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Jeb Bush

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This page is a soft redirect. John Ellis Bush
(1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 63)
Midland, Texas, U.S.

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John Ellis

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John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician. He served as the 43rd Governor of Florida from 1999 to 2007. He is the second son of former President George H. W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush, and is the younger brother of former President George W. Bush. Jeb Bush is the only Republican, and the third person of any party, to serve two full four-year terms as Governor of Florida.

Bush grew up in Houston, Texas. He graduated from Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts and then attended the University of Texas, where he earned a degree in Latin American affairs. Following his father's successful run for Vice President in 1980, he moved to Florida and pursued a career in real estate development. In 1986, Bush was named Florida's Secretary of Commerce, a position he held until resigning in 1988 to help his father's successful campaign for the Presidency.

In 1994, Bush made his first run for office, narrowly losing the election for governor by less than two percentage points to the incumbent Lawton Chiles. Bush ran again in 1998 and beat Lieutenant Governor Buddy MacKay with 55 percent of the vote. He ran for reelection in 2002 and won with 56 percent to become Florida's first two-term Republican Governor.[2] During his eight years as governor, Bush was credited with initiating improvements in the environment, as well as reforming the education system.[3][4]

Bush has frequently been mentioned by the media as a possible candidate for president in 2016.[5][6][7][8] On December 16, 2014, Bush announced he would explore the possibility of running for President.[9]

Early years

Jeb Bush was born in Midland, Texas in 1953. When he was six years old, the family relocated to the Tanglewood neighborhood[10] of Houston, Texas.[11] The nickname "Jeb" is composed of his initials J.E.B. (John Ellis Bush).[citation needed]

He initially attended Grady Elementary School in Houston.[12] Following in the footsteps of his father and older brother George, at the age of 14 years in the fall of 1967,[10] Jeb began attending high school at the Andover, Massachusetts boarding school Phillips Academy Andover.[13] Even though he received poor grades at first and occasionally smoked marijuana, Bush made the honor roll by the end of his senior year and served as captain of the tennis team.[14] At the age of 17, he taught English as a second language and assisted in the building of a school in a small village outside of León, Guanajuato, Mexico, (the village of Ibarrilla)[15] as part of Andover's student exchange summer program.[16] While in Mexico, he met his future wife, Columba Garnica de Gallo.[16][17] Bush, who had largely avoided criticizing or supporting the Vietnam War, registered for the draft after his graduation from high school in 1971, but was not selected as the war wound down.[14]

Though many in his family had attended Yale University, Bush chose to attend the University of Texas at Austin.[10] He played on the Texas Longhorns varsity tennis team in 1973.[10] He graduated Phi Beta Kappa and magna cum laude from the University of Texas with a B.A. in Latin American Studies.[10] He completed his coursework in two and a half years.[18] He is fluent in Spanish.[19]

Early career


Bush went to work in an entry-level position in the international division of Texas Commerce Bank, which was founded by the family of James Baker.[20] In November 1977, he was sent to the Venezuelan capital of Caracas to open a new operation for the bank, where he served as branch manager and vice president.[21]

Following the 1980 presidential election, Bush and his family moved to Miami-Dade County, Florida. He took a job in real estate with Armando Codina, a 32-year-old Cuban immigrant and self-made American millionaire. Codina had made a fortune in a computer business, and then formed a new company, The Codina Group, to pursue opportunities in real estate.[22] During his time with the company, Bush focused on finding tenants for commercial developments.[23] Codina eventually made Bush his partner in a new development business, which quickly became one of South Florida's leading real estate development firms. As a partner, Bush received 40% of the firm's profits.[24] In 1983, Jeb Bush explained his move from Houston to Miami: "On the personal side, my mother-in-law and sister-in-law were already living here", and on the professional side, "I want to be very wealthy, and I'll be glad to tell you when I've accomplished that goal."[25]

During Bush's years in Miami, he was involved in many different entrepreneurial pursuits, including working for a mobile phone company, serving on the board of a Norwegian-owned company that sold fire equipment to the Alaska oil pipeline, becoming a minority owner of the Jacksonville Jaguars, buying a shoe company that sold footwear in Panama, and getting involved in a project selling water pumps in Nigeria.[24] Miguel Recarey, who ran International Medical Centres (IMC), employed Bush as a real estate consultant and paid him a $75,000 fee for finding the company a new location, although the move never took place. Bush did, however, lobby the Reagan administration vigorously and successfully on behalf of Recarey and IMC.[26]


Bush volunteered for his father's campaigns in 1980 and 1988. During the 1980 campaign, Bush worked as an unpaid volunteer, and later said that his father is "the greatest man I’ve ever met or will meet; I can predict that fairly confidently. It was payback time, simple as that."[27] Bush got his start in Florida politics as the Chairman of the Dade County Republican Party in the mid-1980s.[10][27][28] Dade County played an important role in the 1986 election of Bob Martinez to the Governor's office. In return, Martinez appointed Bush as Florida's Secretary of Commerce.[28] He served in that role in 1987 and 1988, before resigning once again to work on his father's presidential campaign.

