Internet censorship in China
|Visualization of Internet routing paths|
|IP blocking||The access to a certain IP address is denied. If the target Web site is hosted in a shared hosting server, all Web sites on the same server will be blocked. This affects all IP protocols (mostly TCP) such as HTTP, FTP or POP. A typical circumvention method is to find proxies that have access to the target Web sites, but proxies may be jammed or blocked. Some large Web sites allocated additional IP addresses (for instance, an IPv6 address) to circumvent the block, but later the block may be extended to cover the new addresses.|
|DNS filtering and redirection||The DNS doesn't resolve domain names or returns incorrect IP addresses. This affects all IP protocols such as HTTP, FTP or POP. A typical circumvention method is to find a domain name server that resolves domain names correctly, but domain name servers are subject to blockage as well, especially IP blocking. Another workaround is to bypass DNS if the IP address is obtainable from other sources and is not blocked. Examples are modifying the Hosts file or typing the IP address instead of the domain name in a Web browser.|
|URL filtering||Scan the requested Uniform Resource Locator (URL) string for target keywords regardless of the domain name specified in the URL. This affects the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Typical circumvention methods are to use escaped characters in the URL, or to use encrypted protocols such as VPN and SSL.|
|Packet filtering||Terminate TCP packet transmissions when a certain number of controversial keywords are detected. This can be effective with many TCP protocols such as HTTP, FTP or POP, but Search engine pages are more likely to be censored. Typical circumvention methods are to use encryption means, such as VPN and SSL, to protect the HTML content, or reducing the TCP/IP stack's MTU, thus reducing the amount of text contained in a given packet.|
|Man-in-the-middle attack||GFW can use a root certificate from CNNIC, which is found in most operating systems and browsers, to make a MITM attack. On 26 Jan 2013, the GitHub SSL certificate was replaced with a self-signed certificate in China by, generally believed, the GFW.|
|TCP connection reset||If a previous TCP connection is blocked by the filter, future connection attempts from both sides will also be blocked for up to 30 minutes. Depending on the location of the block, other users or Web sites may be also blocked if the communications are routed to the location of the block. A circumvention method is to ignore the reset packet sent by the firewall.|
|VPN blocking||Beginning in 2011, users reported disruptions of Virtual Private Network (VPN) services. In late 2012, GFW was able to "learn, discover and block" the encrypted communications methods used by a number of different VPN systems. China Unicom, one of the biggest telecoms providers in the country, was killing connections where a VPN is detected, according to one company with a number of users in China.|
Other reported methods have included:
|Network enumeration||It has been reported that unknown entities within China, likely with deep packet inspection (DPI) capabilities, have initiated unsolicited TCP/IP connections to computers within the United States for the purported purpose of network enumeration of services, in particular TLS/SSL and Tor (anonymity network) services, with the aim of facilitating IP blocking.|
The Golden Shield Project is owned by the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China (MPS). It started in 1998, began processing in November 2003, and the first part of the project passed the national inspection on 16 November 2006 in Beijing. According to MPS, its purpose is to construct a communication network and computer information system for police to improve their capability and efficiency. By 2002 the preliminary work of the Golden Shield Project had cost US$800 million (equivalent to RMB 5,000 million or €620 million). Greg Walton, a freelance researcher, said that the aim of the Golden Shield is to establish a "gigantic online database" that would include "speech and face recognition, closed-circuit television... [and] credit records" as well as traditional Internet use records.
A notice issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on 19 May stated that, as of 1 July 2009, manufacturers must ship machines to be sold in mainland China with the Green Dam Youth Escort software. On 14 August 2009, Li Yizhong, minister of industry and information technology, announced that computer manufacturers and retailers were no longer obliged to ship the software with new computers for home or business use, but that schools, Internet cafes and other public use computers would still be required to run the software.
