The knee of a person is examined with the help of radiography after an injury.
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 S00-T88
ICD-9 800-999
NCI Injury
Patient UK Injury

Injury is damage to a biological organism caused by physical means.[1] Major trauma is injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes.

In 2013 4.8 million people died from injuries up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport related injuries. In 2013 367,000 children less than five died from injuries down from 766,000 in 1990.[2] Injuries are the cause of 9% of all death.[3]


The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by

  • nature,
  • part of body affected,
  • source and secondary source, and
  • event or exposure.

The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.[4]

The World Health Organization developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by

  • mechanism of injury,
  • objects/substances producing injury,
  • place of occurrence,
  • activity when injured,
  • the role of human intent,

and additional modules. The classification is designed to allow researchers to study the cause of injuries and injury prevention.[5]

The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.[6]

By cause

By modality

By location

By activity

See also


  1. ^ "Wounds and Injuries: MedlinePlus". Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  2. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet. PMID 25530442. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. 
  3. ^ "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  5. ^ "International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  6. ^ Rae, K; Orchard, J (May 2007). "The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) version 10". Clin J Sport Med. 17 (3): 201–4. PMID 17513912. doi:10.1097/jsm.0b013e318059b536. 
  7. ^ "Trauma"., LLC. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 

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