Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
|Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System|
The Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System (KMRT; Chinese: 高雄大眾捷運系統; pinyin: Gāoxióng Dàzhòng Jiéyùn Xìtǒng) is a rapid transit system covering metropolitan Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Construction of the KMRT started in October 2001. The Red Line and the Orange Line opened on March 9 and September 14, 2008, respectively. KMRT is operated by the Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corporation (KRTC; Chinese: 高雄捷運公司) under the BOT contract the company signed with the Kaohsiung City Government.
Two of Kaohsiung's MRT stations, Formosa Boulevard Station and Central Park Station, were ranked among the top 50 most beautiful subway systems in the world by Metrobits.org in 2011. In 2012, the two stations respectively are ranked as the 2nd and the 4th among the top 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.
The Kaohsiung City Government undertook a feasibility study to construct a rapid transit system in Kaohsiung in 1987. After finding favorable results, the city government began lobbying the Central Government for approval and funding. In 1990 approval was obtained to establish the Kaohsiung City Mass Rapid Transit Bureau and planning of the rapid transit network started. The first phase of the Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit System, the Red and Orange Lines, was approved in 1991, but disputes in funding shares between Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County Governments stalled the project. The Kaohsiung City Mass Rapid Transit Bureau was officially established in 1994, to coincide with the project's move into the final scoping and detail design stages.
Work continued until 1996, when the Central Government ordered KMRT to look into constructing the project via the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) method. In 1999 the city government put out a request for the BOT contract to construct the first phase of the KMRT system. In 2000, out of the three consortia that submitted bids, Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corporation (KRTC) was awarded the contract received priority negotiating rights with the city government in constructing the system. KRTC obtained a company license and was registered in December 2000. In January 2001, KRTC signed the "Construction and Operation Agreement" and the "Development Agreement" with the Kaohsiung City Government, signaling the beginning of construction of the KMRT system. The main participants of the KRTC are: China Steel Corporation, Southeast Cement Corporation, RSEA Engineering Corporation, China Development Industrial Bank, and the Industrial Bank of Taiwan. The currently system cost NT$181.3 (US$5.46 billion) to construct and includes a contract for 30 years of operation and maintenance. Construction costs were shared between the central government (79%), Kaohsiung City Government (19%), and Kaohsiung County Government (2%).
Construction began in October 2001, with 66 shield tunnels (45.3 km) completed in May 2006. The cut-and-cover and bored tunnel methods were used for construction of the lines. In November 2006, the first trial runs began on the Red Line. In January 2007, the last concrete slabs were laid for the 37 planned stations.
Scandals and major construction accidents
In August 2004, a section of subway tunnel near Sizihwan Station at the west end of the Orange Line collapsed during construction due to loose sand underground and water break-ins. Four low-rise buildings near the collapsed tunnel had to be evacuated and later on had to be torn down due to major structure damages.
The Kaohsiung MRT Foreign Workers Scandal, involving alleged inhumane treatment of Thai migrant workers, erupted in 2005. Investigation revealed kickbacks to politicians by the contractor. The scandal had tainted the public confidence in the construction of the system and prompted a diplomatic response by the Thai Prime Minister asking the migrant workers to return to Thailand. Chen Chu, the Chairperson of the Council of Labor Affairs of the Executive Yuan, resigned as a result of the scandal.
In December 2005, another subway tunnel section of the Orange Line at eastern Kaohsiung City collapsed during construction. The collapse of the subway tunnel also brought about the collapse of a road tunnel above the subway tunnel. Several nearby buildings were evacuated for several days for inspection. It was estimated that the road tunnel could not be rebuilt and reopened for traffic for at least a few months. In January 2008 the section was still closed and traffic is diverted around the affected area.
Construction accidents delayed the opening of the MRT considerably from the originally planned December 2006 date. The Sanduo-Siaogang section of the Red Line was eventually opened to the public for free test rides during February 8–11, 2008, and the Red Line (except for 2 stations) opened for service on March 9, 2008. The Orange Line fully opened for service on September 14, 2008.