Bush frequently communicated with his father and his father's staff during George H.W. Bush's time as vice president and president.[29] The younger Bush recommended Dexter Lehtinen for the post of U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Florida and set up a meeting between the Bush Administration and Motorola.[29] Bush also advocated for the cause of the Cuban exiles, many of whom had settled in South Florida, and Bush supported the Cuban embargo.[29] In 1990, Bush interceded with his father, the president, to pardon Orlando Bosch, a Cuban exile who had been convicted of firing a rocket into a Polish ship which was on passage to Cuba. Bosch was released from prison and granted residency in the U.S.[26]

In 1989, he served as the campaign manager of Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, the first Cuban-American to serve in Congress.[30] Bush launched an unsuccessful bid for the Governor's office in 1994 against incumbent Democratic Governor Lawton Chiles.[30] Bush ran that year as a conservative, and a notable moment in this campaign was when Bush was asked what he would do for African Americans if he gets elected, responding: "It’s time to strive for a society where there’s equality of opportunity, not equality of results. So I’m going to answer your question by saying: probably nothing."[31][32] Bush lost the election by only 63,940 votes out of 4,206,076 that were cast for the major party candidates (2,135,008; 51% to 2,071,068; 49%). In the same election year, his older brother, George, was elected Governor of Texas. Following his election loss, Bush joined the board of the Heritage Foundation and continued to work with Codina Partners.[23] Alongside T. William Fair, the president of the Urban League's Miami affiliate, Bush helped to establish Florida's first charter school.[23]

Governor of Florida (1999–2007)

1998 gubernatorial election

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An earlier portrait of Governor Jeb Bush.

In 1998, Bush defeated his Democratic opponent, Lieutenant Governor Buddy MacKay, by over 418,000 votes (2,191,105; 55% to 1,773,054; 45%) to become Governor of Florida. He campaigned as a "consensus-building pragmatist".[32] Simultaneously, his brother, George W. Bush won a re-election victory for a second term as Governor of Texas, and the Bush brothers became the first siblings to govern two states at the same time since Nelson and Winthrop Rockefeller governed New York and Arkansas from 1967 to 1971.[33]

In the 1998 election, Bush garnered 61 percent of the Hispanic vote and 14 percent of the African American vote, a surprising showing for a Republican seeking statewide office.[34]


Bush's administration was marked by a focus on public education reform. His "A+ Plan" established tough standards, required testing of all students, and graded all Florida schools. From 1998 to 2005, reading scores of 4th grade students in Florida on the National Assessment of Educational Progress increased 11 points, compared to 2.5 points nationally.[35]

Bush has been a proponent of school vouchers and charter schools, especially in areas of the state with failing public schools, although to date very few schools have received failing grades from the state. He established the McKay Scholarship Program which provides vouchers for students with learning disabilities to attend a school of their choice. He also established the A+ Opportunity Scholarship Program which provided vouchers to students. This program was struck down by the Florida Supreme Court in 2006.[35]

Bush was responsible for creating the Corporate Income Tax Credit Scholarship which provides corporations with tax credits for donations to Scholarship Funding Organizations which must spend 100% of the donations on scholarships for low income students.[35]

His policies were also driven by a firm refusal to raise taxes for education, which led Bush to oppose a ballot initiative to amend the Florida Constitution to cap growing school class sizes. Bush said he had "a couple of devious plans if this thing passes".[36][37] Despite his opposition, the amendment passed.[38]

In higher education, Bush approved three new medical schools during his tenure and also put forth the "One Florida" proposal, an initiative that effectively ended affirmative action admissions programs at state universities.[39] These moves were among the influencing concerns that led to the faculty of the University of Florida to deny Bush an honorary degree, while the University of Florida Alumni Association made him an honorary alumnus.[40]


While Governor, Jeb Bush reduced taxes by $19 billion, reduced the size of state government by 6.6 percent, and vetoed $2 billion in new spending.[35] He increased the state's reserves from $1.3 billion to $9.8 billion and presided over Florida receiving the highest possible bond rating for the first time.[41]

In May 2006, as part of a $448.7-million line-item veto of state funding, Bush cut a total of $5.8 million in grants to public libraries, pilot projects for library homework help and web-based high-school texts, and funding for a joint-use library in Tampa.[42]


