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Islamism

This article is about the political Islamic movement. For the religion of Islam, see Islam.
"Islamic extremist groups" redirects here. For Islamic extremist ideologies, see Islamic extremism.
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File:Necmettin-Erbakan.jpg
Necmettin Erbakan, was the first Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey elected in 1996, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" in 1997.

Turkey had a number of Islamist parties, often changing names as they were banned by the constitutional court for anti-secular activities. Necmettin Erbakan (1926-2011) was the leader of several of the parties, the National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi, 1970-1971), the National Salvation Party (Milli Selamet Partisi, 1972-1981), and the Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, 1983-1998); he also became a member of the Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi, 2003-2011).

The Justice and Development Party (AKP), which has dominated Turkish politics from 2002 to 2015, is sometimes described as Islamist, but rejects such labelling.[161]

Ismet Özel, a prominent Islamist intellectual, argued that Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's secular authoritarian policy, ironically, Islamicized the Turkish nation by forcing people to internalize and value their religious identity and not simply to take it for granted as in the past.[citation needed]

Other countries

  • Islamic Action Front is Jordan's Islamist political party and largest democratic political force in the country. The IAF's survival in Jordan is primarily due to its flexibility and less radical approach to politics.[172]
  • The Muslim Brotherhood of Syria is a Sunni Islamist force in Syria and very loosely affiliated to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. It has also been called the "dominant group" or "dominant force" in the Arab Spring uprising in Syria.[185] The group's stated political positions are moderate and in its most recent April 2012 manifesto it "pledges to respect individual rights", to promote pluralism and democracy.[186]

Hizb ut-Tahrir

Main article: Hizb ut-Tahrir

Hizb ut-Tahrir is an influential international Islamist movement, founded in 1953 by an Islamic Qadi (judge) Taqiuddin al-Nabhani. HT is unique from most other Islamist movements in that the party focuses not on implementation of Sharia on local level or on providing social services, but on unifying the Muslim world under its vision of a new Islamic caliphate spanning from North Africa and the Middle East to much of central and South Asia.

To this end it has drawn up and published a constitution for its proposed caliphate state. The constitution's 187 articles specify specific policies such as sharia law, a "unitary ruling system" headed by a caliph elected by Muslims, an economy based on the gold standard, public ownership of utilities, public transport, and energy resources, and Arabic as the "sole language of the State."[197]

In its focus on the Caliphate, HT takes a different view of Muslim history than some other Islamists such as Muhammad Qutb. HT sees Islam's pivotal turning point as occurring not with the death of Ali, or one of the other four rightly guided Caliphs in the 7th century, but with the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924. This is believed to have ended the true Islamic system, something for which it blames "the disbelieving (Kafir) colonial powers" working through Turkish modernist Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[198]

HT does not engage in armed jihad or a democratic system, but works to take power through "ideological struggle" to change Muslim public opinion, and in particular through elites who will "facilitate" a "change of the government," i.e. launch a bloodless coup. It allegedly attempted and failed such coups in 1968 and 1969 in Jordan, and in 1974 in Egypt, and is now banned in both countries.[199] But many HT members have gone on to join terrorist groups and many jihadi terrorists have cited HT as their key influence.

The party is sometimes described as "Leninist" and "rigidly controlled by its central leadership,"[200] with its estimated one million members required to spend "at least two years studying party literature under the guidance of mentors (Murshid)" before taking "the party oath."[200] HT is particularly active in the ex-soviet republics of Central Asia and in Europe.