A senior official of the Internet Affairs Bureau of the State Council Information Office said the software's only purpose was "to filter pornography on the Internet". The general manager of Jinhui, which developed Green Dam, said: "Our software is simply not capable of spying on Internet users, it is only a filter." Human rights advocates in China have criticized the software for being "a thinly concealed attempt by the government to expand censorship". Online polls conducted on Sina, Netease, Tencent, Sohu, and Southern Metropolis Daily revealed over 70% rejection of the software by netizens. However, Xinhua commented that "support [for Green Dam] largely stems from end users, opposing opinions primarily come from a minority of media outlets and businesses".
Targets of censorship
According to a Harvard study, at least 18,000 websites are blocked from within mainland China, including 12 out of the Top 100 Global Websites. The Chinese-sponsored news agency, Xinhua, stated that censorship targets only "superstitious, pornographic, violence-related, gambling, and other harmful information.". This appears questionable, as the e-mail provider gmail.com is blocked, and it cannot be said to fall into any of these categories. On the other hand, websites centered on the following political topics are often censored: Falun Gong, police brutality, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, freedom of speech, democracy, Taiwan independence, Tibetan independence movement, and the Tuidang movement. Foreign media websites such as Yahoo! Hong Kong and the Voice of America are occasionally blocked while as of 2014 the New York Times, the BBC, and Bloomberg News are indefinitely blocked.
Testing performed by Freedom House in 2011 confirmed that material written by or about activist bloggers is removed from the Chinese internet in a practice that has been termed "cyber-disappearance".
A 2012 study of social media sites by other Harvard researchers found that 13% of Internet posts were blocked. The blocking focused mainly on any form of collective action (anything from false rumors driving riots to protest organizers to large parties for fun), pornography, and criticism of the censors. However, significant criticisms of the government were not blocked when made separately from calls for collective action.
A lot of larger Japanese websites were blocked during the afternoon of 15 June 2012 (UTC+08:00) to the morning of 17 June 2012 (UTC+08:00), such as Google Japan, Yahoo! Japan, Amazon Japan, Excite, Yomiuri News, Sponichi News and Nikkei BP Japan.
Chinese censors have been relatively reluctant to block websites where there might be significant economic consequences. For example, a block of GitHub was reversed after widespread complaints from the Chinese software developer community. In November 2013 after the Chinese services of Reuters and the Wall Street Journal were blocked, greatfire.org mirrored the Reuters website to an Amazon.com domain in such a way that it could not be shut down without shutting off domestic access to all of Amazon's cloud storage service.
For one month beginning 17 November 2014, ProPublica tested whether the homepages of 18 international news organizations were accessible to browsers inside China, and found the most consistently blocked were Bloomberg, New York Times, South China Morning Post, Wall Street Journal, Facebook, and Twitter.
One part of the block is to filter the search results of certain terms on Chinese search engines. These Chinese search engines include both international ones (for example, yahoo.com.cn, Bing, and (formerly) Google China) as well as domestic ones (for example, 360 Search and Baidu). Attempting to search for censored keywords in these Chinese search engines will yield few or no results. Previously, google.cn displayed the following at the bottom of the page: "According to the local laws, regulations and policies, part of the searching result is not shown." As was the case when searching for information about the 2011 uprising in Egypt. When Google did business in the country, it set up computer systems inside China that try to access Web sites outside the country. If a site was inaccessible, then it was added to Google China's blacklist.
In addition, a connection containing intensive censored terms may also be closed by The Great Firewall, and cannot be reestablished for several minutes. This affects all network connections including HTTP and POP, but the reset is more likely to occur during searching. Before the search engines censored themselves, many search engines had been blocked, namely Google and AltaVista. Technorati, a search engine for blogs, has been blocked. Different search engines implement the mandated censorship in different ways. For example, the search engine Bing is reported to censor search results from searches conducted in simplified Chinese characters (used in China), but not in traditional Chinese characters (used in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau).
In September 2007, some data centers were shut down indiscriminately for providing interactive features such as blogs and forums. CBS reports an estimate that half the interactive sites hosted in China were blocked.
Coinciding with the twentieth anniversary of the government suppression of the pro-democracy protests in Tiananmen Square, the government ordered Internet portals, forums and discussion groups to shut down their servers for maintenance between 3 and 6 June 2009. The day before the mass shut-down, Chinese users of Twitter, Hotmail and Flickr, among others, reported a widespread inability to access these services.