Bush eliminated civil service protection for over 16,000 state jobs, which had the effect of making it easier to fire employees in those positions. In addition, he issued an executive order which removed racial preferences in state contracting.[41]


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Bush at Rookery Bay participating in Earth Day activities in 2004

Bush signed legislation to restore the Everglades as part of an $8 billion project in conjunction with the federal government. He also set aside over one million acres of land for conservation as part of a land purchase program.[35]

Gun rights

Bush supported more than a dozen new protections for gun owners.[41] In 2005, Bush signed into law Florida's stand-your-ground law,[43][44] which was the first such state law in the United States.[45]

Gay rights

Bush argued against legal protections based on sexual orientation.[46] In 2004 he wrote that "The public policy question is whether homosexuals deserve special legal protection…, or, to put it another way, should sodomy be elevated to the same constitutional status as race and religion? My answer is No. We have enough special categories, enough victims, without creating even more."[46]

Capital punishment

Bush oversaw 21 executions as Governor[47] (more than Graham, Martinez and Chiles while they were in office[citation needed]). Bush never agreed to commute any sentence.[48]

Bush also presided over switching from electric chair (the only method of executions until 2000, now optional) to lethal injection, after a botched electrocution of Allen Lee Davis (first inmate executed under his administration and last, to date, electrocuted in Florida). After two previous botched executions (Jesse Tafero in 1990 and Pedro Medina in 1997) Governors Martinez and Chiles along with legislature declined to change methods.[49]

While he is an advocate of capital punishment, Bush suspended all executions in Florida on December 15, 2006, after the execution of Ángel Nieves Díaz was seemingly botched. The execution took 37 minutes to complete, and required a second injection of the lethal chemicals.[50]

Health policy

As Governor, Bush proposed and passed into law major reform to the medical liability system. The Florida Senate, a majority of which were Republican, sided with the trial lawyers against caps on non-economic damages. Bush insisted, and called the legislature into five special sessions. The contentious debate even included a senior Bush staffer calling for primary opposition to Republicans who disagreed with the Governor on the reforms. Eventually, the legislature agreed to the caps and Bush's reforms passed.

Bush passed a reform to Florida's Medicaid system that moved recipients into private managed care systems.[41] Also, Florida was the first state in the nation to publish hospital outcomes on the Internet, including cost and information on quality, infections and complications.[51]

Bush was involved in the Terri Schiavo case, involving a woman with massive brain damage, who was on a feeding tube for over 15 years, and whose husband and legal guardian, Michael Schiavo, wished to remove the tube. This move was opposed by Terri Schiavo's parents in the courts. Bush signed "Terri's Law", legislation passed by the Florida legislature that authorized him, as Governor, to keep Schiavo on life support.[52][53] The law was ruled unconstitutional by the Florida Supreme Court on September 23, 2004. That decision was appealed to the federal courts. On January 24, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case, thus allowing the Florida court's ruling to stand.[54]

While Governor of Florida, Bush was opposed to abortion.[55] He supported a law requiring parental notification for teen abortions and requested that the courts appoint a guardian for the fetus of a mentally disabled woman who had been raped.[56] Choose Life, a pro-life advocacy group based in Ocala, Florida, submitted a specialty license plate application – previously vetoed by Governor Lawton Chiles—which passed both houses and was signed into law by Bush on June 8, 1999.[57][58]


In 2004, Bush supported an unsuccessful bill to allow illegal immigrants to be issued drivers licenses by the state.[41]


During Bush's tenure, the racial and gender diversity of the state's judicial bench increased. However, according to the Wall Street Journal, Democrats criticized some of Bush's judicial appointments as being "overtly partisan and political".[41]


Florida High Speed Rail

In 1995, the Florida state legislature created the High Speed Rail Authority (HSRA) and came up with a public-private partnership model. Government would build the system leveraging state dollars with federal funds and tax-free bonding. The private sector was to invest money in the project, help design and build the network, and be given the franchise to operate the trains–known as Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM). Trains would be privately owned, similar to how the airline industry operates in a publicly financed airport.[59] The rail system and its planning was estimated to cost $7–$8 billion.[60]

On January 14, 1999, Bush announced that the venture posed too much risk and too much cost for Florida taxpayers and that further funding would be halted.[61] In response, Florida businessman C.C. (Doc) Dockery, the former chairman of the Florida High Speed Rail Commission, authored a constitutional amendment that was added to the Florida ballot in 2000. The amendment was approved by voters. The amendment directed Bush and the Florida legislature to start building a high speed monorail, fixed guide way, or magnetic levitation system linking Florida's five largest urban area by 2003.[62] Bush vetoed funding for the project and led a high-profile campaign to amend the Florida constitution to repeal the 2000 constitutional amendment that mandated the construction of the high-speed system.[60][59] In 2004, voters approved that amendment to repeal the 2000 high-speed rail amendment.[63]

Parenting coordinators

Bush vetoed a 2004 bill about court-appointed parenting coordinators because of his concern that the bill would not adequately protect families as they try to resolve their conflicts.[64]

2000 presidential election recount in Florida

Bush was governor when his brother George W. Bush won an intensely fought election recount in Florida to become President. Jeb Bush recused himself from any official role in the recount.[65]

2002 gubernatorial election

Bush defeated Democratic challenger Bill McBride in 2002 with 56% to 43%, a greater margin of victory than in 1998.

