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Indur

For the city in Madhya Pradesh, India, see Indore.
Indur
250px
Indur in the 1890s.
Arabic إندور/عين دور
Name meaning Endor[1]
Also spelled Endor
Subdistrict Nazareth
Coordinates

32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639Coordinates: 32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639{{#coordinates:32|38|11.32|N|35|22|52.55|E|type:city_region:IL |primary |name=

}}
Palestine grid 186/227
Population 620 (1945)
Area 12,444 dunams
12.4 km²
Date of depopulation 24 May 1948[2]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Influence of nearby town's fall
Current localities None

Indur (Arabic: إندور‎) was a Palestinian village, located Script error: No such module "convert". southeast of Nazareth. Its name preserves that of ancient Endor, a Canaanite city state thought to have been located Script error: No such module "convert". to the northeast.[3] The village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and its inhabitants became refugees, some of whom were internally displaced. In Israel today, there are a few thousand internally displaced Palestinians who hail from Indur, and continue to demand their right of return.

Etymology

The name of this village preserves that of the ancient Canaanite city of Endor mentioned in the Bible as the place King Saul encountered a known medium. While a few scholars believe that Indur is the actual site of ancient Endor, many believe that Khirbet Safsafa, located Script error: No such module "convert". to the northeast, is a more likely candidate.[3][4][5]

History

In 1596, Indur was a part of the Ottoman nahiya ("subdistrict") of Shafa under the liwa' ("district") of Lajjun with a population of twenty-two. It paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat, barley and olives, as well as goats and beehives.[6] A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 showed the place, named as Handourah.[7]

By the late nineteenth century, the village was made of adobe bricks, built against a steep hillside. To the east of the village there were several caves. [8]

In Ottoman era Palestine, an elementary school was founded in Indur, but was closed during the British Mandate in Palestine.[9] Sheikh Tawfiq Ibrahim, one of the leaders of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine and an associate of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, was from Indur.[9]

The village was occupied by Israel's Golani Brigade on May 24, 1948. The Golani Brigade went on "cleansing and defending" the area until early June.[9]

Today

During the 2004 commemorations of Nakba Day held by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, the annual right of return march led to Indur.[10] Jewish Israelis joined in the march and the event received coverage by Israeli cable and Arab satellite TV stations.[10]

Indur's former residents and their descendants number a few thousand from among the tens of thousands of internally displaced Palestinians within Israel today.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 161
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #110. Also gives causes of depopulation.
  3. ^ a b Mazar, 1971, p. 318.
  4. ^ Negev and Gibson, 2005, p. 166.
  5. ^ Freedman, et al., 2006, p. 406.
  6. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 157. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 344.
  7. ^ Karmon, 1960, p. 167.
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 83 - 84. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.346
  9. ^ a b c Khalidi, 1992, p. 346
  10. ^ a b c Annual Return March in the Galilee (PDF), Issue No. 22, Badil, June 2004, p. 8. 

Bibliography

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External links