Social media websites
In the second half of 2009, the social networking sites Facebook and Twitter were blocked, presumably because of containing social or political commentary (similar to LiveJournal in the above list). An example is the commentary on the July 2009 Ürümqi riots. Another reason suggested for the block is that activists can utilize them to organize themselves.
After the 2011 Wenzhou train collision, the government started emphasizing the danger in spreading 'false rumors' (yaoyan), making the permissive usage of Weibo and social networks a public debate.
In 2012, First Monday published an article on "political content censorship in social media, i.e., the active deletion of messages published by individuals." This academic study, which received extensive media coverage, accumulated a dataset of 56 million messages sent on Sina Weibo from June through September 2011, and statistically analyzed them three months later, finding 212,583 deletions out of 1.3 million sampled, more than 16 percent. The study revealed that censors quickly deleted words with politically controversial meanings (e.g., qingci 请辞 "asking someone to resign" referring to calls for Railway Minister Sheng Guangzu to resign after the Wenzhou train collision on 23 July 2011), and also that the rate of message deletion was regionally anomalous (compare censorship rates of 53% in Tibet and 52% in Qinghai with 12% in Beijing and 11.4% in Shanghai).
Specific examples of internet censorship
Tiananmen Square protest of 1989
The Chinese government censors internet materials related to the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989. According to the government’s white paper in 2010 on the subject of internet in China, the government protects “the safe flow of internet information and actively guides people to manage websites in accordance with the law and use the internet in a wholesome and correct way.” The government, therefore, prevents people on the internet from “divulging state secrets, subverting state power and jeopardizing national unification; damaging state honor” and “disrupting social order and stability." Law-abiding Chinese websites such as Sina Weibo censors words related to the protest in its search engine. Weibo is one of the largest Chinese microblogging services. As of October 2012, Weibo’s censored words include “Tank Man.” The government also censors words that have similar pronunciation to “June 4,” the date that the violent government’s crackdown occurred. “陆肆” (pinyin: lu si), for example, is similar in pronunciation to “June 4” (pinyin: liu si). The government forbids remembrances of the protest. Weibo’s search engine, for example, censors Hong Kong lyricist Thomas Chow’s song called 自由花 or “The Flower of Freedom.” This is because attendees of the Vindicate 4 June and Relay the Torch rally at Hong Kong’s Victoria Park sing this song every year to commemorate the victims of the protest.
The government’s internet censorship of the protest was especially strict during the 20th anniversary of Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in 2009. According to a Reporters Without Borders’ article, searching photos related to the protest such as “June 4” on Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine, would return blank results and a message stating that the “search does not comply with laws, regulations and policies.”  Moreover, a large number of netizens from China claimed that they were unable to access numerous Western web services such as Twitter, Hotmail, and Flickr days leading up to and during the anniversary. Netizens in China claimed that many Chinese web services were temporarily blocked days before and during the anniversary. Netizens also reported that microblogging services including Fanfou and Xiaonei (now known as Renren) were down with similar messages that claim that their services were “under maintenance” for a few days around the anniversary date.
Reactions of netizens in China
Western news articles claimed that Chinese netizens responded with subtle protests against the government’s temporary blockages of large web services. A news article from The Guardian, for instance, stated that Chinese websites made subtle grievances against the state’s censorship by sarcastically calling the date June 4 as the 中国互联网维护日 or “Chinese Internet Maintenance Day.” Owner of the blog Wuqing.org stated, “I, too, am under maintenance.” The dictionary website Wordku.com voluntarily took its site down with the claim that this was because of the “Chinese Internet Maintenance Day.” Chinese netizens use subtle and sarcastic internet meme to criticize the government and to bypass censorship. Netizens created and posted humorous pictures or drawings that are similar to the Tank Man photo on Weibo. One of these pictures, for example, shows Florentijin Hofman’s rubber ducks sculptures replacing tanks in the Tank Man photo. On Twitter, a Beijing-based AIDS activist, Hu Jia asked netizens in mainland China to wear black T-shirts on June 4 to oppose censorship and to commemorate the date. Chinese web services such as Weibo eventually censored searches of both “black shirt” and “Big Yellow Duck” in 2009.