Bush won 44 percent of the state's Jewish vote in the 2002 race.[66] Bush also won the white female vote in the swing-voting battleground of Central Florida's I-4 corridor.[67] However, he was not able to replicate the same success with African American voters (like he had earlier in 1998), winning only 8 percent of the African American vote.


Impact on political party

Nationwide, American conservatives appeared to be positive about Bush, seeing him as committed to upholding core conservative principles.[68] Outside of Florida, fellow Republican leaders throughout the country have sought Bush's aid both on and off the campaign trail. Bush's out-of-state campaign visits include Kentucky, where Republican challenger Ernie Fletcher appeared with Bush and won that state's governorship in 2003,[69] ending a 32-year streak of Democratic governors.

Bush has been criticized by some in the Tea Party as not being sufficiently conservative, as he supports positions on immigration and Common Core that are unpopular with some conservatives.[70] Bush publicly criticized the national Republican party for its adherence to "an orthodoxy that doesn't allow for disagreement" on June 11, 2012. In comments shared with Bloomberg View, Bush suggested that former Republican Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush would "have had a hard time" finding support in the contemporary GOP.[71]

Political interests and business activities

From 2004 to 2007, Bush served as a Board Member for the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB).[72] Created by Congress, the board's purpose is to establish policy on reports examining K-12 students' academic progress in America's public and private schools. Since then Bush's education foundation has advocated for the Common Core State Standards Initiative.[73] In October 2013, referring to opponents of the standards, Bush said that while "criticisms and conspiracy theories are easy attention grabbers", he instead wanted to hear their solutions to the problems in American education.[74]

In April 2007, Bush joined Tenet Healthcare's board of directors.[75] The following August, Bush joined investment bank, Lehman Brothers, as an adviser in its private equity group.[76] Bush has also served on the board of InnoVida, Swisher Hygiene, and Rayonier and has served as an adviser to Barclays.[77] Bush would later return $270,000 in consultancy fees he had been paid by InnoVida after they declared bankruptcy.[78]

As of 2014, Bush had received more than $2 million from his work for Tenet, a company that expected to receive $100 million in new earnings in 2014 because of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and that "aggressively encouraged Americans to sign up for insurance under the program...."[77] Bush has reportedly objected to the ACA at company meetings, but has kept his personal views separate from what is best for Tenet.[77]

In April 2013, Bush authored a cover story for Newsmax magazine, urging conservatives to be a movement of "growth and opportunity" and warning that America's entitlement system risked collapse unless there was a course correction in U.S. public policy. Bush touted a six-point plan for the conservative movement that included tax reform, education reform, a welcoming immigration policy, energy independence, regulatory reform, and pro-family policies. [79]

In October 2013, Bush called for passage of immigration reform.[80] In April 2014, Bush said of illegal immigration: "It's an act of love. It's an act of commitment to your family. I honestly think that that is a different kind of crime. There should be a price paid, but it shouldn't rile people up that people are actually coming to this country to provide for their families."[81]

Contemplated National Football League commissioner

In May 2006, Bush was privately approached to become the next commissioner of the National Football League.[82] The former commissioner, Paul Tagliabue, announced that his tenure would soon be over and he was searching for replacements. "I'm flattered", Jeb Bush said May 24, 2006, of the NFL's interest, "but I'm Governor of the state of Florida and I intend to be Governor until I leave—which is January 2007. And I'm not going to consider any other options other than being Governor until I finish."[83] Roger Goodell eventually became the new NFL commissioner.

Contemplated run for U.S. Senate, 2010

In 2008, Bush indicated that he was considering running in the 2010 U.S. Senate race for the seat being vacated by Mel Martinez, who announced that he would retire at the end of his term.[84][85][86][87][88] But in January 2009, he announced that he would not run for the Senate.[89] Instead, he supported Marco Rubio for the position.