In the UK its rallies have drawn thousands of Muslims,[201] and the party has been described by two observers (Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke) to have outpaced the Muslim Brotherhood in both membership and radicalism.[202]

London

Main article: Londonistan (term)

Greater London has over 900,000 Muslims,[203] (most of South Asian origins and concentrated in the East London boroughs of Newham, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest), and among them are some with a strong Islamist outlook. Their presence, combined with a perceived British policy of allowing them free rein,[204][205] heightened by exposés such as the 2007 Channel 4 documentary programme Undercover Mosque, has given rise to the term Londonistan. Following the 9/11 attacks, however, Abu Hamza al-Masri, the imam of the Finsbury Park Mosque, was arrested and charged with incitement to terrorism which has caused many Islamists to leave the UK to avoid internment.[citation needed]

Counter-response

[dubious ]

The U.S. government has engaged in efforts to counter Islamism, or violent Islamism, since 2001. These efforts were centred in the U.S. around public diplomacy programmes conducted by the State Department. There have been calls to create an independent agency in the U.S. with a specific mission of undermining Islamism and jihadism. Christian Whiton, an official in the George W. Bush administration, called for a new agency focused on the nonviolent practice of "political warfare" aimed at undermining the ideology.[206] U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates called for establishing something similar to the defunct U.S. Information Agency, which was charged with undermining the communist ideology during the Cold War.[207]

Parties and organizations

Country or scope Movement/s
International Hizb ut-Tahrir, Muslim Brotherhood
23x15px Algeria Green Algeria Alliance[162][163]
23x15px Bahrain
23x15px Bangladesh Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami[208][209]
23x15px Belgium Sharia4Belgium
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina  Party of Democratic Action[167][168]
23x15px Egypt
23x15px Finland Finnish Islamic Party
Template:Country data India Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, IUML, AIMIM
Template:Country data Indonesia
Template:Country data Iran
Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Jordan Islamic Action Front[172]
Template:Country data Kuwait Hadas
23x15px Lebanon
23x15px Libya
23x15px Malaysia
23x15px Maldives
23x15px Morocco Justice and Development Party[181][182]
23x15px Netherlands Sharia4Holland
23x15px Pakistan
23x15px Palestine Hamas[183][184]
23x15px Philippines Moro Islamic Liberation Front
23x15px Rwanda Islamic Democratic Party
23x15px Sudan
23x15px Syria Muslim Brotherhood in Syria[185][186][216]
23x15px Tajikistan Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan[187]
23x15px Tunisia Ennahda Movement[188][189][190][191]
23x15px Turkey
23x15px United Kingdom
23x15px United States
23x15px Uzbekistan Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (currently operates mainly in Pakistan and also targets Kyrgzstan)
23x15px Yemen Al-Islah

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Ayubi, Nazih (1991). Political Islam. London: Routledge. 
  • Esposito, John (1998). Islam and Politics (Fourth ed.). Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press. 
  • Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne; Esposito, John (eds.) (1998). Islam, Gender, and Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Halliday, Fred (2003). Islam and the Myth of Confrontation (2nd ed.). London, New York: I.B. Tauris. 
  • Hassan, Riaz (2002). Faithlines: Muslim Conceptions of Islam and Society. Oxford University Press. [dead link]
  • Hassan, Riaz (2008). Inside Muslim Minds. Melbourne University Press. 
  • Mandaville, Peter (2007). Transnational Muslim Politics. Abingdon (Oxon), New York: Routledge. 
  • Martin, Richard C.; Barzegar, Abbas (eds.) (2010). Islamism: Contested Perspectives on Political Islam. Stanford University Press. 
  • Mura, Andrea (2014). "Islamism Revisited: A Lacanian Discourse Critique". European Journal of Psychoanalysis 1 (1): 107–126. 
  • Rashwan, Diaa (ed.) (2007). The spectrum of Islamist movements. Schiler. 
  • Sayyid, S. (2003). A Fundamental Fear: Eurocentrism and Emergence of Islamism (2nd ed.). London, New York: Zed Press. 
  • Strindberg, Anders; Wärn, Mats (2011). Islamism. Cambridge, Malden MA: Polity Press. 
  • Teti, Andrea; Mura, Andrea (2009). Jeff Haynes, ed. Sunni Islam and politics. Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics (Abingdon (Oxon), New York: Routledge). 
  • Volpi, Frédéric (2010). Political Islam Observed. Hurst. 
  • Volpi, Frédéric (ed.) (2011). Political Islam: A Critical Reader. Routledge. 

External links