1566. This is mainly due in part to the rivalries between the Bisaya and Moro, of which the former found an ally in Spanish against the latter. The Bisaya accepted alliances with Spain, to defend themselves against the enslaving Moros. To this end, Iloilo contributed troops in the Castille War against the Sultanate of Brunei. In 1581, the encomienda in Ogtong was moved to La Villa Rica de Arevalo, because of frequent coastal raids by the Dutch privateers. Furthermore an attack in the year 1600 (Part of the Spanish–Moro conflict) where there was a large Muslim armada to destroy Iloilo City, lead by two Moros named Sirungan and Salikala who lead the Muslim force of 70 ships and 4,000 warriors that had raided and attacked several Visayan islands in order to abduct slaves to sell to their allies in the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Malacca, eventually caused the move of the city center further on to the mouth of the Irong-irong river founding what is now Iloilo City and constructing Fort San Pedro to defend it in 1616.[5] Nevertheless when the 4,000 Moros lead by Sirungan and Salikala tried to attack Iloilo City they were repulsed with heavy losses in Arevalo, Iloilo by a force of 1,000 Hiligaynon warriors and 70 arquebusiers under the command of Don Juan Garcia de Sierra (The Spanish alcalde mayor) who died in battle.[6]

Nevertheless, the area itself began to prosper, due its successful textile and sugar industry. As a result, it received Chinese immigrants from the west (that worked for its trades) and Latinos from the ports of Mexico in the east (to man its military installations). And over time Iloilo grew to be the most important province outside Manila.

The City of Iloilo by virtue of a Royal Decree of 1896 was given the honor of having a Coat of Arms with the Inscription: "La Muy Leal y Noble Ciudad de Iloilo (The Most Loyal and Noble City) in reward for its loyalty to Spain during the Philippine uprising. Over time, this made Iloilo the "Queen's Favored City in the South" or simply "Queen's City of the South" (A name mistakenly appropriated for Cebu). During the American period, Iloilo then became a home to many firsts: including the first department stores and cinemas in the country. Nevertheless, Iloilo experienced a fall from grace after it was severely devastated in World War II and then had a decline during the 1950s-2000s. In part due to the great Iloilo fire which ruined the economy and the slow death of the sugar and textile industries that eventually some prominent families (Iloilo then, had the highest concentration of millionaires outside Manila) to abandon the city to go to other areas such as Cebu, Bacolod and the National Capital. Still, the large Middle-Class populace of Iloilo and its agri-business sector has managed to maintain the province despite the exodus of some of its prominent families.


File:Ph fil iloilo.png
Political map of Iloilo

The province is divided into two distinct geographic regions; the highlands of the Madia-as on the western border and the lowland plains which account for a larger portion of the province. Small islands east of its northernmost tip also dot the Visayan Sea - of these, Pan de Azucar and Sicogon are well-known.

The Province of Iloilo has the largest marshland in Western Visayas after the Sunderbans.


Iloilo is subdivided into 42 municipalities, one component city, and one highly urbanized city