Debates about the significance of internet resistance to censorship
According to Chinese studies expert Johan Lagerkvist, scholars Pierre Bourdieu and Michel de Certeau argue that this culture of satire is a weapon of resistance against authority. This is because criticism against authority often resulted in satirical parodies that “presupposes and confirms emancipation” of the supposedly oppressed people. Academic writer Linda Hutcheon argues that some people, however, may view satirical language used to criticize the government as “complicity,” which can “reinforce rather than subvert conservative attitudes.” Chinese experts Perry Link and Xiao Qiang, however, oppose this argument. They claimed that when sarcastic terms develop into common vocabulary of netizens, these terms would lose their sarcastic characteristic. They then become normal terms that carry significant political meanings that oppose the government. Xiao believes that the netizens’ freedom to spread information on the internet has forced the government to listen to popular demands of netizens. For example, the Ministry of Information Technology’s plan to preinstall mandatory censoring software called Green Dam Youth Escort on computers failed after popular online opposition against it in 2009, the year of the 20th anniversary of the protest.
Lagerkvist states that the Chinese government, however, does not see subtle criticisms on the internet as real threats that could carry significant political meanings and topple the government. He argues that real threats occur only when “laugh mobs” become an “organized smart mobs” that directly challenge the government’s power. At a TED conference, Michael Anti gave a similar reason for the government’s lack of enforcement against these internet memes. Anti suggests that the government sometimes allows limited windows of freedom of speech such as internet memes. Anti explains that this is to guide and generate public opinions that favour the government and to criticize enemies of the party officials.
Internet censorship of the protest in 2013
The Chinese government has become more efficient in its internet regulations since the 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen protest. On June 3, 2013, Weibo quietly suspended usage of the candle icon from the comment input tool, which netizens used to mourn the dead on forums. Some searches related to the protest on Chinese website services no longer come up with blank results, but with results that the government had “carefully selected.” These subtle methods of government censorship may cause netizens to believe that their searched materials were not censored. The government, however, is inconsistent in its enforcement of censorship laws. Netizens reported that searches of some censored terms on Chinese web services still resulted in blank pages with a message that says “relevant laws, regulations and policies” prevent the display of results related to the searches.
Foreign content providers such as Yahoo!, AOL, and Skype must abide by Chinese government wishes, including having internal content monitors, in order to be able to operate within mainland China. Also, in accordance with mainland Chinese laws, Microsoft began to censor the content of its blog service Windows Live Spaces, arguing that continuing to provide Internet services is more beneficial to the Chinese. Michael Anti is a famous Chinese journalist whose blog on Windows Live Spaces was censored by Microsoft. In an April 2006 e-mail panel discussion Rebecca MacKinnon, who reported from China for nine years as a Beijing bureau chief for CNN, said: "... many bloggers said he [Anti] was a necessary sacrifice so that the majority of Chinese can continue to have an online space to express themselves as they choose. So the point is, compromises are being made at every level of society because nobody has the expectation of political freedom anyway."
The Chinese version of MySpace, launched in April 2007, has many censorship-related differences from other international versions of the service. Discussion forums on topics such as religion and politics are absent and a filtering system that prevents the posting of content about politically sensitive topics has been added. Users are also given the ability to report the "misconduct" of other users for offenses including "endangering national security, leaking state secrets, subverting the government, undermining national unity, spreading rumors or disturbing the social order."
Some media have suggested that China's Internet censorship of foreign websites may also be a means of forcing mainland Chinese users to rely on China's own e-commerce industry, thus self-insulating their economy from the dominance of international corporations. On 7 November 2005 an alliance of investors and researchers representing 26 companies in the U.S., Europe and Australia with over US $21 billion in joint assets announced that they were urging businesses to protect freedom of expression and pledged to monitor technology companies that do business in countries violating human rights, such as China. On 21 December 2005 the UN, OSCE and OAS special mandates on freedom of expression called on Internet corporations to "work together ... to resist official attempts to control or restrict use of the Internet." Google finally responded when attacked by hackers rumoured to be hired by the Chinese government by threatening to pull out of China
Rupert Murdoch famously proclaimed that advances in communications technology posed an “unambiguous threat to totalitarian regimes everywhere” and Ai Weiwei argued that the Chinese “leaders must understand it's not possible for them to control the Internet unless they shut it off".
