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Kalavryta

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Coordinates: 38°2′N 22°7′E / 38.033°N 22.117°E / 38.033; 22.117Coordinates: 38°2′N 22°7′E / 38.033°N 22.117°E / 38.033; 22.117{{#coordinates:38|2|N|22|7|E|type:city_region:GR|| |primary |name= }}</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Country</th><td> Greece</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Administrative region</th><td> West Greece</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Regional unit</th><td> Achaea</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left">Area</th></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipality</th><td> 1,065.5 km2 (411.4 sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipal unit</th><td> 531.8 km2 (205.3 sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedbottomrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Lowest elevation</th><td> 758 m (2,487 ft)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left">Population (2011)[1]</th></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipality</th><td> 11,045</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipality density</th><td> 10/km2 (27/sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipal unit</th><td> 6,011</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Municipal unit density</th><td> 11/km2 (29/sq mi)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;text-align:left">Community<tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Population</th><td> 1829</td></tr></th></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Time zone</th><td> EET (UTC+2)</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left"> • Summer (DST)</th><td> EEST (UTC+3)</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Postal code</th><td class="adr"> 250 01</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Area code(s)</th><td> 26940</td></tr><tr class="mergedrow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Vehicle registration</th><td> ΑΧ</td></tr><tr class="mergedtoprow"><th scope="row" style="text-align:left">Website</th><td> www.depapoz.gr/site/</td></tr></table>

Kalavryta (Greek: Καλάβρυτα) is a town and a municipality in the mountainous east-central part of the regional unit of Achaea, Greece. The town is located on the right bank of the river Vouraikos, Script error: No such module "convert". south of Aigio, Script error: No such module "convert". southeast of Patras and Script error: No such module "convert". northwest of Tripoli. Notable mountains in the municipality are Mount Erymanthos in the west and Aroania or Chelmos in the southeast. Kalavryta is the southern terminus of the Diakopto-Kalavryta Railway, built by Italian engineers between 1885 and 1895.

History

Kalavryta is built near the ancient city of Cynaetha.

During the late Middle Ages, the town was the centre of the Barony of Kalavryta within the Frankish Principality of Achaea, until it was reconquered by the Byzantines in the 1270s. After that it remained under Byzantine control until the fall of the Despotate of the Morea to the Ottoman Turks in 1460. With the exception of a 30-year interlude of Venetian control, the town remained under Turkish rule until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, in whose early stages Kalavryta figures prominently: it was here that on 21 March 1821 the flag of the revolt was raised at the monastery of Agia Lavra by bishop Germanos III of Old Patras.

File:Chelmos.JPG
Mt Chelmos near Kalavryta.

At the end of 1943, near Kalavryta, 81 German soldiers, led by Hauptmann Johannes Schober, were captured by Greek Partisans. Four Germans were killed on the spot.Three were taken to hospital at Kalavryta but were later battered to death by the partisans.The rest were initially treated as prisoners of war, until most were shot dead and some plunged over the cliff near Mazi from the force of the shots. Two German prisoners survived the execution and raised the alarm on the following day 8 December 1943. On 13 December 1943, in retribution for the killing of the captured German soldiers, what is commemorated as the Massacre of Kalavryta, German troops ordered all male residents of Kalavryta, aged 14 years and up, to gather in a field just outside the village. There, they machine-gunned down 696 of them. Only 13 survived. After that they burnt down the town before they left and the next day they burnt down the Monastery of Agia Lavra, birthplace of the Greek War of Independence. Post-war, the federal Government of Germany offered gestures of atonement in the form of free school books for the high school, scholarships for orphans of the massacre and built an old peoples' home. No German commanders, (e.g. Major Ebersberger who carried out the destruction of Kalavryta; Hauptmann Dohnert who led the firing party), were ever brought to justice for these events

Historical population

File:DE Kalavryton.svg
Kalavryta municipality & municipal unit
Kalavryta
Καλάβρυτα
Kalavryta, as seen from the memorial site.
Kalavryta, as seen from the memorial site.
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Year Community Municipal unit Municipality
1981 2,015 - -
1991 2,111 8,306 -
2001 1,942 8,580 -
2011 1,829 6,011 11,045

Landmarks

File:Kalavryta-mahnmal.jpg
The memorial site.
File:Greece, Kalavrita 4.jpg
The railway station.

In Kastria, in the municipal unit of Lefkasi, there is the famous cave system Spilaio ton Limnon ("Cave of the Lakes") which is filled with beautiful lakes and strange rock formations. Kalavryta has a ski centre which is located east of town, on the slopes of Chelmos. The monastery of Agia Lavra is located on a hill Script error: No such module "convert". southwest of Kalavryta. Another famous monastery nearby is Mega Spilaio which is located Script error: No such module "convert". northeast.

Administration

The municipality Kalavryta was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[2]

Subdivisions

The municipal unit of Kalavryta is divided into the following communities:

Province

The province of Kalavryta (Greek: Επαρχία Καλαβρύτων) was one of the provinces of Achaea. It had the same territory as the present municipality.[3] It was abolished in 2006.

Notable persons

See also

References

  1. "Detailed census results 2011" (in Greek). 
  2. Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior Invalid language code.
  3. Detailed census results 1991 PDF (39 MB) Invalid language code. Invalid language code.

External links