  • Iloilo City (independent from Iloilo province, but remains the capital of the province)
      • Population: 424,619
      • Area(km2): 78.34
      • Population Density(persons/km2): 5,981
      • Income Class: 1st Class; Highly Urbanized City
  • Passi City (the first and only component city in the province)
City/Municipality Population¹ Area (km²) Pop. density (per km²) Income Class Total LGU Income² Legislative District
Ajuy 47,248 175.57 269.11 2nd Class 78,120,626.94 5th
Alimodian 37,484 144.82 258.83 3rd Class 66,476,536.85 2nd
Anilao 27,486 100.31 274.01 4th Class 49,166,320.22 4th
Badiangan 26,218 77.50 338.30 4th Class 44,900,556.60 3rd
Balasan 29,724 54.27 547.71 4th Class 55,701,752.00 5th
Banate 29,543 102.89 287.13 4th Class 62,225,151.04 4th
Barotac Nuevo 51,867 94.49 548.92 2nd Class 134,578,000.00 4th
Barotac Viejo 41,470 185.78 223.22 3rd Class 81,000,000.00 5th
Batad 19,385 53.10 365.07 5th Class 38,861,953.00 5th
Bingawan 13,432 85.20 157.65 4th Class 35,903,670.99 3rd
Cabatuan 54,950 112.90 486.71 2nd Class 83,333,738.36 3rd
Calinog 54,430 274.55 198.25 2nd Class 86,302,593.00 3rd
Carles 62,690 104.05 602.50 2nd Class 95,439,354.84 5th
Concepcion 39,617 86.12 460.02 3rd Class 72,868,298.14 5th
Dingle 43,290 98.37 440.07 3rd Class 79,809,818.19 4th
Dueñas 33,671 90.52 371.97 4th Class 56,378,481.35 4th
Dumangas 66,108 128.70 513.66 1st Class 92,751,028.47 4th
Estancia 42,666 29.38 1,452.21 2nd Class 72,326,472.27 5th
Guimbal 32,325 44.61 724.61 4th Class 55,235,435.67 1st
Igbaras 31,347 148.72 210.78 3rd Class 57,829,706.89 1st
Janiuay 63,031 179.10 352.93 1st Class 96,918,136.97 3rd
Lambunao 69,023 407.09 169.55 1st Class 94,432,762.63 3rd
Leganes 29,438 32.20 914.22 4th Class 59,964,121.22 2nd
Lemery 27,441 119.90 228.87 4th Class 50,170,294.00 5th
Leon 47,522 140.20 338.96 2nd Class 79,196,955.17 2nd
Maasin 35,069 128.59 272.72 4th Class 71,590,027.63 3rd
Miagao 68,412 156.80 436.30 1st Class 111,882,616.22 1st
Mina 21,785 43.40 501.96 3rd Class 45,232,796.38 3rd
New Lucena 22,174 44.10 502.81 4th Class 40,755,515.00 2nd
Oton 82,572 86.44 955.25 1st Class 127,522,201.00 1st
Passi City 79,663 251.39 316.89 4th Class; Component City 374,183,643.91 4th
Pavia 43,614 27.15 1,606.41 2nd Class 86,320,390.75 2nd
Pototan 70,955 97.10 730.74 1st Class 122,887,889.42 3rd
San Dionisio 33,650 127.06 264.84 4th Class 59,965,286.48 5th
San Enrique 32,422 110.28 294.00 3rd Class 64,428,799.83 4th
San Joaquin 51,645 234.84 219.92 2nd Class 84,990,432.04 1st
San Miguel 25,013 31.97 782.39 4th Class 50,762,752.40 2nd
San Rafael 14,655 67.05 218.57 5th Class 35,321,279.00 5th
Santa Barbara 55,472 131.96 420.37 2nd Class 85,423,867.50 2nd
Sara 46,889 169.02 277.42 2nd Class 83,942,933.00 5th
Tigbauan 58,814 83.68 702.84 2nd Class 79,486,096.00 1st
Tubungan 21,540 85.18 252.88 4th Class 44,469,361.35 1st
Zarraga 23,693 54.48 434.89 4th Class 49,680,038.99 2nd
Province of Iloilo 1,809,443 5,000.83 361.83 1st Class; Province

¹2010 Census ²Local Government Performance Management System


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Population census of Iloilo
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 1,337,981—    
1995 1,415,022+1.05%
2000 1,559,182+2.10%
2007 1,691,878+1.13%
2010 1,805,576+2.40%
Excluding Iloilo City
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

People from Iloilo are called Ilonggos. There are two local languages spoken in the province: Hiligaynon sometimes called Ilonggo, and Kinaray-a. Hiligaynon and variants of it are spoken in Iloilo City and a few towns of the province. Spanish is strictly a local language, at least in a historical way with the number of natural Spanish speakers strongly declining after WWII, and due to this, there are today many Ilonggos who do not consider it a local language.


Languages Spoken (2000)[7]
Language Speakers
Not Reported

Hiligaynon (informally referred to as Ilonggo) is an Austronesian language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines. Hiligaynon is concentrated in the city of Iloilo[8] and westside of Negros Occidental province. It is also spoken in the other provinces in Panay island, such as Capiz, Antique, Aklan, Guimaras, and many parts of Mindanao like Koronadal City, South Cotabato, North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Kidapawan City and Cotabato City and also in some parts of Maguindanao municipalities of Datu Paglas, Buluan and Mangudadatu as well. (It is spoken as a second language by Karay-a in Antique, Aklanon and Malaynon in Aklan, Cebuano in Negros Oriental, and Capiznon in Capiz.). There are approximately 7,000,000 people in and outside the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon, and an additional 4,000,000 who are capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.

The language is referred to as Ilonggo in Negros Occidental and in Iloilo. More precisely, Ilonggo is an ethnoliguistic group referring to the people living in Panay and the culture associated with the people speaking Hiligaynon. The boundaries of the dialect called Ilonggo and that called Hiligaynon are unclear. The disagreement of where what name is correct extends to Philippine language specialists and native laymen.


Iloilo is Catholic predominated province comprising about 90% of the population. Protestant churches also exist such as Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist, Adventist, and other Evangelical Christians; There are also non Protestant and other Christian sects such as Iglesia Ni Cristo, Church of Christ of Latter day Saints (Mormon) and Jehovah's Witnesses while non Christians are usually represented by Moslems.


