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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Irreligion

Irreligion

"Irreligious" redirects here. For the album by Moonspell, see Irreligious (album).
Not to be confused with secularity.

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.[1] When characterized as the rejection of religious belief, it includes explicit atheism, religious dissidence, and secular humanism. When characterized as hostility towards religion, it includes anticlericalism, antireligion, and antitheism.

When characterized as indifference to religion, it includes apatheism. When characterized as the absence of religious belief, it may also include deism, implicit atheism, spiritual but not religious, agnosticism, pandeism, ignosticism, nontheism, pantheism, panentheism, religious skepticism, and freethought. Irreligion may include forms of theism, depending on the religious context it is defined against. In 18th-century Europe, the epitome of irreligion was deism.[2]

A 2012 survey found that 36% of the world population is not religious and that between 2005 and 2012 world religiosity decreased by 9 percentage points.[3] Being nonreligious is not necessarily equivalent to being an atheist or agnostic. A Pew Research Center global report in 2012 noted that many of the nonreligious actually have some religious beliefs. According to the study, "belief in God or a higher power is shared by 7% of Chinese unaffiliated adults, 30% of French unaffiliated adults and 68% of unaffiliated U.S. adults."[4] The majority of the nonreligious (76%) are concentrated in Asia and the Pacific, while only a small portion comes from Europe (12%) or North America (5%).[4]

Constitutional protections

Most Western democracies protect the freedom of religion, and it is largely implied in respective legal systems that those who do not believe or observe any religion are allowed freedom of thought.

A noted exception to ambiguity, explicitly allowing non-religion, is Article 36 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China (as authored in 1982), which states that "No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion."[5] Article 46 of China’s 1978 Constitution was even more explicit, stating that "Citizens enjoy freedom to believe in religion and freedom not to believe in religion and to propagate atheism."[6]

Demographics

Main article: Irreligion by country

Although 10 countries listed below have non-religious majorities, it does not mean that majority of the populations of these countries don′t belong to any religious group. For example, 67.5% of the Swedish population belongs to Lutheran Christian Church,[7] while 58.7% of Albanians declare themselves as Muslims.[citation needed] Also, though Scandinavian countries have among the highest measures of nonreligiosity and even atheism in Europe, 47% of atheists who live in those countries are still members of the national churches.[8]

A Pew 2015 global projection study for religion and nonreligion, projects that between 2010 and 2050, there will some initial increases of the unaffiliated followed by a decline by 2050 due to lower global fertility rates among this demographic. [9] Sociologist Phil Zuckerman's global studies on atheism have indicated that global atheism may be in decline due to irreligious countries having the lowest birth rates in the world and religious countries having higher birth rates in general.[10]

File:Gallup Religiosity Index 2009.png
Gallup Religiosity Index 2009 (light color indicates religious, dark nonreligious)[11]

The tables below order the percentage of a country's population that are nonreligious from highest to lowest.

