Internet censorship in Singapore
Internet censorship in Singapore is carried out by the Media Development Authority (MDA). Internet services provided by the three major Internet service providers (ISPs) are subject to regulation by the MDA, which requires blocking of a symbolic number of websites containing "mass impact objectionable" material, including Playboy, YouPorn and Ashley Madison. The Ministry of Education, polytechnics, universities and Institute of Technical Education has its own jurisdiction to block websites displaying pornography, information about drugs and online piracy. The city state reportedly employs deep packet inspection of Internet traffic.
Litigation against bloggers and other content providers
The first instance of such activity was against Sintercom in July 2001 when the founder, Dr Tan Chong Kee, was asked to register the website under the nascent Singapore Broadcast Authority Act (now Media Development Authority). Dr Tan chose to shut down Sintercom due to concerns over the ambiguity of the Act.
In April 2005, a blogger, Chen Jiahao, then a graduate student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, was made to apologise and shut down his blog containing criticisms on government agency A*STAR, after its Chairman Philip Yeo threatened to sue for defamation.
The Teachers' Union announced that it was offering legal assistance to teachers who want to take legal action against students who defame them on their blogs, after five students from Saint Andrew's Junior College were suspended for three days for allegedly "flaming" two teachers and a vice-principal on their blogs.
Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act
The Computer Misuse Act (CMA) was introduced in 1993 and its offence provisions are based primarily on the United Kingdom’s 1990 legislation of the same name. In the years since, the government has taken a much tougher stand on Internet-related matters, including censorship. Amendments to the Penal Code in 2006 hold Internet users liable for "causing public mischief", and give the authorities broader powers in regulating Internet content. Following the 2013 Singapore cyberattacks, the Computer Misuse Act was renamed to Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act.
List of banned websites
The MDA maintains a list of 100 banned websites. The number of websites banned is symbolic and will not change under current legislation. When trying to access a blocked site, visitors are usually greeted by an MDA message, though the less transparent "404 error" screen may be displayed.
In 2005, the MDA banned a gay website and fined another website following complaints that the sites contained offensive content. The banned website is said to have promoted promiscuous sexual behaviour and recruited underage boys for sex and nude photography.
On 7 October 2014, the government passed the "Remote Gambling Act". Under the new law it is an offence, punishable by jail terms and fines, for people to place bets on overseas gambling websites from Singapore. Advertisements for gambling websites are also outlawed. The law took effect on 1 February 2015 when several hundred remote gambling websites were blocked.
Opposition to Internet censorship
Software applications for circumventing web-blocking are readily available. Tor is in use through software including XeroBank Browser (formerly Torpark) and Vidalia, and a number of other proxy solutions including Proxify, Six-Four, and phproxy. Freenet is another popular solution available for free download from the Internet. GOM, a browser extension, is circumvention software specifically made for use in Singapore.
- Censorship in Singapore
- Internet privacy
- Global Internet Freedom Consortium
- Bypassing content-control filters
- Computer and network surveillance
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Internet censorship in Singapore
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- "Deep packet inspection rears it ugly head", Fazal Majid, 4 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005, United States Department of State, retrieved 20 March 2006.
- "Schools act against students for 'flaming' teachers on blogs", Sandra Davie and Liaw Wy-Cin, The Straits Times, page 1, 27 September 2005.
- NTUC sacks staff for inappropriate Facebook comments, channelnewsasia.com, 8 October 2012.
- An Overview of Cybercrime Legislation and Cases in Singapore, Gregor Urbas, Asian Law Institute (ANU), October 2008.
- Mixing welfare and elitism in Singapore, Alex Au, Asia Times Online, 23 November 2006.
- Consultation Paper on the Proposed Penal Code Amendments, Ministry of Home Affairs, 8 November 2006
- "Censorship review committee Report of 2003" (PDF). Media Development Authority. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "The coming age of internet censorship". Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Singapore poised to block all roads to unlicensed gambling websites". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- "Singapore Blocks Access to Overseas Gambling Websites", Agence France-Presse (AFP), 3 February 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "How to access MDA blocked sites in Singapore with Chrome Browser". GOMVPN. Retrieved 9 April 2015.[better source needed]
- Alan Henry (24 April 2013). "The Best Browser Extensions that Protect Your Privacy". LifeHacker. Retrieved 9 April 2015.[better source needed]