Contemplated 2012 presidential election run

Throughout 2009 and 2010, rumors abounded that Bush would attempt to win the Republican nomination for the 2012 presidential election—rumors that he strongly denied from the beginning.[90] In February 2011, after renewed calls were made for him to run for president,[91][92] In July 2011, he reiterated his position that he was not running, although he was heavily critical of the Obama administration.[93]

2016 presidential election

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Jeb Bush speaking at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2015.
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Logo for Bush's Right to Rise Super PAC

Bush has been considered a potential candidate in the 2016 presidential election since the end of the 2012 election.[94]

At a press conference on April 16, 2013, at Bluefield College, Bush stated he had not begun the decision making process about a run but that he would begin to consider a run soon.[95] On October 2, 2014, Bush's brother George W. Bush said that his brother "wants to be President".[96]

On December 16, 2014, Bush announced via Facebook that he would be "actively exploring" a 2016 run to become President of the United States and at the end of the year resigned several corporate boards.[97][9]

In February 2015, Bush released several thousand emails from his time as Governor online. Most of the emails are in the public record under Florida's Sunshine Laws. However, Bush created controversy by releasing some emails that included some personal details such as social security numbers, names and addresses, as well as the contents of the messages.[98][99] Bush's campaign team subsequently redacted the personal information.[100]

In May 2015, it was reported that Bush has been raising money since January 2015, estimated to be close to $100 million, for his super PAC, Right to Rise.[101]

Personal life

In 1970 in León, Mexico, where he was teaching English as part of a foreign exchange program, Bush met Columba Garnica de Gallo.[16] They were married on February 23, 1974, in Austin, Texas.[16][102][103] They reside in Coral Gables, Florida.[104]

Bush has three children: George Prescott Bush (born April 24, 1976, in Texas),[105][106] went to Gulliver Preparatory School, studied at Rice University, and earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Texas School of Law. In the 2014 election, he was elected Commissioner of the Texas General Land Office.[105] Noelle Lucila Bush was born July 26, 1977,[citation needed] in Texas. John Ellis Bush, Jr., who attended Bolles School,[16] (born December 13, 1983, in Miami)[citation needed] works for a Miami, Florida commercial real estate firm.

In addition to his three children, Jeb Bush has four grandchildren; two through his eldest son, and two through his youngest.[107]

In 1995, Bush converted from Episcopalianism to Roman Catholicism.[108] In 2004, Bush became a Fourth Degree Knight of Columbus.[109] Bush, a member of Father Hugon Council 3521 in Tallahassee, joined Father Hugon Assembly.[110]

Civic and charitable activities

After losing a 1994 election for Governor of Florida against Lawton Chiles, Bush pursued policy and charitable interests. He "volunteered time to assist the Miami Children's Hospital, the United Way of Dade County and the Dade County Homeless Trust".[111]

Bush served from 2012[112] to 2015 as co-chair of the Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy.[113] He has also worked with The James Madison Institute, a free market public policy think tank based in Tallahassee, Florida. He helped the institute in numerous ways and still has his think tank working in conjunction with it. In June 2008, Bush's Foundation for Excellence in Education partnered with JMI to hold a summit called Excellence in Action: A National Summit on Education Reform.[114]

In 1996, The Foundation For Florida's Future published a book that Bush had co-written, Profiles in Character (ISBN 0-9650912-0-1), a clear parallel to John F. Kennedy's 1955 book Profiles in Courage. The foundation also published and distributed policy papers, such as "A New Lease on Learning: Florida's First Charter School", which Bush co-wrote.[115] Bush subsequently wrote the foreword to another book, published by the conservative Heritage Foundation and written by Nina Shokraii Rees, School Choice 2000: What's Happening in the States (ISBN 0-89195-089-3).

Bush co-founded the first charter school in the State of Florida: Liberty City Charter School, a grades K-6 elementary school.[116] in a Miami neighborhood that, in 1980, was the site of the first major race riot since the Civil Rights era.[117] The school's co-founder, working alongside Bush, was T. Willard Fair, a local black activist and head of the Greater Miami Urban League. The Liberty City Charter School was closed in 2008 after falling more than $1 million in debt.[118]

In 2000, Bush established the Points of Light program to recognize an "exemplary volunteer, organization, or person".[119]

Bush is the honorary chairman of the Annual AT&T Jeb Bush Florida Golf Classic, a fundraiser that benefits the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. He first became involved in the benefit after meeting with committee member Lawson Dutton, whose child suffered from cystic fibrosis.[120] Supporters raised more than $722,000 in 2014 at the 19th annual Jeb Bush Florida Classic, exceeding their goals in attendance and revenues raised.[121][122] Since the event’s inception 19 years ago, the total revenue netted has reached over $7.478 million.[121]

Electoral history

Florida gubernatorial election, 1994
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Lawton Chiles (incumbent) 2,135,008 51
Republican Jeb Bush 2,071,068 49
Florida gubernatorial election, 1998
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jeb Bush 2,191,105 55
Democratic Buddy MacKay 1,773,054 45
Florida gubernatorial election, 2002
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Jeb Bush (incumbent) 2,856,845 56
Democratic Bill McBride 2,201,427 43



