Jacqueline Kennedy Garden
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Edith Carrow Roosevelt, who had established her "Colonial Garden" on the site of the present Rose Garden, oversaw a similar but less formal planting on the east side, the site of the present Jacqueline Kennedy Garden. The garden known was begun in 1913 by First Lady Ellen Louise Axson Wilson. She called it the East Garden. Mrs. Wilson's design featured a central lily pond. Following her death in 1914, the garden was completed at a size of 36 meters by 19 meters (118 by 62 feet).
Care of the White House grounds had greatly declined by the time of the Kennedy administration, prompting First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy to work with Rachel Lambert Mellon and Perry Wheeler on the redesign and replanting of the Rose Garden and East Garden. By the time of President Kennedy's assassination in 1963, the Rose Garden had been completed and work on the East Garden was in progress. To honor Jacqueline Kennedy's contributions to the White House and its grounds First Lady Lady Bird Johnson renamed the East Garden as the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden.
Design and horticulture
Rachel Lambert Mellon created a space with a more defined central lawn, bordered by flower beds planted in a French style, but largely using American botanical specimens. Though more formal than the previous East Garden, the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden pays tribute to Beatrix Farrand's work in its use of a more organic structure, planting masses of the same plants in drifts, and use of foliage plants like ornamental grasses and caladiums.
The present garden follows a layout established by Mellon. Each flower bed is planted with a series of Littleleaf lindens and Kennedy saucer magnolias bordered by low hedges of boxwood and American Holly. The outer edge of the flower bed facing the central lawn are edged with boxwood. Perennial flowering plants include delphinium, hollyhock, lavender, and roses. Many seasonal flowers are interspersed to add nearly year round color. Spring blooming bulbs planted in the rose garden include jonquil, daffodil, fritillaria, grape hyacinth, tulips, chionodoxa and squill. Summer blooming annuals change yearly. In the fall chrysanthemum and flowering kale bring color until early winter.
Official and informal use
Like the Rose Garden, the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden is used for events. The president uses the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden for awards ceremonies. Both Lady Bird Johnson and Pat Nixon favored use of the garden for parties and teas. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton exhibited contemporary sculpture in the garden.
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- Abbott James A., and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5.
- Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5.
- McEwan, Barbara. "White House Landscapes." Walker and Company: 1992. ISBN 0-8027-1192-8.
- Mellon, Rachel Lambert. The White House Gardens Concepts and Design of the Rose Garden. Great American Editions Ltd.: 1973.
- Seale, William. The President's House. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1986. ISBN 0-912308-28-1.
- Seale, William. The White House Garden. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1996. ISBN 0-912308-69-9.
- History of the White House Gardens and Grounds
- Additional pictures of the Rose Garden at the White House Museum