Country Percentage of population
that is non-religious
Date and source
23x15px Czech Republic 67.8 2011[12]
23x15px Sweden 46–85 (average of 65.5) [13]
23x15px Vietnam 46.1–81 (average of 63.55) [13][14]
23x15px Denmark 43–80 (average of 61.5) [13]
23x15px Netherlands 51.3–61 (average of 56.1) [13][15]
23x15px Albania 52 [16][17][18]
23x15px United Kingdom 39–65 (average of 52)
2011[19]
Template:Country data Japan 84% [13]
23x15px Azerbaijan 51 [20]
23x15px China 8–93 (average of 50.5) [13][14][21]
23x15px Estonia 49 [13]
23x15px France 43–54 (average of 48.5) [13]
23x15px Russia 48.1 [14]
23x15px Belarus 47.8 [14]
Template:Country data South Korea 46.5 [14][22]
23x15px Finland 28–60 (average of 44) [13]
23x15px Hungary 42.6 [14]
23x15px Ukraine 42.4 [14]
Template:Country data Iceland 42 2012[23]
23x15px New Zealand 41.9
(89.9% census response rate)
[24]
23x15px Latvia 40.6 [14]
23x15px Belgium 35.4 [14]
23x15px Germany 34.6 [25]
23x15px Chile 33.8 [14]
23x15px United States 33 [26]
23x15px Ecuador 30.0 [27]
23x15px Luxembourg 29.9 [14]
23x15px Slovenia 29.9 [14]
23x15px Uruguay 29.4 [14]
23x15px Venezuela 27.0 [14]
23x15px Canada 23.9 2011[28]
23x15px Spain 23.3 [29]
23x15px Slovakia 23.1 [14]
Country Percentage of population
that is non-religious (2006)
Date and source
23x15px Australia 22.3 [30]
23x16px  Switzerland 21.4 2012[31]
23x15px Mexico 20.5 [14]
23x15px Lithuania 19.4 [14]
23x15px Italy 17.8 [14]
23x15px Argentina 16.0 [32]
23x15px South Africa 15.1 [33]
23x15px Croatia 13.2 [14]
23x15px Austria 12.2 [14]
23x15px Portugal 11.4 [14]
23x15px Puerto Rico 11.1 [14]
23x15px Bulgaria 11.1 [14]
23x15px Philippines 10.9 [14]
23x15px Brazil 8.0 [34]
23x15px Ireland 7.0 [35]
Template:Country data India 6.6 [14]
23x15px Serbia 5.8 [14]
23x15px Peru 4.7 [14]
23x15px Poland 4.6 [14]
23x15px Greece 4.0 [14]
23x15px Turkey 2.5 [14]
23x15px Romania 2.4 [14]
23x15px Tanzania 1.7 [14]
23x15px Malta 1.3 [14]
Template:Country data Iran 1.1 [14]
23x15px Uganda 1.1 [14]
23x15px Nigeria 0.7 [14]
23x15px Thailand 0.27 [36]
23x15px Bangladesh 0.1 [14]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Campbell, Colin. 1971. Towards a Sociology of Irreligion. London:McMillan p. 31.
  3. ^ "Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 
  4. ^ a b "The Global Religious Landscape - Religiously Unaffiliated". Pew Research Center. December 18, 2012. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ People's Republic of China 1978 Constitution (PDF). 1978. p. 41. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  7. ^ "Kyrkan i siffror, Swedish Lutheran Christian Church in numbers". 
  8. ^ Zuckerman, Phil, ed. (2010). "Ch. 9 Atheism And Secularity: The Scandinavian Paradox". Atheism and Secularity Vol.2. Praeger. ISBN 0313351813. 
  9. ^ "The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center. April 5, 2012. 
  10. ^ Zuckerman, Phil (2007). Martin, Michael, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 59. ISBN 0521603676. 
  11. ^ The Religiosity Index is a measure of the importance of religion for respondents and their self-reported attendance of religious services. For religions in which attendance at services is limited, care must be used in interpreting the data. (Gallup WorldView)[dead link]
  12. ^ "Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zuckerman, Phil. "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns", from the Cambridge Companion to Atheism, edited by Michael Martin, University of Cambridge Press, 2007
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan (2006)Invalid language code.
  15. ^ Knippenberg, Hans "The Changing Religious Landscape of Europe" edited by Knippenberg published by Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam 2005 ISBN 90-5589-248-3, page 92
  16. ^ "Albania". State.gov. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2011-02-04.  US Department of State - International religious freedom report 2006
  17. ^ L'Albanie en 2005
  18. ^ "Adherents.com". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2011-02-04.  Some publications
  19. ^ UK National Statistics Bureau (2011 census)
  20. ^ "Global Index Of Religion and Atheism" (PDF). Redcresearch.ie. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  Publications are taken from Gallup
  21. ^ "Adherents.com". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2011-02-04.  Some publications
  22. ^ According to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office. "인구,가구/시도별 종교인구/시도별 종교인구 (2005년 인구총조사)". NSO online KOSIS database. Retrieved August 23, 2006. 
  23. ^ http://redcresearch.ie/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/RED-C-press-release-Religion-and-Atheism-25-7-12.pdf
  24. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/data-tables/total-by-topic.aspx
  25. ^ "fowid - Forschungsgruppe Weltanschauungen in Deutschland: Home". Fowid.de. Retrieved 2011-09-12.  German Worldview Research Group (2010)
  26. ^ Cary Funk, Greg Smith. "Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation" (PDF). Pew Research Center. p. 43. Nearly one-in-five say they are spiritual but not religious (18%), and about one-in-six say they are neither religious nor spiritual (15%). 
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ "96F0030XIE2001015 - Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 2013-05-08.  Canada 2011 census
  29. ^ [3] Socialogical Research Centre, January 2012
  30. ^ "Census shows result of mining boom, with increased cost of housing and higher wages", PIA AKERMAN, The Australian, 21 June 2012.
  31. ^ "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren nach Religions- / Konfessionszugehörigkeit, 2012" (XLS). http://www.bfs.admin.ch (Statistics) (in German, French, and or Italian). Neuchâtel: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2012. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  32. ^ "Table Of Statistics On Religion In The Americas". Prolades.com. April 2001. Retrieved 2011-02-04.  Gallup-Argentina survey
  33. ^ [4][dead link] Güney Afrika 2001 census
  34. ^ "Census 2010; Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática SIDRA". Retrieved 2013-06-29. 
  35. ^ "This is Ireland. Highlights from Census 2011, Part 1" (PDF). March 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-29. 
  36. ^ ประชากรจำแนกตามศาสนา หมวดอายุ เพศ และเขตการปกครอง (in ไทย). สำมะโนประชากรและเคหะ พ.ศ. 2543 (2000 census), National Statistical Office of Thailand. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 

Further reading

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