  1. ^ "The Education Of Jeb Bush Florida`s Popular Secretary Of Commerce Joins His Father`s Campaign For President, And Plots His Own Political Future.". Sun Sentinel. 
  2. ^ February 11, 2009, 8:57 PM (2009-02-11). "Jeb Bush Makes History In Florida". CBS News. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  3. ^ Associated, The (2006-12-14). "Gov. Jeb Bush's environmental legacy during eight years in office". Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
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  12. ^ "Long-held values shape Public Life of Jeb Bush." The Miami Herald. September 22, 2002. Retrieved on October 15, 2012. "Bush attended public Grady Elementary School in Houston for several years[...]"
  13. ^ "Jeb Bush gives Andover kids Republic insight". Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Kranish, Michael (1 February 2015). "Jeb Bush shaped by troubled Phillips Academy years". Boston Globe. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  15. ^ Kruse, Michael (May 21, 2015). "Andover, Mexico and the Making of Jeb Bush". Politico (Washingon, DC). Retrieved May 25, 2015. Before the Andover boys and teacher John J. Patrick helped build the two-room schoolhouse in Ibarrilla, outside of León, in their two-month trip in 1971, the village had no school at all — only a local woman who volunteered to teach the children who were interested in learning rudimentary reading and math skills. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Guevara-Castro, Lillian (May 5, 1999). "Florida's First Lady: Columba Bush settles into life in the governor's mansion". Ocala Star-Banner (Ocala, Florida). Retrieved March 22, 2015. Columba Garnica Gallo was 16 and John Ellis "Jeb" Bush was 17 when they met in the central Mexican town of Lewn. Jeb was teaching English and helping to build a school as an exchange student from Phillips Academy, a prestigious prep school in Andover, Mass. 
  17. ^ "Hispanic consciousness lends weight to Jeb Bush as GOP eyes 2016 presidential race". The Washington Post. April 24, 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  18. ^ Kelley, Kitty. The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty, p. 404 (Doubleday, 2004).
  19. ^ Giroux, Greg (October 6, 2014). "Jeb Bush Speaks Fluent GOP in Spanish-Language Ads". Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Jeb Bush followed the family game plan: Earn your fortune, then run for public office. A vast network of deals made it possible.". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  21. ^ Manuel-Roig Franzia (2013-04-24). "Hispanic consciousness lends weight to Jeb Bush". The Washington Post. 
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  23. ^ a b c MacGillis, Alec (26 January 2015). "Testing Time: Jeb Bush's Educational Experiment". New Yorker. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  24. ^ a b Swasy, Alecia and Trigaux, Robert. "Make the Money and Run", St. Petersburg Times (September 20, 1998).
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  29. ^ a b c Eder, Steve; Barbaro, Michael (14 February 2015). "As Dynasty’s Son, Jeb Bush Used His Connections Freely". New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2015. 
  30. ^ a b Adams, David and Simon, Stephanie. "Jeb Bush: Party elder statesman or 2016 candidate?", Reuters (June 25, 2012).
  31. ^ Aberbach, Joel and Peele, Gillian. Crisis of Conservatism?: The Republican Party, the Conservative Movement, and American Politics After Bush, p. 189 (Oxford University Press, 2011).
  32. ^ a b "Listening Jeb Bush". The Economist. 1998-10-15. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  33. ^ Richard L. Berke (1998-11-19). "Bush Brothers Provide Light to Republicans After a Dreary Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  34. ^ Nia-Malika Henderson (2014-12-15). "Jeb Bush did really well with Latinos in Florida". The Washington Post. 
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  36. ^ Bush would seek to kill class-size amendment at the Wayback Machine (archived October 8, 2002)
  37. ^ Audio File at the Wayback Machine (archived October 8, 2002)
  38. ^ "Statutes & Constitution :Constitution : Online Sunshine". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  39. ^ James, Joni. Jeb Bush on One Florida, St. Petersburg Times, March 18, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  40. ^ "Jeb Bush denied one honor, wins another – Politics –". MSNBC. 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
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  42. ^ "American Libraries – Gov. Jeb Bush Vetoes Florida Library Appropriations". ALA. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  43. ^ Jeffers, Jr., Groomer (24 March 2012). "In Arlington, Jeb Bush says ‘stand your ground’ invalid in Trayvon Martin case". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  44. ^ Meckler, Laura (16 December 2014). "What Kind of Republican is Bush? His Time as Governor Offers Clues". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 January 2015. 