Ridership has been far below expectations, with an average of 100,000 passengers per day versus an expected 360,000, and accumulated losses are expected to reach NT$6 billion by the end of 2009.
As of December 2013[update], the average daily ridership stands at about 178,975, with ridership figures significantly greater on weekends than on weekdays. During New Year's Eve on December 31, 2012, the system transported 472,378 passengers. KRTC stated that ridership would need to exceed 380,000 passengers per day in order to break even.
The Kaohsiung MRT system is made up of 2 lines with 36 stations covering a distance of Script error: No such module "convert".. 27 of these stations are underground, with 8 elevated and 1 at-grade level. All underground stations have full height platform screen doors. A Script error: No such module "convert". stretch to Gangshan South Station on the Red Line is expected to open by the end of 2012.[needs update]
- Kaohsiung MRT route table:
- In operation: Main lines: 2, Extensions: 0
- Planned: Main lines: 9, Extensions: 6
- Total routes: Main lines: 11, Extension: 6
- Terminated: Main line: 1, Extensions: 1
|Livery & Line||Termini
|Red Line||Red (Main)||Gangshan South
|Orange Line||Orange (Main)||Sizihwan
From the intersection of Yanhai and Hanmin Roads in the Siaogang District in the South, the Red Line travels northwards, following Jhongshan Road as it passes by Kaohsiung International Airport, Labor Park, Sanduo Shopping District, Central Park, and Dagangpu Circle to Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) Kaohsiung Station. After crossing the track yard of TRA, the route then follows Boai Road arriving at Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR) Zuoying Station / TRA New Zuoying Station. Then the route passes through Banpingshan, extends along Zuonan Road to Nanzih Export Processing Zone, and continues into parts of the city formerly part of Kaohsiung County. The route finally passes along the Gaonan Highway to Qiaotou District and the southern border area of Gangshan District. The total length of Red Line is approximately 28.3 kilometers, with 24 stations on the route, of which 15 are underground, 8 elevated and 1 at ground level. Two depots will be built near Caoya Station and beside Gangshan South Station to serve the line. The Red Line (excluding Gangshan South Station) commenced passenger service on 9 March 2008. Gangshan South Station was opened for passenger service on December 23, 2012.
From the west, the Orange Line starts at Sizihwan (Linhai 2nd Road), crosses the track yard of TRA Kaohsiung Port Station and follows Dayong Road, passing through Love River. The route then follows Jhongjheng Road as it passes by Kaohsiung City Council, Dagangpu Circle, Cultural Center, Martial Arts Stadium, and the Weiwuying Park planning site before entering parts of the city formerly part of Kaohsiung County. The route continues along Zihyou Road, Guangyuan Road and Jhongshan East Road in Fengshan District to Daliao District. The total length of the line is approximately 14.4 kilometers, with 14 stations on the route. All stations are underground except Daliao Station, which is at ground level. A single depot has been built beside Daliao Station to serve the line. The Orange Line commenced passenger service on 14 September 2008.
Circular Light Rail Line
The Circular Light Rail Line (aka Kaohsiung LRT, Kaohsiung Tram) for Kaohsiung City is a planned light rail line. Construction of Phase I began in June 2013, and is scheduled to be in operation by mid-2015.
A temporary light rail system for demonstration purposes, with just 2 stations, was built in the Central Park in 2004, using Melbourne D2 Tram cars from Siemens. As it was simply for demonstration purposes, it was closed soon after, and is no longer operational.
The Kaohsiung MRT is expected to be extended further into parts of Greater Kaohsiung, as well as Pingtung County.