Internet censorship in China is circumvented by determined parties by using proxy servers outside the firewall. Users may circumvent all of the censorship and monitoring of the Great Firewall if they have a secure VPN or SSH connection method to a computer outside mainland China. However, disruptions of VPN services have been reported and many of the free or popular services are now blocked.
As the Great Firewall of China gets more sophisticated, the users are getting increasingly creative in the ways they elude the censorship such as by using analogies to discuss topics. Furthermore, users are becoming increasingly open in their mockery of them by actively using homophones to avoid censorship. Deleted sites have "been harmonized", indicating CPC general secretary Hu Jintao's Internet censorship under the big picture of creating a "Socialist Harmonious Society". For example, censors are referred to as "river crabs", because in Chinese those two words together form a homophone for "harmony". Since free hosting blog services like Blogger and Wordpress.com frequently face blockage, some China-focused services explicitly offer to change a blog's IP address within 30 minutes if it is blocked by the authorities. In July 2006, researchers at Cambridge University claimed to have defeated the firewall by ignoring the TCP reset packets.
Although many users use VPNs to circumvent the Great Firewall of China, many internet connections are now subject to Deep-packet inspection where data packets are scanned before being allowed to pass. This means that many VPNs have been blocked. A notable method of bypassing deep packet inspection with OpenVPN is to forward traffic to TCP 443. Obfsproxy and other tools also allow users to evade deep-packet inspection.
The Tor anonymity network was and is subject to blocking by China's Great Firewall. The Tor website is blocked when accessed over HTTP but it is reachable over HTTPS so it is possible for users to download the Tor Browser Bundle. The Tor network maintains a public list of approximately 3000 relays which are almost all blocked. In addition to the public relays, Tor maintains so called bridges which are non-public relays. Their purpose is to help censored users reach the Tor network. The Great Firewall is dynamically blocking these bridges by looking for their TLS fingerprint. According to a research paper published in April 2012, the block can be circumvented by using packet fragmentation or the Tor obfsproxy bundle in combination with private obfsproxy bridges.
Psiphon is also used.
It was common in the past to use Google's cache feature to view blocked websites. However, this feature of Google seems to be under some level of blocking, as access is now erratic and does not work for blocked websites. Currently the block is mostly circumvented by using proxy servers outside the firewall, and is not difficult to carry out for those determined to do so. Some well-known proxy servers have also been blocked. Some Chinese citizens used the Google mirror elgooG after China blocked Google.
The mobile Opera Mini browser uses a proxy-based approach employing encryption and compression in order to speed up downloads. This has the side effect of allowing it to circumvent several approaches to Internet censorship. In 2009 this led the government of China to ban all but a special Chinese version of the browser.
Moreover, net surfers come up with many more technical ways to get around with the Great Wall of China. Steganography is a "practice of embedding useful data in what looks like something irrelevant. The text of a document can be broken into its constituent bytes, which are added to the pixels of an apparently innocent picture. The effect is barely visible on the picture, but the recipient can extract it with the right software".
According to BBC, local Chinese businesses such as Baidu, Tencent and Alibaba, some of the world's largest internet enterprises, benefited from the way China has blocked international rivals from the market, encouraging domestic competition.
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|40x40px||Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Transwiki:Bypassing the Great Firewall of China|
- greatfire.org Keywords and URLs censored on the Chinese Internet
- Cyberpolice.cn (网络违法犯罪举报网站) – Ministry of Public Security P.R. China Information & Network Security Invalid language code.
- hikinggfw.org : A site that lists and detects all blocked websites by GFW.
- Internet Enemies: China, Reporters Without Borders
- Freedom on the Net 2011: China-Freedom House: Freedom on the Net Report
- Jimmy Wales talks about the internet censorship in China on YouTube