Spanish architecture can be seen in old buildings in downtown Iloilo. Chinese merchants and Indonesians were trading with the Ilonggos long before the Spaniards came. The ruling Spanish government encouraged these foreign merchants to trade in Iloilo but they were not given privileges like ownership of land. Foreign merchants and Spaniards intermarried with the locals, and the Mestizo class was eventually born from their union. The Mestizo offsprings of the local nobilities later emerged as the ruling class of the Ilonggos (see Principalía).

The town's fiesta is one of the most important events for Ilonggos. Almost every town (municipality) in Iloilo has a fiesta and festival celebrated annually.

Iloilo is also home to two of the countries cultural minorities the Sulod-Bukidnon and the Ati.


File:Capitol Building of the Province of Iloilo.jpg
The Old Capitol Building of the Province of Iloilo.
  • Governor: Arthur D. Defensor, Sr.
  • Vice Governor: Raul C. Tupas

Provincial board members:
1st District

  1. Ninfa S. Garin
  2. Dennis T. Valencia

2nd District

  1. Demmy P. Sonza
  2. June S. Mondejar

3rd District

  1. Emmanuel R. Gallar
  2. Licurgo P. Tirador

4th District

  1. Carmen Rita M. Bautista
  2. Maria Shalene P. Hidalgo

5th District

  1. Nielo C. Tupas
  2. Jesus C. Salcedo

Ex-officio Board Members:

  1. PCL President: Paolo M. Guanco
  2. ABC President: Jeneda C. Salcedo

District Representatives:

  1. 1st District: Oscar S. Garin, Jr.
  2. 2nd District: Arcadio H. Gorriceta
  3. 3rd District: Arthur D. Defensor, Jr.
  4. 4th District: Hernan G. Biron, Jr.
  5. 5th District: Niel C. Tupas, Jr.


File:Passi church.jpg
St. William The Hermit Parish Church of Passi City, the longest and one of the largest and oldest churches in Iloilo Province

As a leading province during the Spanish Colonial Era, the province of Iloilo is widely known for its beautiful old world architecture similar to that of Latin American Countries. Spanish colonial Churches are amongst the well-known tourist sites in the province.

Miag-ao Church. The World Heritage Site. The Aztec-Baroque inspired church with Filipino botanicals used to carved on the facade. It is known for its intricate facade and pyramidal bell towers. The church was used as a fortress during the olden days. It is a massive structure built of yellowish Limestones.

Molo Church. The Gothic Renaissance Church of Molo was used as a watch tower to warn the people if there are any attackers on the shore of Iloilo City. It is a fine coral stone church with Classical and Gothic details. It is also known as the feminist church because of the beautiful female saints lining inside the church.

Cabatuan Church. This Neoclassic Church, known to be the most massive Hispanic structure in Iloilo is built of red bricks. It is believed to be the largest red brick structure in the Visayas and it was given the title "Model of Temples" by the 'El Eco de Panay'. The Cabatuan Church is known to be the only extant Spanish colonial church with three facades.

San Jose Church. The beautiful church in front of plaza Libertad is considered the most historic amongst the churches in Iloilo City. It is a Byzantine-Neoclassic Church planned to look like the Spanish Church of Valencia del Cid. The Church is known for its collection of priceless Catholic treasures.

Passi City Church. This is considered a militaristic church in that it was planned as a ‘fortress church’ and the proof of this can be seen in the massive buttresses which support the front and back walls of the church. The church was built to replace churches that had been destroyed by an earthquake in 1612 and subsequent churches that had been destroyed by fires.

Old Capitol building of the Province of Iloilo. A National Historical Site. The building was built with wood stone during the Spanish colonization. It served as the capitol when the civil government of Iloilo was founded in 1901. The National Historical Institute (NHI) formally recognized the Old Capitol as a historical landmark through a marker installed on its walls on April 11, 2010.[9]

Universities and Colleges


Stallion F.C. is an association football club affiliated with the Iloilo Football Association currently playing in Division 1 of the United Football League.


Iloilo City is home to regional television stations of GMA Network (GMA TV6 & GMA News TV 28), TV5 (UHF 36 & AksyonTV 46), Solar channels (9TV TV-4) ETC UHF 32 & 2nd Avenue UHF 24), (BEAM UHF 26) and ABS-CBN (ABS-CBN TV10, ABS-CBN Sports+Action (UHF 38)), MYX Channel Iloilo (UHF 66).

Notable Ilonggos


  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  3. ^ Francisco Colin, S.J.; Madrid, published in 1663 , from his Labor evangélica
  4. ^ Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512
  5. ^
  6. ^ Philippines: A Unique Nation By Dr. Sonia M. Zaide (2015) p. 150. [All Nations Publishing Co., Inc.]
  7. ^ Table 5. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Iloilo, 2000
  8. ^ and
  9. ^ "Old Iloilo capitol now a national historical site". Philippine Information Agency. 13 April 2010. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2010. 

External links

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