|Red Line||Gangshan/Lujhu extension||Lujhu－Gangshan South||10.46||61.86||planned||rapid
|Main line||Gangshan South－Siaogang||28.3||operational|
|Linyuan extension||Siaogang—Linyuan Ind'l Park||12.2||under evaluation||LRT||Linyuan|
|Orange Line||Main line||Sizihwan—Daliao||14.4||43.07||operational||rapid
|Pingtung extension||Fongshan Jr. HS—Taisugar PT FTY||14.0||approved by Executive Yuan||rapid
|Circular Line||Phase I (Main line)||Lizihnei—Hamasing||8.7||22.1||under construction||LRT||Cianjhen|
Agriculture 16 Yard
|Phase II (Main line)||Hamasing—Ersheng Rd.||13.4||planned|
|Yanchao Line||Phase I (Main line)||Yuanjhong Harbor—Shu-Te Univ.||12.78||23.17||revised||Yanchao OEM|
|Phase II (Main line)||Shenshuei—Buddha Mem. Hall||10.39||proposed|
|Youchang Line||Main line||Zuoying—Yuanjhong Harbor||6.4||6.4||proposed||BRT|
|Brown Line||Main line||Singuang Frry. Wharf—Niaosong||10.72||10.72||planned||LRT||Niaosong|
|Yellow Line||Main line||Dream Mall—Niaosong||14.3||14.3||planned|
|Fongshan Line||Main line||Ruixiang Jr. HS—Niaosong||10.38||10.38||planned|
|Green Line||Main line||Wujia Ruilung—Houjing||16.15||16.15||proposed||BRT|
|Foguangshan Line||Main line||Siliao—Cable-Stayed Bridge||16.06||16.06||proposed|
The rolling stock is manufactured by Siemens. Trains run in 3 car sets (though platforms are designed to be able to accommodate up to 6 car sets) and are powered by third rail. Seats are arranged parallel to the windows, unlike their Taipei Metro counterparts. LED displays are installed above every alternate door, showing the name of the current station and next station in Chinese and English. Automated announcements are made in Mandarin, Taiwanese (with the exception of Kaohsiung Arena Station since the Taiwanese translation for the name is not available), Hakka, and English, with Japanese announcements at the major stations.
Fares and ticketing
The fares of KMRT is distance-based, with a minimum of NT$20 for trips within 10 km. The maximum fare on Red Line is NT$60, from Siaogang Station to Ciaotou Station.
One way fare is ticketed with an RFID IC token. The I-Pass, a contactless smart card, can be used as well. Discounts are offered to students and senior citizens. Other similar smart cards for use in Taichung and Taipei cannot be used interchangeably.
Facilities and services
Platform screen doors were supplied by ST Electronics have been installed at all underground stations. LCD television units have also been installed on platform doors for the broadcast of train information and advertisements. All stations are wheelchair accessible.
References and notes
- "Introduction: Welcome to MBTU". Mass Rapid Transit Bureau, Kaohsiung City. Retrieved 2014-07-10.
- "KRTC Transport Volume Statistics" (PDF). Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corporation (via: http://www.krtco.com.tw/en/about_StatisticalData.aspx). January 6, 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-10.
- "Railways". Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- Staff writer (2007-12-08). "Kaohsiung firm apologizes for delay in opening MRT". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- Wang, Flora (2008-03-08). "Kaohsiung MRT art illuminated". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2008-03-08.
- "張揆主持高捷紅線首航通車典禮 (in Chinese)". Government Information Office 新聞局. 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "A guide to the fifty most beautiful subway systems in the world". Metrobits.org. 2011-12-01.
- "15 of the Most Beautiful Subway Stops in the World". BootsnAll. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- KMRT History - Kaohsiung City Mass Rapid Transit Bureau official site (Traditional Chinese)
- "The Special Features And Prospect For Kaohsiung Rapid Transit System Project" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-16.
- "Construction halts on Kaohsiung Orange Line". The Taipei Times. August 14, 2004. p. 2.
- "Probe into Kaohsiung MRT project urged". Taiwan News. October 5, 2004.
- Kaohsiung mayor touts MRT system's coziness, convenience - The China Post
- 廖國雄 (2008-03-10). "高市／紅線通了 高捷公司允橘線8月通車 (in Chinese)". ETtoday. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "Kaohsiung MRT predicts 11% rise in passenger traffic". Taipei Times. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- 高縣／高雄捷運岡山站工程有關鍵性突破 一個月內將簽約 (in Chinese). NOWnews. April 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
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- Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corporation – official website Invalid language code.
- Mass Rapid Transit Bureau of Kaohsiung City Government