  45. ^ "States That Have Stand Your Ground Laws". FindLaw. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2015. 
  46. ^ a b Knickerbocker, Brad. February 28, 2015. Is Jeb Bush 'evolving' on same-sex marriage and other gay rights issues?. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved: 19 April 2015.
  47. ^ "Execution List – Florida Department of Corrections". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
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  50. ^ "Botched execution likely painful, doctors say". Associated Press. December 16, 2006. 
  52. ^ [2] Florida Governor Jeb Bush intervenes in "right-to-die" case: A cruel pandering to the religious right, 31 October 2003, Joseph Kay
  53. ^ [3]"Eventually, Jeb Bush Will Need to Claim He’s the Conservative Candidate" National Review Online Jim Geraghty December 3, 2014
  54. ^ [4] "Justices Decline Schiavo Case" March 25, 2005, Washington Post
  55. ^ John, Arit. January 13, 2015. Which Bush is Most Conservative? You Might Be Surprised. Bloomberg. Retrieved: 11 April 2015.
  56. ^ Scott Conroy (2014-04-08). "Could Jeb Bush Win Over the Christian Right in '16?". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved 2015-02-20. 
  57. ^ "Florida approves 'Choose Life' license plate" Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, November 24, 1999
  58. ^ Olszonowicz, Deborah: "Motor Vehicle Registration and License Plates" x, September 1999
  59. ^ a b Florida High Speed Rail – Overview. Florida Bullet Retrieved on 2010-11-09.
  60. ^ a b McCommons, James (2009). Waiting on a Train. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company. pp. 258–259. ISBN 978-1-60358-064-9. 
  61. ^ "Bullet train hits a big obstacle - Jeb Bush". Orlando Sentinel. January 14, 1999. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  62. ^ "Florida Transportation Initiative for statewide high speed monorail, fixed guideway or magnetic levitation system.". Florida Department of State Division of Elections. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  63. ^ "High-speed rail service derailed". USA Today. November 3, 2006. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  64. ^ "Bush veto" (PDF). 
  65. ^ Getter, Lisa. "Jeb Bush's Recount Role Examined." Los Angeles Times. 2001-07-14. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
  66. ^ Stewart, Russ. Will Iraqi Victory convert Jews to GOP?, Russ Stewart, April 16, 2003. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  67. ^ "The (Finally) Emerging Republican Majority". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
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  69. ^ "As Ky. governor, Fletcher vows to 'clean up mess'". 
  70. ^ Collinson, Stephen and Reston, Maeve (January 28, 2015) – "Jeb Bush's Conservative Evolution". CNN. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
  71. ^ Rutenberg, Jim (June 11, 2012). "Jeb Bush Takes Aim at Fellow Republicans". The New York Times. 
  72. ^ "Who We Are – Board Members". National Assessment Governing Board. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  73. ^ Caputo, Marc A. (September 23, 2013). "Read Rick Scott's Common Core letters, order. A Jeb Bush dis? Not quite. Will Legislature abide? Yes". The Miami Herald. Retrieved October 17, 2013. 
  74. ^ Leary, Alex (October 17, 2013). "Jeb Bush to Common Core opponents: 'conspiracy theories are easy attention grabbers'". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved October 17, 2013. 
  75. ^ Koenig, David. Jeb Bush joins Tenet Healthcare's board, USA Today, May 10, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  76. ^ Wilchins, Dan (August 30, 2007). "Lehman hires Jeb Bush as private equity advisor". Reuters. Retrieved April 3, 2009. 
  77. ^ a b c Barbaro, Michael (April 21, 2014). "Jeb Bush’s Rush to Make Money May Be Hurdle". The New York Times. pp. A1. Retrieved April 28, 2014. 
  78. ^ Gold, Matea (19 January 2015). "Timeline: Jeb Bush and InnoVida". (The Washington Post). Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  79. ^ Bush, Jeb (April 2013). "We Can Be Great Again". Newsmax. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  80. ^ Kopan, Tal (October 17, 2013). "Jeb Bush says GOP needs 'agenda'". Politico. Retrieved October 17, 2013. 
  81. ^ "Jeb Bush to decide on Republican presidential run by end of year". Guardian News and Media Limited. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 
  82. ^ "Governor Jeb Bush Confirms Discussing His Interest in NFL Commissioner Job". Fox News. 
  83. ^ "Jeb Bush quashes NFL speculation". Usatoday.Com. 2006-05-25. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  84. ^ "Jeb: I am considering Senate run – Carol E. Lee and Jonathan Martin". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  85. ^ "Jeb Bush's Prospects in a Florida Senate Race | Newsweek Politics". Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  86. ^ Jeb Bush bid for Senate could clear GOP field at the Wayback Machine (archived December 7, 2008)
  87. ^ "Florida: Jeb Bush Shows Interest In Senate Seat". The New York Times. December 4, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  88. ^ "Jeb Bush Ponders Florida Senate Run – Marc Ambinder". Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  89. ^ " Jeb Bush not running for Senate". January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  90. ^ Wallsten, Peter (July 27, 2010). "Jeb Bush Says No to 2012 Run". The Wall Street Journal. 
  91. ^ Lowry, Rich (February 7, 2011). "Bush 2012". The National Review. 
  92. ^ Martin, Jonathan (February 8, 2011). "Jeb emails: National Review or not, it's still no". The Politico. 
  93. ^ "Jeb Bush gives Obama 'F' grade on economy", FOX Tampa Bay. July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011
  94. ^ Rutenberg, Jim; Jeff Zeleny (November 22, 2012). "Jeb Bush in 2016? Not Too Early for Chatter". The New York Times. Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  95. ^ "Bush: No decision yet on whether to run for president in 2016". Bluefield Daily Telegraph (VA). April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  96. ^ Kendall Breitman, George W. Bush: I think Jeb wants it. Politico, 10/2/14.
  97. ^ Roberts, Dan (1 January 2015). "Jeb Bush sheds corporate commitments to help 2016 presidential run". (Guardian News & Media Limited). Retrieved 1 January 2015. 
  98. ^ Mendoza, Jessica (February 10, 2015). "Jeb Bush releases eight years' worth of emails: Is that legal?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved February 10, 2015. 
  99. ^ Jeb Bush camp blames Florida for unredacted emails Kendall Breitman, Politico, Feb 10, 2015
  100. ^ "Jeb Bush redacts correspondents' leaked information". BBC. February 11, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  101. ^ Frumin, Aliyah. May 2, 2015. Jeb Bush exploits major loophole in campaign finance rule. MSNBC. Retrieved: 3 May 2015.
  102. ^ Gedda, George (2001-02-14). "Bush has hemisphere on brain" (PDF). Laredo Morning Times. Retrieved 2006-10-21. 
  103. ^ "Jeb Bush's Latin 'Lover:' R-Rated – Bloomberg". Political Capital. 
  104. ^ Bush, Jeb. "Jeb Bush: The Things I Really Love About Florida". Gulfshore Life. 
  105. ^ a b Associated Press. George P. Bush starts small, shuns idea his name, Hispanic heritage can save GOP in Texas, Washington Post, July 20, 2013.
  106. ^ "Texas Births, 1926–1995". Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  107. ^ "Jeb Bush Welcomes Birth Of New Granddaughter, Vivian Alexandra Columba". The Huffington Post. 
  108. ^ "Jeb Bush, Catholic Convert. Will His Brother Convert?". Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  109. ^ "President Discusses Compassionate Conservative Agenda in Dallas". Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  110. ^ [5] Knights of Columbus, Accessed Jan 8, 2014
  111. ^ "Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. 
  112. ^ Bello, Marisol (5 March 2014). "Bush foundation celebrates 25 years of family literacy". USA Today. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  113. ^ Larson, Leslie (1 January 2015). "Jeb Bush resigns from corporate, nonprofit boards to start 2015 afresh". New York Daily News. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  114. ^ "Cato on "Excellence in Action: A National Summit on Education Reform"". Foundation for Excellence in Education. Foundation for Excellence in Education. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  115. ^ A New Lease on Learning:Florida's First Charter School (PDF) at the Wayback Machine (archived August 24, 2000)
  116. ^ Liberty City Charter School at the Wayback Machine (archived April 4, 2006)
  117. ^ "African American Registry: Riot erupts in Liberty City!". Archived from the original on June 11, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  118. ^ McGrory, Kathleen; Hiaasen, Scott (December 16, 2011). "Charter schools enrolling low number of poor students". The Miami Herald. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  119. ^ Berrios, Jerry (20 August 2003). "Hero in the Spotlight". The Miami Herald. pp. 1B. 
  120. ^ "Golf Tournament – 19th Annual AT&T Jeb Bush Florida Classic Sponsored By The Wasie Foundation Event Time & Tickets." Eventful. Eventful, Inc November 14, 2014 < 19th annual Jeb Bush Florida Classic
  121. ^ a b Jeb Bush Florida Classic History. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
  122. ^ Abraham, Randy. Fundraiser help fight cystic fibrosis Sun Sentinel, December 17, 2014. Retrieved March 19, 2015.

Further reading

External links

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Party political offices
Preceded by
Bob Martinez
Republican nominee for Governor of Florida
1994, 1998, 2002
Succeeded by
Charlie Crist
Political offices
Preceded by
Buddy MacKay
Governor of Florida
January 5, 1999–January 2, 2007
Succeeded by
Charlie Crist

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